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Modern Machine Shop Construction, Equipment, And Management | by Oscar E. Perrigo



The author has enjoyed over twenty years of successful management of shops and factories without having in a single instance encountered "labor troubles"; and believes that much of this smooth-running efficiency has been due to his thorough belief in the intelligent initiative and honest pride of the American mechanic in his work. Therefore he deprecates all attempts to formulate systems of management which tend to make "machine-made mechanics," who do their work in blind obedience to overseeing authority and the tick of the watch of the "speed boss." He believes that whatsoever tends to lower the initiative of the workman and retards his independence of thought along the lines of his work tends to lower his efficiency and consequently his value as a factor in the manufacturing problem.

TitleModern Machine Shop Construction, Equipment, And Management
AuthorOscar E. Perrigo
PublisherThe Norman W. Henley Publishing Company
Year1917
Copyright1917, Oscar E. Perrigo
AmazonModern Machine Shop Construction, Equipment, And Management

A Comprehensive And Practical Treatise On The Economical Building, The Efficient Equipment, And Successful Management Of The Modern Machine Shop And Manufacturing Establishment.

A Work For The Architect, Engineer, Manufacturer, Director, Officer, Accountant, Superintendent, And Foreman.

Member American Society of Mechanical Engineers Expert in Machine Shop and factory Organization, Modern Shop Methods, Time and Cost Systems, etc.

Second Edition - Revised And Enlarged

Illustrated By Two Hundred And Nineteen Specially Made Engravings By The Author

To My Beloved Brother Albert An Excellent Mechanic This Book Is Affectionately Dedicated By The Author.

