# The English And American Mechanic | by B. Frank Van Cleve

Comprising a collection of over 3000 receipts, rules and tables, designed for the use of every mechanic and manufacturer

 Title The English And American Mechanic Author B. Frank Van Cleve Publisher B. Frank Van Cleve Year 1874 Copyright 1874, B. Frank Van Cleve Amazon The English And American Mechanic
Preface
THIS work is offered as a valuable Book of Reference for Mechanics and Manufacturers, trusting they will find information therein that will well repay them. It is the intention of the Author to produ...
How To Find The Circumference Of Any Diameter
Fig. 1. From the centre C describe a circle A B, haying the required diameter ; then place the corner of the square at the centre 0, and draw the lines C D and C E ; then draw the chord D E: three...
Proportion Of Circles
Fig. 2. To enable machinists to enlarge or reduce machinery wheels without changing their respective motion. First, describe two circles A B and C D the size of the largest wheels which you wish ...
How To Describe An Ellipse, Or Oval
[Simple Method.] Fig. 3. At a given distance, equal to the required eccentricity of the ellipse, place two pins, A and B, and pass a string, A C B, round them; keep the string stretched by a penc...
How To Describe An Ellipse
Fig. 4. To describe an ellipse of any length and width, and by it to describe a pattern for the sides of a vessel of any flare. First draw an indefinite line D E perpendicular to the line A B, an...
How To Describe A Right Angled Elbow
Fig. 5. First construct a rectangle A D E B equal in width to the diameter of the elbow, and the length equal to the circumference : then from the point J, the middle of the line A B, draw the lin...
How To Describe A Carved Elbow
Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Describe two circles U X and V'S, the curves desired for the elbow, having the distance from U to V' equal to the diameter; then divide the circle V, W, R and S, into as many s...
How To Describe A Straight Elbow
[Old Method.] Fig. 6. Mark out the length and depth of the elbow, A B C D ; draw a semicircle at each end, as from A B and C D; divide each semicircle into eight parts; draw horizontal lines as s...
How To Describe Bevel Covers For Vessels, Or Breasts For Cans
Fig. 11. From 0 as a centre, describe a circle D E larger than the vessel; and from C as a centre, describe a circle A B the size of the vessel, then with the dividers the same as you described th...
How To Describe Pitched Covers For Fails, Etc
Fig. 12. To cut for pitched covers, draw a circle one inch larger than the hoop is in diameter after burring, then draw a line from the centre to the circumference as in the figure, and one inch f...
How To Describe An Oval Boiler Cover
Fig. 13. From C as a centre, describe a circle whose diameter will be equal to the width of the boiler outside of the wire, and draw the line A B perpendicular to the line E F, having it pass thro...
The Circle And Its Sections
1. The Areas of Circles are to each other as the squares of their diameters; any circle twice the diameter of another contains four times the area of the other. 2. The Radius of a circle is a straigh...
How To Describe A Flaring Vessel Pattern, A Set Of Patterns For A Pyramid Cake, Or An Envelope For A Cone
Fig. 15. From a point C as a centre, describe a circle A B equal to the large circumference; with the point F as a centre, the depth of the vessel, describe a circle D E equal to the small circumf...
How To Describe A Cone Or Frustum
Fig. 16. First draw a side elevation of the desired vessel, D E, then from A as a centre describe the arcs C D C and G E G ; after finding the diameter of the top or large end, turn to the table o...
Cycloid
Fig. 18. Cycloid, a curve much used in mechanics. It is thus formed: If the circumference of a circle be rolled on a right line, beginning at any point A, and continued till the same point A arriv...
How To Strike The Side Of A Flaring Vessel
Fig. 19. To find the radius of a circle for striking the side of a flaring vessel having the diameters and depth of side given. Rule As the difference between the large and small diameter is to ...
Sector, For Obtaining Angles
Fig. 22. Sector, a portion of a cicle comprehended between any two radii and their intercepted arcs. - Similar Sectors are those whose radii include equal angles. To find the area of a sector. Sa...
How To Construct The Frustum Of A Cone
Form of flat Plate by which to construct any Frustum of a Cone. Fig. 23. Let A B C D represent the required frustum ; continue the lines A D and B C until they meet at E; then from E as centre, w...
Rule For Striking Out A Cone Or Frustum
Fig. 24. In a conical surface, there may be economy, sometimes, in having the slant height 6 times the radius of base. For a Circle may be wholly cut into conical surfaces, if the angle is 60...
