This section is from the "Modern Machine Shop Construction, Equipment, And Management" book, by Oscar E. Perrigo. Also see Amazon: Modern Machine Shop Construction, Equipment, And Management.
Location And Arrangement Of The Departments. The routine of passing the work through the several departments. The planing department. The drilling and boring department. The heavy turning department. The milling and gear-cutting department. The small parts department. The grinding department. The polishing department. The small parts assembling department. The small parts storeroom. The experimental department. The foremen's offices.
Let us next proceed to lay out and plan for the different departments that may be necessary to carry out our manufacturing work, bearing in mind that much will depend on their proper location with reference to the buildings outside the machine shop proper, particularly the iron foundry, as well as their proper relation to each other.
In planning the relative location of the different departments of our machine shop in which are placed the several classes of machines it is necessary to so arrange them that when once the material, as iron castings or other heavy stock, comes into the shop, it shall pass in as nearly as may be a continuous line through the shop from its rough state to its place in the erection of the machines to be built, with little or no "retrograde movement" or other unnecessary handling or similar expense. Light and easily handled stock is not subject to these conditions to such an extent, and may be handled on the upper floors as its transportation from place to place is easily effected by the tram cars, trucks, etc., on the level, and these run upon elevators, and carried to the various floors where they are needed for the different operations upon them, or to a finished parts storeroom, where they may be kept until they are wanted for the assembling of a complete machine. In our case, however, having but two floors, quantities of small work may be packed in trucks, cars, or boxes and from the front gallery lowered to the ground floor by the traveling crane. In the same way stock or finished parts may be brought up to the gallery floors.
The plans accompanying this article, Fig. 79 show the ground floor and Fig. 80 the gallery floors, with the location of all the machines selected to equip the shop arranged as is thought best for the easy handling of the stock and the convenient performance of all the necessary work of machining, erecting, and shipping. The machines are all shown drawn to scale, and with sufficient space around them for readily handling the stock and the machined parts.
Fig. 79. Arrangement of Tools and Departments in Model Machine Shop.
Fig. 80. Machine Shop Second Floor or Galleries.
The main floor is divided into five departments, namely, the Planing, Drilling and Boring, Heavy Turning, Milling and Gear Cutting, and the Erecting Departments, all located as shown on the plan.
Usually the first operation on nearly all castings and on many forgings is that of planing, this being particularly so with the heavier stock. Consequently it is advisable to locate the planing department near where this class of stock can be the most readily received into the shop from the foundry or from the forge shop. As by far the larger amount comes from the foundry the point nearest that department is where the planers should be located, so as to save distance in conveying material, and consequent expense. Our tram track leading from the foundry to the machine shop brings castings to a point nearly under the traveling crane (by which they are readily placed upon the planers on each side of it), or directly under it, by which it conveniently serves the large planers located in the erecting space just inside the row of columns.
An overhead trolley delivers castings to the other planers in the row arranged at right angles to the shop as they are taken from the foundry cars, or carries them, when planed, to the tram track and thence by the traveling crane to any part of the shop where they may be needed, generally to the tram track laid through the drilling and boring department, or to the large machines of this class located within the reach of the traveling crane inside of the columns. This overhead trolley may be operated by hand hoists, or by compressed air, but preferably it should be of the type carrying a small electric motor by which it is very quickly, efficiently, and conveniently operated. There should be at least two of these hoists on the trolley track, which should extend from the front end of the shop down to and over the tram track in the drilling and boring department.
It should be explained that in laying out the positions of the planers the outline shown includes the extreme run of the planer table, hence there is more space at the ends than would appear at first glance. In locating the planers with reference to each other they are placed at equal distances of five feet between tables without regard to the front or back, so as to give free access to both sides when the operator is putting on, setting, or removing work. Those of the larger planers are located parallel with the length of the shop. It will be best to drive these with electric motors. The other planers, of such sizes as will accommodate the usual variety of work, are located according to the space available.
Much of the medium sized work may be done on long planers very economically by filling the table with as many parts as it will hold, and running through the lot with a long cut, as for instance, with lathe heads or carriages, which may be planed in lots of ten to fifteen much cheaper than a less number on a short planer. The two planers near the wash room are convenient for comparatively large work where a short table is required. The other planers are arranged in pairs facing each other so as to be convenient for one man to run two planers. One man can easily run the 6o-inch and the 72-inch planers.