-Preface To Second Revised And Enlarged Edition
The remarkable success of the First Edition of this work and its flattering reception by practical designing Architects, Managers, Superintendents, and Shop ...
-Part First. Machine Shop Construction. Chapter I. Introduction
The fitness of things. Growth and progress of manufacturing interests. The usual results to the manufacturing plant. The unnecessary expense. Value of a ...
-Chapter II. General Plans
The plant confined to a limited space. Compact form, capable of easy expansion. The main building or machine shop. Its general arrangement. The offices. Second- ...
-General Plans. Continued
At one end of the outer wings are the wash room and toilet. If more floor space is needed these may be located in a gallery placed 8 or 10 feet above the ...
-Chapter III. General Construction Of The Building
Principal requisites Should be erected for utility rather than ornament. Special requirements of manufacturing buildings. The best type of buildings for the ...
-General Construction Of The Building. Part 2
In all cases the wall should be frequently leveled crosswise, as well as lengthwise, to insure a fair horizontal bearing for all the bricks, as even a slight ...
-General Construction Of The Building. Part 3
The walls are 20 inches thick and 18 feet high, strengthened by buttresses 8 inches thick for a height of 8 feet, and for the remaining height 4 inches thick ...
-Chapter IV. Slow-Burning Construction
What it is. So called fire-proof buildings. The failure of the older forms of construction. The reasons why. Wrong choice of materials. Wrong ideas of the ...
-Chapter V. Slow-Burning Construction Of Brick And Wood
The most substantial form. Clearly shown in the engraving. Strength necessary. Vibration. Dimensions of timbers. Dimensions of walls. Wall plates. Dimensions ...
-Chapter VI. Slow-Burning Construction Of Wood Only
A practical form of construction. Should not be over four stories. Two stories preferable for a machine shop. Foundation walls. Supporting posts. Strengthening ...
-Chapter VII. One-Story Machine Shop Of Brick And Wood
Their economical construction. Economy of operation. The walls. Central supporting posts. Traveling crane supports. Foundation piers. Floor construction. Floor ...
-Chapter VIII. Saw-Tooth Construction Of Roofs
The newest form of shop roof. Appearance and symmetry sacrificed to utility. Perfect illumination. Broad buildings may be properly lighted. Preferable for ...
-Saw-Tooth Construction Of Roofs. Continued
Fig. 16 shows the most approved form of truss for supporting this type of roof, and Fig. 17 gives the form of girders used to support the ridges of the roof ...
-Chapter IX. Design And Construction Of Chimney, Or Stack
Peculiarities of chimney design. Brick construction. Foundations. The various types of chimneys compared. Steel chimneys. The proportions of the chimney.
-Design And Construction Of Chimney, Or Stack. Continued
In the Figs. 25 and 26 the upper half shows the laying of a header course and the lower half the laying of a straight course. In these two sketches it will be ...
-Chapter X. Construction Of Foundations
The proper bed for a foundation. Care necessary in its preparation. Sounding. The various types of foundation. Timber support for heavy buildings on alluvial ...
-Construction Of Foundations. Part 2
Therefore, if the use of timber, as above described, is not feasible we must use stone and so arrange the piles, regarding the distances from center to center, ...
-Construction Of Foundations. Part 3
Only a good quality of hard bricks should be used, and the entire work should be laid in strong cement mortar. The holding-down bolts, when it is necessary to ...
-Construction Of Foundations. Part 4
There are two common types of these foundations. The first one, for small or medium sizes of drop presses or hammers, are built with timbers set on end and ...
-Chapter XI. The Construction Of Floors
Earth and concrete floors. Vertical section. Stone and concrete floors. Vertical section. Paving. Simple steel supporting beams. All wood construction. How the ...
-The Construction Of Floors. Part 2
This form of cutting is shown in Fig. 51. It gives comparatively narrow boards, is expensive, and generally used for expensive woods, and for expensive work, ...
-The Construction Of Floors. Part 3
Floor joists are laid upon the beams in the usual manner and spiked to them. Wooden floor joists should be braced by a bridging of say 2 3 inch scantling, as ...
-The Construction Of Floors. Part 4
The floor of the forge shop is a still more simple matter than that of the foundry. The ground is prepared as before, and leveled off a foot below where the ...
-The Construction Of Floors. Part 5
The cupola platform or charging floor of the foundry is of 2«-inch planks laid on 3 12 inch joists, placed 12 inches from center to center, and supported in ...
-Chapter XII. The System Of Heating And Ventilation
Various heating systems. Leaking steam pipes. The condensation nuisance. Hot water heating. Hot air furnace. Of heating and ventilation. General requirements ...
-The System Of Heating And Ventilation. Part 2
In constructing pipes several important rules must be observed. In making a change of direction of 90 degrees the elbows should be made of not less than 5 ...
-The System Of Heating And Ventilation. Part 3