Hipped Roofs, Mill Hoppers, Etc
To find the various Angle* and proper Dimensions of Materials whereby to construct any figure whose form is the Frustum of a proper or inverted Pyramid, as Hipped Roofs, Mill Hoppers, etc. Fig. 26. ...
Contents In Gallons Of The Frustum Of A Cone
To find the Contents in Gallons of a Vessel, whose diameter is larger at one end than the other, such as a Bowl, Pail, Firkin, Tub, Coffee-pot, etc. Rule Multiply the larger diameter by the small...
Rule To Find The Contents In Gallons Of Any Square Vessel
Rule Take the dimensions in inches and decimal parts of an inch, multiply the length, breadth, and height together, and then multiply the product by .004329 for Wine Gallons, and by 003546 for Ale Ga...
Contents In Gallons Of Cylindrical Vessels
Rule Take the dimensions, in inches and decimal parts of an inch. Square the diameter, multiply it by the length in inches, and then multiply the product by .0034 for Wine Gallons, or by 00278...
Tin Plates. Sue, Length, Breadth, And Weight
Brand Mark. No. of Sheets in Box. Length and Breadth. Weight per Box. Inches. Cw t, qr lbs. Each 1 x advances \$1.75 to \$2.00. ...
Weight Of Water
1 cubic inch............is equal to .03617 pounds. 12 cubic inches ........ is equal to .434 pounds. 1 cubic foot.............. is equal to 62.5 pounds. 1 cubic foot..............is equal to 7.50 U...
Decimal Equivalents To The Fractional Farts Of A Gallon, Or An Inch
[The Inch, or Gallon, being divided into 82 parts.] [In multiplying decimals it is usual to drop all but the first two or three figures.] Decimals. Gallon, or Inch. Gills. 1 Pint...
Utility Of The Table. Examples
1. Required the circumference of a circle, the diameter being five inches? In the column of circumferences, opposite the given diameter, stands 15.708* inches, the circumference required. 2. Require...
Diameters And Circumferences Of Circles, And The Content In Gallons At 1 Foot In Depth
[Area in Inches.] Diam. Circ. in. Area in. Gallons. 1 in. 81416 7854 04084 1/8 8.5343 9940 05169 ...
Capacity Of Cans One Inch Deep. Utility Of The Table
Required the contents of a vessel, diameter 6 7-10ths inches, depth 10 inches? By the table a vessel I inch deep and 6 and 7-10ths inches diaimeter contains .15 (hundredths) of a gallon, than 15 X 10...
Definition Of Arithmetical Signs Used In The Work
= When we wish to state that one quantity or number is equal to another quantity or number, the sign of equality = is employed. Thus 8 added to 2 = 6, or 8 added to 2 is equal to 6. + When the sum of...
Problem I. How To Inscribe An Equilateral Triangle Within A Given Circle
Let a b c be a circle; it is required to draw within it a triangle whose sides are equal to one another. Commencing from any point a, mark on the circumference of the circle a series of spaces equal t...
Problem II. Within A Given Circle To Inscribe A Square
Let a B C d be the given circle, it is required to draw a square within it. Draw the diameters a b, c d, at right angles to each other; or, in other words, draw the diameter a b, and form a per-pendic...
Problem III. Within A Given Circle To Inscribe A Regular Pentagon ; That Is, A Polygon Of Five Aides
Let a b c d be a circle in which it is required to draw a pentagon. Draw a diameter a d, and perpendicular to it another diameter. Fig. 32. Then divide o b into two equal parts in the point E, an...
Problem V. How To Cut Off The Corners Of A Given Square, So As To Form A Regular Octagon
Let A B C d be the given square. Draw the two diagonal lines A c, and b d, crossing each other in O. Then, with the radius a o, that is, half the diagonal, and with a as a centre, describe the arc E F...
Problem VI. How To divide a given Line into any Number of Parts
To divide a given Line into any Number of Parts, which Parts shall be in the same Proportion to each other as the Parts of some other given Line, whether those Parts arc equal or unequal. Let a b be ...
Problem VII. How To draw a Polygon of any Number of Sides
On a given Line to draw a Polygon of any Number of Sides, so that that Line shall be one side of a Polygon; or, in other word*, to find the Centre of a Circle which ahull circumscribe any Poly-gon, th...
