On the ground floor the cement surface may be prepared for by broken stone, etc., similar to the usual shop concrete floor, only not nearly so deep.

Plan of Wash Room.

Fig. 158. Plan of Wash Room.

Plan of Water Closets.

Fig. 159. Plan of Water Closets.

All the piping for the water supply and for sewer connections should be in plain sight so as to be easily accessible when necessary to make repairs. The urinals should be automatically flushed with an ample supply of water at short intervals. The drainage pipes from the wash room should be utilized for flushing the sewer connections of the water-closets and the urinals. Water from the roofs of the buildings may be used for a like purpose, thus insuring a clear and ample drainage, free from the danger of clogging up the flow of water and the generation of sewer gas.

The water-closets and urinals provided for the machine shop will be used also by the carpenter shop and the storehouse employees, but these employees may have lockers located in the carpenter shop, if desirable, and they will doubtless be better satisfied with such an arrangement. The wash rooms and water-closet rooms should be in charge of an attendant whose duty it will be to see that everything is in proper working order and that sanitary regulations are strictly observed.

It would seem at this point advisable to say something more explicit about machine foundations than has been said in the chapter on this subject in Part First of this work. The planer has been selected as an example, and this for the reason that it is a machine tool upon whose accuracy much depends on the foundation upon which it is placed. This description is the result of much experience in this direction by the author, and will well repay the careful consideration of the men who may have charge of similar work.

The failure of machine foundations, even when built by experienced masons, is proverbial, and much money is frequently expended in this direction only to find the efforts end in failure again and again. It is an important subject for the mechanical engineer and no owner should attempt such work without the plans of an engineer who fully comprehends the particular case under consideration and prepares his drawings to fully meet the requirements.

With the constantly increasing demand for a much finer grade of work in all mechanical establishments; for more accurate fitting; for standard sizes; for practically perfect circular work where the circle is involved; for work that is to be square, to be at absolutely right angles; and for straight work to be as nearly absolutely straight as it is possible to make it; with the demand for machine tools of such construction and accuracy as was not thought necessary or hardly possible in the average machine shop of a dozen years ago - many of the standard machine tools, such as lathes, shapers, millers, and planers, have attained a degree of precision that seemingly leaves little to be desired in this direction. That these tools are expensive to build as well as to buy is one of the necessities imposed by this demand for accuracy. And it is met fairly, and the price is paid by all up-to-date establishments making even a pretense to producing reasonably accurate work.

Let us consider for a moment the application of this condition of demand and its successful supply in the case of a planer. It is certainly commendable, and shows a progressive spirit on the part of the management, to purchase the best and most accurately built planer in the market, as well as the one that will produce the greatest quantity of work - good work - work that one may have reason to be proud of and may not have need to apologize for.

But, having purchased the best planer the market affords, all conditions being equal, it becomes an important question as to the best method of setting it up so as to give the best results. Right here be it said that however much is paid for a planer, or however good may be the reputation of the establishment from which it is purchased, the machine will not do good work unless it is properly set up; unless it has a properly built foundation upon which it may be supported. And as a good price has been paid for a good machine, we must not expect a good foundation at a cheap price. Good things cost something, whatever they are.

Of the failures of foundations of the "good enough" kind many of us know all that we need. It is proposed to describe and illustrate a foundation that will properly fulfil all the requirements and conditions of the case. First, it may be well to call attention to some of the vital points involved in the matter.

It is best to have all planers on the ground floor. Small ones with extra heavy beds may be placed on an upper floor, but certainly those for work over four feet long should be placed on the ground floor.

All planers 30 inches square and 10 feet long, and over, should be set on special foundations.

All excavations for foundations should be carried down to "hard pan," or perfectly reliable, hard gravel bed, whether it be found three feet down, or ten feet.

All piers should be begun with quite large stone, laid as a wide footing, to the depth of from twelve to twenty-four inches, according to the depth of the foundation.

All foundations should be laid in strong cement mortar, by which is meant that containing two parts Portland cement, one part lime, and about three parts of clean, sharp sand. The amount of sand will vary considerably with its fineness, sharpness, and freedom from dirt. The finer the sand, the greater the quantity necessary. The spaces between the piers and between the walls and the surrounding earth should be tightly rammed with hard gravel, if it can be had. It will be well to use a hose and plenty of water in "puddling" this gravel in as closely as possible, as much support may thus be given to the masonry.