The openings for the discharge of warm air into the building are directed toward the outer walls and downward at an inclination of about 10 degrees. This ...
-Chapter XIII. The System Of Lighting
Natural and artificial lighting. Forms and proportions of windows. Different kinds of glass. Position of windows. Diagrams illustrating various forms of ...
-The System Of Lighting. Part 2
In our arrangement of the windows in the machine shop (as given in Chapter II (General Plans)) the size is 4 feet wide and 10 feet high. These figures are the ...
-The System Of Lighting. Part 3
This will include lighting-up time divided among the different months as follows: January, 102 hours; February, 60 hours; March, 32 hours; May, 8 hours; June ...
-The System Of Lighting. Part 4
Still another convenience of the incandescent lamp is that of being able to locate a magnet in the base of it, by which means the lamp is retained in any ...
-Chapter XIV. Power And Transmission
It is ofttimes a complex subject. The different systems. Steam is at the head. Electricity. Compressed air. Transmission of power. Various systems. Belts.
-Power And Transmission. Part 2
The styles and types of boilers in the market are many and various, and most of them have good and practical claims to consideration in one way or another. But ...
-Power And Transmission. Part 3
The steam connections from the tops of the boilers are to be so arranged that any one or more of the boilers may be cut out and the use of all the others ...
-Power And Transmission. Part 4
The question of friction of the two systems of transmitting power, that is, from the engine by shafting and belting, or the loss of power by generating an ...
-Chapter XV. Some Concluding Remarks
The choice of ground for manufacturing plants. Important requisites. High fixed expenses of city locations. The quality of ground. Hard gravel the best.
-Some Concluding Remarks. Continued
Certain areas about the yards will need paving, as, for instance, the driveways, the space around the catch basins, protecting strips around the foundations of ...
-Part Second. Machine Shop Equipment. Chapter XVI. Machine Shop Equipment
General features. The special scope of this portion of the work. The usual errors. A practical view of the subject. General requisites. Proper equipment for a ...
-Part Second. Machine Shop Equipment. Chapter XVI. Machine Shop Equipment. Continued
This is very forcibly shown in cases where a business that ought to pay seems to drift along from year to year with scarcely any advance in methods or profits ...
-Chapter XVII. Planning The Different Departments
Location And Arrangement Of The Departments. The routine of passing the work through the several departments. The planing department. The drilling and boring ...
-Planning The Different Departments. Part 2
In connection with the planers are located the shapers and the slotters, as shown in the plan. These are also served by the overhead trolley as noted above, ...
-Planning The Different Departments. Part 3
The Grinding Department and the Polishing Department are for obvious reasons placed as far from the other work as possible. Much of the cylindrical work is ...
-Chapter XVIII. Equipment Of The Tool Room And The Tool Storeroom
First the machine, then the took for use in the machine. Proper arrangements for keeping took. The office building. The offices described. The tool-making ...
-Equipment Of The Tool Room And The Tool Storeroom. Part 2
To avoid confusion in the tool-making department, a tool storeroom is provided, where the usual supply of lathe and planer tools, twist drills, taps, reamers, ...
-Equipment Of The Tool Room And The Tool Storeroom. Part 3
For instance: In a large plant of one floor, it may not be convenient to locate the tool room near the center of the machine shop for the purpose of shortening ...
-Equipment Of The Tool Room And The Tool Storeroom. Part 4
The vertical system is shown in Figs. 89 and 90 and consists of two parallel chains A A, passing over the sprocket wheels B B at the top and under similar ones ...
-Equipment Of The Tool Room And The Tool Storeroom. Part 5
Returning to what may strictly be considered purchased parts, the following arrangement of them will be found to be convenient and practical, both for proper ...
-Chapter XIX. The Drawing Room
Effective planning. Congenial surroundings. The brain room. Proper design and furniture. Natural lighting. Artificial lighting. Location of the drawing room.
-The Drawing Room. Part 2
In the drawings, Fig. 94 is a plan of the drawing room, located above the offices and well lighted by ten large windows, as shown. It is reached from the ...
-The Drawing Room. Part 3
So far as we know, this is the most practical and convenient method of keeping and cutting up drawing papers; and the plan of purchasing drawing paper in rolls ...
-The Drawing Room. Part 4
The blueprint room is located in the monitor roof in the center of the building, and thus over both the drawing room and the pattern shop. The space available ...
-The Drawing Room. Part 5
The perforations in the bottom of the top box not being sufficient to carry off all the water, it gradually fills up that compartment and the pivoted box, thus ...
-Chapter XX. The Pattern Shop And Pattern Storage Room
Location in relation to the drawing room and machine shop. Capacity of the pattern shop. The working force necessary. Nature of the product. Equipment of the ...
-The Pattern Shop And Pattern Storage Room. Part 2