Method Of Drawing Curved Lines
We will now introduce a few remarks upon the method of drawing curved lines, and also give some rules for finding the forms of mouldings when they are to mitre together, that is to say, of raking moul...
Problem VIII. How To draw an Ellipse with the little and Compasses, the transverse and conjugate Diameters being given; that is, the length and width
Let a b be the transverse or longest diameter ; c d the conjugate or shortest diameter; and o the point of their intersection, that is, the centre of the ellipse. Take the distance O C or O D; and, ta...
Problem IX. How To Draw An Ellipse By Means Of Two Concentric Circles
Fig. 37. Let a b be the transverse, and E F the conjugate diameter, and 0 the centre of an ellipse to be drawn. From O with the radius O a, describe the circle a c b d, and from the same centre de...
Problem X. How To describe an Ellipse by Means of a Carpenter's Square, or a piece of notched Lath
Having drawn two lines to represent the diameters of the ellipse required, fasten the square bo that the internal angle or meeting of the blade and stock shall be at the centre of the ellipse. Then ta...
Problem XI. How To Find The Centre And The Two Axes Of An Ellipse
Lot a b c d be an ellipse, it is required to find its centre. Draw any two lines, as E F and G h, parallel and equal to each other. Fig. 38. Bisect these lines as in the points I and k, and bisec...
Problem XII. How To draw a flat Arch by the intersection of Lines, having the Open-ing and Spring or Rise given
Let a d b be the opening, and c D its spring or rise. In the middle of a b, at D, erect a perpendicular D e, equal to twice C D, its rise; and from E draw E A and E b, and divide a e and b e into any ...
Problem XIII. How To find the Form or Curvature of a Raking Moulding that shall unite correctly with a Level one
Let a b c d be part of the level moulding, which we will here suppose to be an ovolo, or quarter round; a and c. the points where the raking moulding takes its rise on the angle; f c g, the angle the ...
Problem XIV. How To Find The Form Or Curvature Of The Return In An Open Or Broken Pediment
Let a b c be the angle which the pediment makes with the cornice, and let the form and size of the moulding be as in the last problem, and as shown at d a b H. From D drop a perpendicular on c b, and ...
Of The Circle, Cylinder, Sphere, Etc
1. The circle contains a greater area than any other plane figure bounded by an equal perimeter or outline. 2. The areas of circlet are to each other as the squares of their diameters. 8. The diamet...
Of The Square, Rectangle, Cube, Etc
1. The side of a square equals the square root of its area. 2. The area of a square equals the square of one of its sides. 8. The diagonal of a square equals the square root of twice the square of it...
Of Triangles, Polygons, Etc
1. The complement of an angle is its defect from a right angle. 2. The supplement of an angle is its defect from two right angles. 3. The sine, tangent, and secant of an angle are the cosine, cotang...
Table Of The Areas Of Regular Polygons, Each Of Whose Sides Is Unity
Name of Polygon. No. of BUM. Apothegm or Perpend'lar. Area when Side is Unity. Interior Angle. Central Angle. Triangle..... 8 0.2887 0.4330 ...
Of Ellipses, Cones, Frustums, Etc
1. The square root of half the sum of the squares of the two diameters of an ellipse multiplied by 3.1416 equals its circumference. 2. The product of the two axes of an ellipse multiplied by .7854 eq...
Instrumental Arithmetic, Or Utility Of The Slide Rule
The slide rule is an instrument by which the greater portion of operations in arithmetic and mensuration may be advantageously performed, provided the lines of division and gauge-points be made proper...
Numeration
Numeration teaches us to estimate or properly value the numbers and divisions on the rule in an arithmetical form. Their values are all entirely governed by the value set upon the first figure, and b...
Rule Of Three Inverse. Rule
Invert the slide, and the operation is the same as direct proportion. 1. I know that six men are capable of performing a certain given portion of work in eight days, but I want the same performed in ...
Square And Cube Roots Of Numbers
On the engineer's rule, when the lines c and D are equal at both ends, c is a table of squares, and d a table of roots, as Squares 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 ...
How To Find The Geometrical Mean Proportion Between Two Numbers
Set one of the numbers upon c to the same number upon d ; and against the other number upon c is the mean number or side of an equal square upon d. Required the mean proportion between 20 and 45. Se...
Mensuration Of Surface
1. Squares, Rectangles, Etc. Rule When the length is given in feet and the breadth in inches, set the breadth on b to 12 on a ; and against the length on a is the content in square feet on B. If the...
