One of the conveniences of a draftsman's outfit is the French or irregular curve, which is used for drawing curves other than arcs of circles, with either pencil or line pen. This instrument, which is made of wood, hard rubber, or celluloid - celluloid being the best - is made in various shapes, one of the most common being shown in Fig. 32. Curves drawn with an irregular curve are called free hand curves.

To draw a curve through a series of located points find that position of the irregular curve that passes through three points, say, and draw the line through them, Fig. 33. Now shift the curve so as to include a part of the curve already drawn and two or three more points. Draw the curve through these points, continuing this process until the curve is completed. If, at each new setting, the line is not carried quite as far as the coincidence of the irregular curve would permit, a smoother curve will result. It frequently facilitates the work and improves its appearance to draw a pencil curve free hand through the points and then use the irregular curve, taking care that it always fits at least three points. In inking the curve, the blades of the pen must be kept tangent to the curve. For certain kinds of work, irregular curves of plastic metal are sometimes used to fit exceptionally erratic curves.

Typical Irregular Curve.

Fig. 32. Typical Irregular Curve.

Beam Compasses

The ordinary compasses are suitable for drawing circles up to 8 or 10 inches diameter. For larger circles beam compasses are provided. The two parts called channels which carry the pen or pencil and the needle point are clamped to a wooden beam at a distance equal to the radius of the circle. The thumb nut underneath one of the channel pieces makes accurate adjustment possible.

Channels of Beam Compass.

Fig. 33. Channels of Beam Compass.