The equipment of machinery and fixtures for the pattern shop, and the location selected for them to insure convenience of their operation and of the handling ...
-The Pattern Shop And Pattern Storage Room. Part 3
The pattern maker's bench is shown in perspective in Fig. no. The top is 30 inches wide and 10 feet long. It stands 34 inches high. It is composed of hard ...
-The Pattern Shop And Pattern Storage Room. Part 4
Heat may be applied by a steam coil as shown in Fig. 112, or hot air may be admitted from the regular air pipes of the heating system. The degree of heat ...
-The Pattern Shop And Pattern Storage Room. Part 5
Considering these conditions, the best arrangement of pattern racks seems to be of the forms shown in Fig. 113 and Fig. 114. The form shown in Fig. Fig. 113.
-Chapter XXI. The Iron Foundry
Special conditions. Some early history of the foundry. Modern foundry appliances. Plan of the foundry. Tram car tracks. The transportation of materials.
-The Iron Foundry. Part 2
In Fig. 115 the location of the cupolas is shown, and also that of the blower and the blast pipes leading from the latter to the cupolas. A motor is also ...
-The Iron Foundry. Part 3
Molding machines are also made for molding the teeth of gear wheels of large dimensions, as well as large segments, and by their use much time is saved and the ...
-The Iron Foundry. Part 4
Pickling beds are provided for, as shown on the plan, Fig. 119. These should be so constructed that the pickling solution may drain off into a receptacle where ...
-The Iron Foundry. Part 5
The wash room is located in one of the outer corners of the foundry proper, as shown in Fig. 115, and has adjoining it the water-closets, and next to these the ...
-Chapter XXII. The Forge Shop
Its present restricted sphere. Improved facilities. Case-hardening and tempering. The addition of machine tools to its equipment. The proper location of the ...
-The Forge Shop. Part 2
For convenience in bringing in stock and taking out finished work the tram car tracks run nearly midway through the forge shop, as shown, and are connected by ...
-The Forge Shop. Part 3
The blower is driven from a line shaft running the length of the shop near its center. In front of the first fire is located a large steam hammer of the arched ...
-The Forge Shop. Part 4
Such a furnace as has just been described will, if properly built, and with occasional repairs to the fire brick lining, last many years. The author knows of ...
-The Forge Shop. Part 5
The space for bar stock is located conveniently to the railroad track and the tram car track, and contains two racks for bar stock, the larger one for full ...
-Chapter XXIII. Shop Transportation Equipment
Its importance in the modern machine shop. Careful planning necessary. Continuous progress of work through the different departments. What may be classed as ...
-Shop Transportation Equipment. Part 2
The Franklin portable crane is simply a small jib crane on wheels, which may be moved about the shop as easily as a hand truck. Its capacity is from one and a ...
-Shop Transportation Equipment. Part 3
All curves are of 12 feet radius to the inside rail of the curve, and it would be better to make them 14 feet if possible, as the longer the radius the easier ...
-Shop Transportation Equipment. Part 4
A car suitable to run on these tracks is shown in the drawings, in which Fig. 141 shows a side elevation; Fig. 142 an end elevation; Fig. 143, a bottom view; ...
-Shop Transportation Equipment. Part 5
Figs. 149 and 150 show a dumping car, arranged from one of the regular cars, with the platform omitted. As will be seen, the box or body of the car is not ...
-Chapter XXIV. Miscellaneous Equipment Of The Manufacturing Plant
The smaller departments. The importance of minor details. The experience of practical men. The carpenter shop. Arrangement for storing lumber for daily use.
-Miscellaneous Equipment Of The Manufacturing Plant. Part 2
Along the side of this inclosure, next to the wall, is a fixed desk of proper height for a man standing, say 41 inches. It should be 24 inches wide and incline ...
-Miscellaneous Equipment Of The Manufacturing Plant. Part 3
Near the cutting-off saw is the rip saw, but located at right angles to it so that long lumber may be handled, and in order to increase this capacity it is ...
-Miscellaneous Equipment Of The Manufacturing Plant. Part 4
This kind of a room is shown in Fig. 157. It is located between the storehouse and the machine shop. The floor should be of brick, hard asphalt, or concrete.
-Miscellaneous Equipment Of The Manufacturing Plant. Part 5
On the ground floor the cement surface may be prepared for by broken stone, etc., similar to the usual shop concrete floor, only not nearly so deep. Fig. 158.
-Miscellaneous Equipment Of The Manufacturing Plant. Part 6
In the engraving, a foundation is shown for a planer 48 x 48 inches x 18 feet. Fig. 160 is a vertical, longitudinal section of the foundation, and Fig. 161 is ...
-Part Third. Machine Shop Management. Chapter XXV. Machine Shop Management
Modern methods. Divided responsibilities. The shop tree. The three grand factors. Capitalization. Manufacturing. Selling. Graphic diagram of the organization ...
-Machine Shop Management. Part 2
While we are ready to admit with a somewhat prominent writer that there is a good deal of frenzied finance abroad in the land, we have not far to go to find ...
