## Object Of Line Shading

In finely finished drawings it is frequently desirable to make the various parts more readily seen by showing the graduations of light and shade on the curved surfaces. This is especially true of such surfaces as cylinders, cones, and spheres. The effect is obtained by drawing a series of parallel or converging lines on the surface at varying distances from one another. Sometimes draftsmen, themselves, vary the width of the lines. These lines are farther apart on the lighter portion of the surface, and closer together and heavier on the darker part.

Fig. 183 shows a cylinder with elements drawn on the surface equally spaced on the plan. On account of the curvature of the surface, however, the elements are not equally spaced on the elevation, in order to give the effect of the graduations of light on the curved surface. The result is that in drawing the elevation of the cylinder, the distances between the elements are made gradually less from the center toward each side, thus giving a correct representation of the convexity of the cylinder. This effect is intensified by making the outside elements heavier as well as closer together, as shown in Figs. 184 to 190. Concavity is shown in the same manner, the heavy shading always appearing on the left to indicate the deeper shadow, Figs. 186 and 188.

Fig. 183. Plan and shaded Elevation of Cylinder.

Fig. 185. Shaded Horizontal Cylinder.

Fig. 184 is a cylinder showing the heaviest shade at the right, a method often used. Considerable practice is necessary to obtain good results; but in this, as in other portions of mechanical drawing, repetition is unavoidable. Fig. 185 represents a cylinder in a horizontal position, and Fig. 186 represents a section of a hollow vertical cylinder. Figs. 187 to 190 give other examples of familiar objects.

In the elevation of the cone shown in Fig. 190 the shade lines should diminish in weight as they approach the apex. Unless this is done it will be difficult to avoid the formation of a blot at that point.