This section is from the "Modern Machine Shop Construction, Equipment, And Management" book, by Oscar E. Perrigo. Also see Amazon: Modern Machine Shop Construction, Equipment, And Management.
As usually arranged, the results of a time study consisting of a series of operations is recorded upon a card of the form shown in Fig. 213. In this case the several parts of the operation are given for purposes of analysis. Thus we have the serial number of the operation, the time required to set up the job, to set the tools, to make the cuts, to remove the piece, and then to give the total time. These times are given in minutes and fractions, either seconds or quarter-minute periods. The best practice is in minutes and seconds, since some of the periods will be very short, and, if accurate calculations are required, quarter minutes are not sufficiently close.
Fig. 213. The Time Study Card.
When the proper time has. been arrived at the operator is given the work together with the Piece Work Card shown in Fig. 214, which has the upper third portion completely filled out with the information required. At the center of the card is specified the quantity and description of the operation and the rate, and below is given the Standard Time, as "5 hours and 10 minutes per 100 pieces," or "time per piece 3.1 minutes" or "3 minutes and 6 seconds each." The actual time is similarly filled in below when the work is finished, and the amount earned is entered on the central portion of the card. The card having been signed by the inspector after he has inspected the work, and approved by the foreman, becomes the authority for payment.
This method may seem unnecessarily intricate and exact, but if we consider the importance of a system that shall inaugurate and maintain a clear and fair understanding between the employer and his workmen on the subject of piece work, and the immense value there is in the system that will produce a good quality of work and a largely increased output, it will be found that the time and the money spent in organizing such a system and carrying it on as a part of the regular routine of the establishment, will be the most economical and productive investment made in and about the plant.
Fig. 214. The Piece Work Card.
The use of Shop Operation Sheets consists in providing sheets for the use of the workmen upon which is a drawing of the piece to be machined, a detailed description of each operation to be performed, and describing the tools, jigs, and fixtures to be used; the machine upon which the work is to be done; and giving the number of the drawing or blue print upon which the dimensions can be found. A sample form is shown in Fig. 215. These operation sheets are usually made from a printed blank on bond paper. The drawing is made by hand and the blank portions filled in on a typewriter, after which as many blue prints as may be necessary are made. The finished dimensions may be given on the drawing at the top, so as to avoid the necessity of referring to the sheet of detail drawings containing the piece to be machined.
It will be readily seen that these operation sheets are an important factor in increasing the efficiency of the machine, although they are really intended for the better and more prompt instruction of the operator; and having them at hand is of much assistance, not only in securing the proper sequence of operations, but in the rapidity with which the changes from one operation to another can be made. At the same time they give confidence and support to the operator in his work.
Fig. 215. The Shop Operation Sheet.
In the use of these sheets and the handling of all new tools, jigs, and fixtures the efficiency of the men will be greatly increased by the presence and advice of a trained and expert instructor, who spends considerable time in investigating and recording much detailed information which is exceedingly useful in handling the work economically and efficiently.
There are some other aids to increasing the efficiency of the workmen. Managing officials should endeavor to provide good, agreeable, and sanitary conditions among which may be mentioned: plenty of light, natural or artificial; shops comfortably warm in winter, and always well ventilated; good sanitary arrangements, ample and clean lavatories and individual lockers for the workmen; as high-grade associates or "shop mates" as the character of the work demands. The system of payments should be convenient. Most state laws require weekly payments. The practice of "holding over" two or three days' pay should not be in use. Special rewards or bonus payment for special effort should be promptly made, accompanying the weekly payment, if possible, and certainly not deferred for more than a week.
The selection of a class of foremen who understand human nature and have the ability to study men as well as conditions and adapt their methods of discipline to the personal characteristics of the men, so as to hold their esteem and respect and increase their personal interest in the work they do from day to day. To be really leaders and not drivers of the working force. Experience shows that all these matters make for success in shop administration and should be carefully studied and made use of as occasion may require.