-Machine Shop Management. Part 3
Such being the general conditions under which we must organize, we may proceed with the further consideration of the system by which our plant is to be managed.
-Machine Shop Management. Part 4
A regiment is divided into two or three battalions commanded by majors. Our force will be divided into two parts, each under an assistant superintendent. Each ...
-Chapter XXVI. The Superintendent's Office
Avoiding complexity of books, forms, etc. Arrangement of the superintendent's office. Progress of orders board. Its description and use. Handling ...
-The Superintendent's Office. Part 2
All matters that can be conveniently typewritten should be done in that manner. The practice of taking letterpress copies of letters and other matter sent out ...
-The Superintendent's Office. Part 3
The list of gray iron castings shown in Fig. 165 is followed by that for malleable iron, steel, brass, and bronze castings, and these by the list of forgings ( ...
-The Superintendent's Office. Part 4
At the end of the week the cards are dropped into a box marked Day Time, and placed under the Out case, and the timekeeper takes them up when leaving cards for ...
-The Superintendent's Office. Part 5
In filling out this blank the words Defective Material, Spoiled Material, Lost Material, and Rejected Parts, that are not needed may be erased by drawing a ...
-Chapter XXVII. The Problem Of Apportioning The Fixed Charges
Estimating. Cost keeping. Productive and non-productive costs. Diversity of opinion among accountants. Errors of the old systems. Popular idea that the expense ...
-The Problem Of Apportioning The Fixed Charges. Part 2
To show the great diversity of opinions and practices in the matter of ascertaining and apportioning the burden of fixed and miscellaneous charges in different ...
-The Problem Of Apportioning The Fixed Charges. Part 3
In accounting for the actual costs of the product, and fixing upon an adequate plan, we are confronted principally with the problem of accounting for the ...
-The Problem Of Apportioning The Fixed Charges. Part 4
Each machine forming a part of the equipment of the manufacturing plant should bear a portion of the general burden according to its first cost and annual ...
-The Problem Of Apportioning The Fixed Charges. Part 5
One of the expensive drawbacks of the older practice of building an entire machine in one department, and another machine of different type or size in another ...
-The Problem Of Apportioning The Fixed Charges. Part 6
The transportation of material or parts of machines being built, whether moved by shop railway, trucks, or cranes, becomes a charge on the job. In case of the ...
-Chapter XXVIII. The Drafting Room
The department of design. The real work of the draftsman. Routine of the room. General rules. Keeping the time. Drawing materials. Tracings. Poor materials is ...
-The Drafting Room. Part 2
It is, of course, much more convenient to handle and to care for small drawings than large ones, both in the shop and in the drafting room, and the smaller ...
-The Drafting Room. Part 3
Sections may be distinguished on tracings by going over the back of the tracing with a soft lead pencil, depositing enough of the lead to show well in the ...
-The Drafting Room. Part 4
When the number of different machines to be built does not exceed thirty or forty the letters of the alphabet may be very conveniently used; in the more ...
-The Drafting Room. Part 5
Blueprints mounted on straw-board may be laid flat in drawers, or be stored on edge, in a case, as shown in Fig. 183. On the shelf beneath each compartment is ...
-Chapter XXIX. The Tool And Stock Room
The lack of information in reference to it. Only special portions of the subject heretofore taken up. Disconnected parts of systems. The need of a complete ...
-The Tool And Stock Room. Part 2
For convenience of administration all these may be under the charge of the tool room foreman, while the special work of caring for, issuing, and receiving ...
-The Tool And Stock Room. Part 3
The foreman of the tool room will make written orders in a carbon copying book to the different men doing the machine work in substantially the form shown in ...
-The Tool And Stock Room. Part 4
The tool check board shown in Fig. 196 may be located at A. At B is an opening above a broad shelf, where dulled tools, drills, etc., may be passed through to ...
-The Tool And Stock Room. Part 5
There should be a sufficient number of errand boys at different points in the shop to quickly answer all calls for tools and to return them to the tool room ...
-The Tool And Stock Room. Part 6
The construction herein described is of wood, for reasons of economy, as it can be built by the carpenters employed about the plant. It is not by any means the ...
-Chapter XXX. Pattern Shop System
A field for a good system of management. The poorly created shop. Its proper location and importance. Organizing the working force. Various kinds of labor ...
-Pattern Shop System. Part 2
For a force of ten employees there should be one foreman, four skilled pattern makers, one lathe man, one band saw and segment man, one man for keeping pattern ...
-Pattern Shop System. Part 3
In selecting lumber for patterns care should be taken to get that which has been properly cut from the log, that is, lumber in which the edge of the grain ...
-Pattern Shop System. Part 4