Table Of Gauge-Points For The Engineer's Rule
Names. F, f, f. F, I, I. I, I, I. F,I I,I. F. I. Cubic inches.. 678 83 1728 106 1273 106 121 Cubic feet......
For The Common Slide Rule
Names. F, F, F. F,I,I. I,I,I. F, I. I, I. F. I. Cubic inches.. 36 518 624 660 799 625 118 Cubic feet ...
Mensuration Of Solidity And Capacity. General Rule
Set the length upon B to the gauge-point upon A; and against the side of the square, or diameter on D, are (he cubic contents, or weight in lbs. on c. 1. Required the cubic contents of a tree 30 feet...
By The Common Rule
4. Required the weight of a cylinder of wrought iron 10 inches long and 5½ diameter. Set 10 upon b to 283 (the gauge-point) upon a ; and against 5½ upon d is 66-65 pounds on c. 5. What is the weight...
Power Of Steam Engines
Condensing Engines. Rule Set 3.5 on c to 10 on d; then D is a line of diameters for cylinders, and c the corresponding number of horses' power; thus, H. Pr, 3½ 4 5 6 8...
Horse Power
As this is the universal term used to express the capability of first movers, of magnitude, it is essential that the estimate of it should be uniform. Its estimate is the elevation of 33,000 pounds a...
Nominal Horse's Power. Condensing Engine
d2 v ---- = horse's power ; d representing diam. of cylinder in inches, and 8000 v the velocity of the piston in fret per minute. This is alike to the rule of the British Admiralty, substituting 300...
Nominal Horse Power Of Several Non-Condensing Engines
Computed from Formula d2 v / 1000 = H. P. Horses' Power. Diameter and Stroke of Cylinder. Revolutions. No. Ids. Feet. Min. 9. 6X1. 125 9...
Mixture Of Air And Steam
Water contains a portion of air or other uncondensable gaseous matter, and when it is converted into steam, this air is mixed with it, and when the steam is condensed it is left in a gaseous state. If...
Steam Acting Expansively
To Compute the mean Pressure of Steam upon a Piston by Hyperbolic Logarithms.. Rule Divide the length of the stroke of a piston, added to the clearance in the cylinder at one end, by the length of t...
Table Of Hyperbolic Logarithms
No. Log. 1.05 049 11 095 1.15 14 1.2 182 1.25 223 1.3 262 ...
Effect Of Expansion With Equal Volumes Of Steam
The theoretical economy of using steam expansively is as follows - a like volume of steam being expended in each case, and expanded to fill the increased spaces. Point Of Cutting Off. Ex...
Gain In Fuel, And Initial Pressnre Of Steam Required, When Acting Expansively, Compared With Non-Expansion Or Full Stroke
Point of Cutting off: Gain in Fuel. Initial Pressure Required. Cutting Off; Full Stroke. Stroke. PerCent. Lbs. Lbs. 11.7 ...
Slide-Valves. All Dimensions In Inches
To Compute how much Lap must be given on the Steam Side of a Slide.Valve to rut off the Steam at any given Part of the Stroke of the Piston. Rule From the length of stroke of piston subtract the len...
Distance of the piston from the end of its stroke when the steam is cut off, in parts of the length of its stroke. ½ 5/12 1/3 7/24 1/4 5/24 1/6 ...
Lap On The Exhaust Side Of The Valve In Parte Of Its Throw
Portion of Stroke at which the Steam is cat off. Lap. 1/3 7/24 ¼ 5/24 1/6 1/8 1/12 1/24 A ...
How To Compute The Stroke Of A Slide Valve. Rule
To twice the lap add twice the width of a steam port in inches, and the sum will give the stroke required. Expansion by lap, with a slide-valve operated by an eccentric alone, cannot be extended beyo...
Maximum Temperature Of The Feed-Water Admissible At Different Pressures Of Steam
Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Pressure per square inch... 10 20 30 40 60 100 Temperature of feed.... 148 ...
Belts
The resistance of belts to slipping is independent of their breadth, consequently there is no advantage derived in increasing this dimension beyond that which is necessary to enable the belt to resist...
How To Compute The Stress A Belt Or Cord Is Capable Of Transmitting
Aide Memoire. Rule Multiply the value of C from the following table by the stress in pounds. Proportion of Are embraced to the Circumference of the Driving Pulley. Value of Coefficient C...
