This section is from the "Modern Machine Shop Construction, Equipment, And Management" book, by Oscar E. Perrigo. Also see Amazon: Modern Machine Shop Construction, Equipment, And Management.
The equipment of machinery and fixtures for the pattern shop, and the location selected for them to insure convenience of their operation and of the handling of stock and product without unnecessary labor, is fully shown in the general plan in Fig. 109, and is as follows: Next to the machine shop wall is placed a jointing planer, provided with the usual guides and gages by which the various angles or bevels may be cut upon any length of stock up to 16 feet. Beside this is an ordinary surfacing planer capable of taking in 24 inches in width and, also, 16 feet in length. Upon the jointing planer stuff may be planed "out-of-wind," and then passed to the surfacing planer for reducing it to an even thickness. If much large work is to be made where large and perfectly true surfaces are necessary to be obtained, it will be advisable to have a Daniels, or vertical planer, to which this stuff is first taken. From the surface planer the stuff passes to the rip saw, and from there to the cutting-off or cross-cut saw. In many cases it must be passed back to the jointer to be finished on the edges.
Shop trucks with proper racks should be provided, upon which the lumber may be placed, so that unnecessary handling or carrying may be avoided.
Next to the segment press is a core-box machine, which is a very convenient, if not almost indispensable, machine where many boxes for round cores are to be made, as it accomplishes the work in a fraction of the time required to do it by hand.
Next to the core-box machine is a special pattern maker's circular saw bench, which is so arranged as to carry both rip saw and cutting-off saw, either of which may be brought into use as needed; and a table capable of being set at any desirable angle. The table is provided with guides and gages for cutting any angle wanted. This saw is of special value in pattern-shop work, and saves much hand labor, even in cutting out the quite small parts of patterns. The Colburn universal saw table is an excellent example of this class of machine.
As a large part of pattern making often consists in laying up segment work, special provision is made for it. From the planers the stuff is taken to the segment table, laid out, then to the band saw where it is cut into segments, from whence it goes to the trimmer, the ends are cut and the segments are fitted into circles on a wooden faceplate. This plate has formed on its under side a recess which fits over the iron faceplate of the lathe. A circle of these segments having been fitted together, they are glued at the ends and small steel dogs inserted to hold them. Another circle is formed and glued at the ends and to the first segment, the dogs being placed in the edges, out of the way, and the whole placed in the segment press, which holds it firmly until the glue has set; and so on until the job has been completely laid up. It is convenient to have two faceplates to work on alternately, as one may be in the press while an additional circle of segments is being fitted to the other.
The segment press is of the vertical type, and may be constructed with a large screw acting upon a follower, or it may be built similar to a Greenerd arbor press with a rack and pinion arrangement. A convenient form is one with a vertical screw having fixed to its upper end a large worm-wheel which engages a worm upon a horizontal shaft, which extends to one side of the press, where a hand wheel is attached to it for convenience of operating. With this arrangement segments may be made and laid up in much less time than where hand clamps are used and applied as each segment is laid on, while the evenly distributed pressure insures good contact of all the pieces. They may be nailed, or not, as desired.
For small turned work a wood lathe to swing 18 inches, and with a 10-foot bed, is provided. For larger work a lathe of 30 inches swing and with a 16-foot bed will be a good size. Both should be provided with slide rests, and the larger one with a faceplate on the back end of the spindle for turning large work from a floor rest. When much larger faceplate work is called for, a faceplate head is needed, and one is located near the rear wall and in line with a rear window. This head carries a faceplate capable of swinging 10 feet. In front of this may be arranged a compound rest, supported by a pedestal, and capable of covering the turning, inside and out, and of facing the largest work to be done.
Near the lathes the grindstone and the emery wheel are located. The latter should be provided with wheels of different form for grinding the various shapes and sizes of gouges- and similar tools in use.
The foreman's corner is next to the drawing room, so as to be in convenient communication with that department. He has a bench, more as an occasional convenience than for regular use, and a desk, as a necessary part of his equipment, as he has various books, blanks, reports, etc., to handle, and as a matter of efficiency and economy of time should have all the necessary conveniences for doing this part of his work.
The first pattern maker from him has, in addition to the regular equipment, the use of a cast iron surface plate, say 5 by 8 feet, its dimensions regulated, of course, by the kind of work to be done. This is an indispensable convenience in building up many of the more complicated patterns, and there should be at least one in every pattern shop.