Hand saws are of two kinds - rip, and crosscut. The former, as the name indicates, is for cutting with the grain, or lengthwise of the board to be sawed. In Fig. 10 is illustrated a rip saw having 5 1/2 points to the inch, which will work rapidly and with ease in pine and other soft woods. If mahogany, cherry, or other hard wood is to be ripped, a 6-point saw should be used.
Rip saws should be filed with all the bevel on the back of the tooth, as shown at 6 in Fig. 10, the front or throat of the tooth being at right angles to, or square with, the tooth edge of the blade, as at a.. The position of the line cd, whether perpendicular or slanting, is called the hook or pitch of the tooth.
Rip saws should be filed square across; that is, the file should be held horizontal and at right angles to the side of the blade, always filing each alternate tooth from the opposite side of the saw; this, if done by beginning at the heel and working the file toward the point of the saw blade, gives a very slight bevel to the back edge of the tooth, causing it to cut cleaner and to require less set than if filed otherwise. .
Fig. 9. Reversed Grain of Strips for Wide Stock.
Fig. 10. Teeth of Rip Saw.
Rip saws require very little set for use in dry well-seasoned lumber, such as is always used in pattern making. The teeth should be set, or bent, only at the points, as shown at e and f in Fig. 10 - in no case should the set exceed more than half the depth of the tooth. When the points only are set, the saw works more freely, and the blade of the saw is not sprung or bent in setting. In using a rip saw, the front or cutting edge of the saw blade should be held at an angle of about 45 degrees to the board, as shown in Fig. 11. This brings the back of the tooth nearly at right angles to the fibers of the wood, and insures a shearing cut. For fine work and well-seasoned material, hand saws may be bought ground so thin on the back as to require no set. Such tools work very smoothly and easily, cutting away less wood and doing better work than saws that have been set.