How To Compute The Stress Which Is Transmitted To A Belt Or Cord
Rule Divide the power in pounds transmitted to the periphery of the pulley by the velocity of the surface of the drum. Example A cast-iron pulley, 4 feet in diameter, driven by a power of four hors...
Exterior Plaster Or Stucco
1 volume of cement powder to 2 volumes of dry sand. In India, to the water for mixing the plaster is added 1 lb. of sugar. or molasses, to 8 Imperial gallons of water, for the first coat; and for the...
Fine Stuff (Lime Putty)
Lump lime slaked to a paste with a moderate volume of water, and afterwards diluted to the consistency of cream, and then to harden by evaporation to the required consistency for working. In this sta...
Estimate Of Materials And Labor For 100 Square Yards Of Lath And Plaster
Materials and Labor. 3 Coats Hard Finish. Two Coats slipped. 4 casks. 3½ casks. Lump lime.. 2/3 Plast. Paris.. ½ Lat...
Experiments Of Voisin, 1857
MORTAR. Volume produced. Concrete. One Volume of Sand. One Volume; of Pebble.. Talus. Cement. Water. Mortar. Volume produced. 10 Days. ...
Weight Or Power Required To Tear Asunder One Square Inch
Materials and Mixtures. Ultim. Resist-ance. Lbs. 112 90 days, 100 parts, water 50........... 52 Boulogne, 1 year, Portland (natural ..........
Crushing Strength Of Cements, Stone, Etc. (Crystal Palace, London)
Reduced to a uniform Measure of One Square Inch. Material. -- Lbs. Portland cement, area 1, height 1 1680 cement 1244 sand ................
Experiments Of General Gillmore
Material*. Cements and MIxtures. Value. Lb.. Delafield and Stiff paste............ 6.* High Falls (N. Y.), 270 days. Pure........ ...
Experiments Of General Treuasart
Puzzuolana and Trass - Mortar. Value. Lbs. Strasburgh Puzzuolana 1 5 days 2.8 Sand.........1 4 34 ...
Slaking
The volume of water required to slake lime will vary with limes from 2.5 to 3 times the volume of the lime (quicklime), and it is important that all the water required to reduce the lime to a proper c...
Notes By General Gillmore, U. S. A
All the lime necessary for any required quantity or batch of mortar should be slaked at least one day before it is mixed with the sand. All the water required to slake the lime should be poured on at...
Notes By General Totten, Xt. S. A
240 lbs. lime = l cask, will make from 7.8 to 815 cubic feet of stiff paste. 308* lbs. of finely-ground cement will make from 3.'7 to 3.8 cubic feet of stiff paste ; 79 to 83 lbs. of cement powder ...
Plastering
1 bushel, or 1¼ cubic foot of cement, mortar, etc., will cover 1½ square rods ¾ inch thick. 75 volumes are required upon brick work for 70 upon laths. Cost of Masonry, of various Kinds, per Cubic Yar...
Measurement Of Bricklayers Work
Brickwork is estimated at the rate of a number of bricks in thickness, estimating a brick at 4 inches thick. The dimensions of a building are usually taken by measuring half round on the outside, and ...
Well Digging
Suppose a well is 40 feet deep, and 5 feet in diameter, required the number of cubic feet, or yards? 5 X 5 = 25 X .7861 = 19.635 X 40 = 785.4 cubic feet. Suppose a well to be 4 feet 9 inches diamete...
Digging For Foundations, Etc
To find the cubical quantity in a trench, or an excavated area, the length, width and depth must be multiplied together. These are usually given in feet, and therefore, to reduce the amount into cubic...
Measurement Of Masons Work
To masonry belongs all sorts of stone-work; and the measure made use of is a foot, either superficial or solid. Walls, columns, blocks of stone or marble, etc., are measured by the cubic foot; and pa...
Measurement Of Carpenters' And Joiners' Work
To this branch belongs all the woodwork of a house, such as flooring, partitioning, roofing, etc. Large and plain articles are usually measured by the square foot or yard, etc., but enriched mouldings...
Measurement Of Slaters' Work
In these articles, the content of a roof is found by multiplying the length of the ridge by the girth over from eaves to eaves; making allowance in this girth for the double row of slates at the botto...
Slates [From The Quarries Of Rutland County, Vermont]
1 Inch Cover. 2 inch Cover. Sizes of Slates. No. of Slates to the Square or 100 Poet. No.of Slates or 100 Feet. 24 by 16 86 84 24 by 14 9...