Similar parts of machines of the same type take the same numbers. Thus, if the letter of a machine is B, the patterns will be marked B1, B2, B3 and so on. When ...
-Pattern Shop System. Part 5
There should be another case with shelves 10 inches wide for holding steel wire brads and wood screws. There should be shelf room enough to show at the front ...
-Pattern Shop System. Part 6
These cards should be kept in small, plain drawers, each holding the cards for one machine, the letter and name of which will be marked on its front. As ...
-Chapter XXXI. General Efficiency In Manufacturing Operations
Changes and improvements. The modern factory. Manufacturing conditions of the present time. Economy a necessity. Arrangement of departments. Character of the ...
-General Efficiency In Manufacturing Operations. Part 2
We may say, therefore, that it is more economical to transmit power to distances of over one hundred feet by electricity than by shafting and belting. Large ...
-General Efficiency In Manufacturing Operations. Part 3
There should be a number of switches, at least one to each line of tracks, where cars may pass each other, so as to avoid lost time. At one end of the room a ...
-Chapter XXXII. Machine Shop Mutual Aid Association
The necessity of such an organization. Sick benefits. The lodge method. Death claims. Accidents and sickness. Economy of the proposed system. The general plan.
-First Aid To Injured Employees
Still another adjunct to the organization of the modern machine shop that is productive of much good is the Emergency Room, wherein the accidentally injured ...
-The Machine Shop Reading Room
In discussing the question of costs in the machine shop in the previous chapters reference has been made to the fact that high salaried workmen will frequently ...
-The Machine Shop Reading Room. Continued
The expense of providing all the literature for a shop of two hundred men ought not to cost over eight or ten dollars per month. Many publishers will furnish ...
-The Machine Shop Dining Room
The sharp competition in all lines of manufacture and the strife for supremacy in all that goes to make up an efficiently productive manufacturing plant has ...
-Chapter XXXIII. Increasing The Efficiency Of Machines
The question of efficiency. Classification of betterment work. Preparatory analysis. Classification of machine work. Planing. Shaping. Milling. Heavy turning.
-Increasing The Efficiency Of Machines. Continued
Fourth. Heavy Turning For turning very large and heavy work such as rolling mill work, crank shafts, etc., the heavy triple geared lathes are best adapted.
-Improving The Design Of Machines
The comparatively recent advent of high-speed tool steel and its ability to stand very high speeds, largely increased feeds, and heavy cuts, brought about ...
-Improving The Design Of Machines. Part 2
This machine should be located in the tool room, and all took requiring to be ground should be sent there and exchanged for like tools properly ground and held ...
-Chapter XXXIV. Increasing The Efficiency Of Men
Many methods for increasing the efficiency of men. Direct and indirect methods. Classification of methods. Special rewards. Personal instruction. Planning ...
-Increasing The Efficiency Of Men. Part 2
Second The desire of the employer to make the rate as low as possible, or at least so that the workman should be able to earn little more than day pay, yet to ...
-Increasing The Efficiency Of Men. Part 3
As usually arranged, the results of a time study consisting of a series of operations is recorded upon a card of the form shown in Fig. 213. In this case the ...
-Chapter XXXV. The Relation Of The Overhead Burden To The Flat Cost
The overhead burden. Complex problems. Operating expenses. Classification of accounts. A going concern. Fixed charges. The expense burden. The supplemental ...
-The Relation Of The Overhead Burden To The Flat Cost. Part 2
It is certain that men will make mistakes in judgment of business conditions and that losses will ensue. But not more in manufacturing enterprises than in any ...
-The Relation Of The Overhead Burden To The Flat Cost. Part 3
Thus we see that this averaging process of dividing the burden must necessarily result in an overcharge on small work and an under charge on large work. To ...
-The Relation Of The Overhead Burden To The Flat Cost. Part 4
We must know the details of this matter, for what purpose the money was spent, and to what accounts it must be charged in order to obtain a control over these ...
-Chapter XXXVI. Manufacturing Cost Systems
The so-called cost system. Bookkeepers and shop men. A growth but not a system. Requirements of an efficient cost system. Analysis of requirements. Relation ...
-Manufacturing Cost Systems. Part 2
While some of the results here enumerated are not, strictly speaking, within the province of the cost system, and belong more particularly to the work of shop ...
-Manufacturing Cost Systems. Part 3
Eighth. Non-Productive Labor (a) Wages of all employees not working directly upon the product. This includes superintendent, foremen, gang bosses, clerks, ...
-Manufacturing Cost Systems. Part 4
Or, as is the better procedure, the order when received by the factory manager will be entered in his Order Book and sent to the Production Engineer, or ...









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previous page: Modern Shop Practice V2| by Howard Monroe Raymond
  
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