The walls are 20 inches thick and 18 feet high, strengthened by buttresses 8 inches thick for a height of 8 feet, and for the remaining height 4 inches thick by 20 inches wide. The spaces or bays are 13 feet centers and the wall is pierced for one window to each space. The windows are 4 feet wide and 12 feet high, and located, five on each side, three in the front and one in the rear, making fourteen in all.

The roof ventilator is 12 feet wide and extends the entire length of the building, with openings 4« feet high, as shown in Fig. 7.

Cross Section through Forge Shop.

Fig. 7. Cross Section through Forge Shop.

Along the outer wall are arranged chimneys for six forges. If the system of downward draft is employed these would not be needed, the smoke and gases from all being carried to one chimney of sufficient dimensions and conveniently located for that purpose.

In consequence of the arrangement necessary for these chimneys, when such construction must be used, the buttresses on this side are placed opposite the chimneys and the windows between. This necessitates the use of a steel I-beam in the wall over the windows for supporting the roof trusses. By reducing the number of chimneys to five, this may be avoided.

The power house is of construction similar to the other buildings. The walls are 16 inches thick and 20 feet high, with buttresses 4 inches thick and 20 inches wide. 12-inch walls divide the boiler room, engine room, water-closets and wash rooms from one another, the last two being built in two floors - the lower one 10 feet and the upper 9 feet high, in the clear. There is a ventilator of monitor construction, 12 feet wide, running the whole length of the building, with pivoted window sashes on each side, 5 feet high, shown in Fig. 8.

When the power required would render it necessary the entire building might be devoted to the boiler and engine room, and the wash rooms and water-closets be provided for in a side addition. They are placed as shown in order to secure a central location and immediate connection with the machine shop without encroaching upon its space.

Plenty of light is provided for the wash rooms and water-closets by rows of ten windows, 3 feet wide, on each floor, the upper ones being 5« feet and the lower ones 6 feet high.

Cross Section through Power House.

Fig. 8. Cross Section through Power House.

The engine room and also the boiler room are lighted by four windows, 4 feet wide and 12 feet high, in the outer wall; while two extra windows are placed in the end of the boiler room for the purpose of giving ample light in the rear of the boilers.

In the end of the boiler room is a double door 12 feet wide, one half of which only need be opened to admit the coal car. Near this door are the track scales for weighing the coal as it is brought in. The tram track is continued the length of the boiler room, in front of the boilers and through the door into the engine room, as a convenient means of bringing in or taking out any small machines such as dynamos or similar apparatus.

The engine room connects with the machine shop by an opening 14 feet wide and 16 feet high, through which engines or large pieces of machinery may be moved, and through which main belts may be run. This space may be closed up, after the power plant is installed, either by doors or by a wooden partition containing suitable doors.

The storehouse for finished machinery, and the carpenter shop adjoining, Fig. 9, are of the same general construction as the other buildings, so far as the walls and roofs are concerned. Both have 16-inch walls, 14 feet high for the carpenter shop and 18 feet for the storehouse, and strengthened by buttresses of 4 inches projection by 16 inches in width.

The storehouse floor is 3 feet above the level of the machine shop floor. Near the back wall (next to the railway track) the floor is cut out and a specially constructed tram car traverses the space, the top being on a level with the floor.

Cross Section through Storehouse, Carpenter Shop, Tracks, etc.

Fig. 9. Cross Section through Storehouse, Carpenter Shop, Tracks, etc.

This car track crosses the machine shop floor, and passes over the scales located in it, directly under the traveling crane. By this arrangement machines may be transferred from any point in the shop to this car, standing on the scales, and may be weighted, run into the storehouse and stored away or conveniently run into a car on the railway track, the top of the cars being also on a level with the storehouse floor.

In case the machinery built is of sufficient weight to make such an arrangement desirable, the lower member of the roof trusses should be of latticed form, or, if needed, several of them may be plate girders, on which may run trolley hoists for lifting a machine from the tram car and running it back into the rear of the storehouse or out upon a railway car. The girders may project out over the railway tracks sufficiently to permit of easy handling in loading cars.

Two sliding doors, one of 8 feet and the other of 12 feet in width and both 12 feet high, are provided for shipping convenience. The storehouse is lighted by eleven windows, each 4 feet wide and 10 feet high.

Additional windows might be located in the rear wall, over the storage sheds and in the end toward the forge shop if the machinery manufactured was of such small size and such variety as to make a division of the storehouse necessary to properly store and care for it.

The carpenter shop is provided with a sliding door, 6 feet wide, in the side where a branch of the tram tracks enters, and one in each end 10 feet wide. The shop is lighted by thirteen windows, 3« feet wide and 6 feet high. The roof trusses are placed 15 feet from center to center, the lower members of which may be latticed to afford support for the shafting driving the wood-working machinery. See Fig. 10.

The storage sheds for coal, sand, coke, etc., as well as those for cast iron, steel chips, and similar materials, may be built of wood, but a brick construction will be found to be much more satisfactory.

The walls should be 12 inches thick and 8 feet high on the side next to the yard. The roof may be what is termed a "gravel roof"; that is, consisting of wooden rafters covered with 1-inch rough boards, over which is placed tarred paper, then a coating of well-boiled gas tar, and upon this a layer of gravel stones of from ⅛-inch to ⅜-inch diameter and perfectly free from dirt. This roof should have an inclination of i inch to 1 foot.

For the coal and sand sheds the openings in the walls may be 3 feet high, beginning just under the roof, and 6 feet wide, on the side next to the railway track. These should be closed by hinged doors of two thicknesses of ⅞-inch boards, the grain of each thickness crossing the other at an angle of 45 degrees. On the side of these sheds, next to the yard, sliding doors, hung from the top and usually not over 10 feet wide, are most practical. To be substantial they should be made as described above, of two thicknesses of ⅞-inch boards, and so arranged that each alternate door will slide in front of the others.

Inside of these and about a foot from them planks 12 inches wide and from 2 to 3 inches thick should be set on edge, to sustain the weight of material behind them. These should be fitted in grooves at the ends so as to be easily removable, as occasion may require, and they may have as a central support a scantling set in a hole in the floor and properly supported at the top.

The floors of these sheds may be of 2-inch planks, supported by scantling 4×4 inches, laid 18 inches from center to center. But much better than this, and cheaper in course of time, will be brick paving, laid as will be described in the chapter on floors.

The construction of the shed in the rear of the forge shop should be as described above, except that there will be wood floors for the wash room and water-closets.

Cross Section through Carpenter Shop.

Fig. 10. Cross Section through Carpenter Shop.

The questions of foundations and floors have been here omitted, and will form the subject of other chapters, wherein will be considered various forms of foundations for various purposes and of floors, both of wood and other materials, and wherein some of the reasons for the failure of many of them now in use will be pointed out.