Measurement Of Pavers' Work
Pavers' work is done by the square yard; and the content is found by multiplying the length by the breadth. Grading for paving is charged by the day glaziers' and painters' work. 79 measurement of gla...
Measurement Of Painters' Work
Painters' work is computed in square yards. Every part is measured where the color lies; the measuring line is forced into all the mouldings and corners. Cornices, mouldings, narrow skirtings, reveal...
Drainage Of Lands By Pipes
Soils. Depth of Pipes. Distance apart. Ft. In. Feet. Coarse gravel sand. 4 6 60 Light sand with gravel 4 50 ...
Arches And Abutments
Approximate Rules and Tables for the Depth of Arches and Thickness of Abutments. = D. C representing coefficient, r radius of arch at crown, t thickness of abutment, h height of abutment to spring, a...
Railway Bridges
For Spans between 25 and 70 feet. Rise, 1/5 of the Span. Depth of Arch, .055 of the Span. Thickness of Abutments, from ¼ to 1/5 of the Span. Batter, 1 inch per foot. Cost Of Tunnels Prior To 1855 {M...
Iron Works (England)
Temperature of hot blast............................................... 600 Density of blast and of refining furnace.... 2½ to 3 lbs. per sq. in. Revolutions of puddling rolls per minute, 60; ra...
Flour Mills
For each pair of 4-feet stones, with all the necessary dressing machinery, etc, there is required 15 horses' power. One pair of 4-feet stones will grind about 5 bushels of wheat per hour. Each bushel...
Saw-Mills
Gang saw, 30 square feet of dry oak, or 45 square feet of dry pine, per hour........................... 1 horse-power. Circular saw, 2.5 feet in diameter, 270 revolutions per minute, 40 square feet o...
Blasting
In small blasts, 1 pound of powder will loosen about 4½ tons. In large blasts, 1 pound of powder will loosen about 2¾ tons. 60 or 60 pounds of powder, enclosed in a resisting bag, hung or propped up...
Projection Of Water
Heights to which Water may be Projected through Engine Pipes under Pressure. Pressure Inch. Equivalent Head of Water. Height of Jet. Ratio of Compression of Air in Air. chamber....
How To Compute Water-Power
00189 V h = horse's power, and 528 HP / V = V; V representing volume of water, in cubic feet, per minute, and h head of water from race in feet. Effective Horse-power for different Motors. ...
Solders
Copper. Tin. Lead. Zinc Silver. Bismuth. Gold. Calcimine Antimony Tin................................................ ...... 25 ...
Composition For Welding Cast Steel
Borax, 10 parts; sal' ammoniac, 1 part. Grind or pound them roughly together; fuse them in a metal pot over a clear fire, continuing the heat until all spume has disappeared from the surface. When the...
Fusible Compounds
Compounds. Zinc. Tin. Lead. Bismuth. Cadmium. Rose's fusing at 200o........................... ................ 25 25 50 .................
Fluxes For Soldering Or Welding
Iron.................................................................................Borax. Tinned Iron........................................................................Resin. Copper and Brass...
Tides
The difference in time between high water averages about 49 minutes each day. In sandy soil, the greatest force of a pile-driver will not drive a pile over 15 feet. A Fall of .1 of an inch in a mile...
Elasticity And Strength
The component parts of a rigid body adhere to each other with a force which is termed cohesion. Elasticity is the resistance which a body opposes to a change of form. Strength is the resistance whic...
Modulus Of Elasticity
The modulus or coefficient of the elasticity of any substance is the measure of its elastic reaction or force, and is the height of a column of the same substance, capable of producing a pressure on i...
How To Compute The Weight Of The Modulus Of Elasticity Of A Substance
Rule As the extension or compression of the length of any substance is to its length, so is the weight that pro-dueed that extension or compression to the modulus of elasticity in pounds avoirdupois....
How To Compute The Height Of The Modulus Of Elasticity
Rule Divide the weight of the modulus of elasticity of the material by weight of 1 foot of it and the quotient will give the height in feet. From a series of elaborate experiments by Mr. E. Hodgkins...
Modulus Of Elasticity And Weight Of Various Substances
Substances. Height in feet. Weight in lbs. Ash................... 4,970,000 1,656,670 Brass, yellow... 2,460.000 8,464,000 wire.... ...
How To Compute The Length Of A Prism Of A Material Which Would Be Severed By Its Own Weight When Suspended
Rule Divide the tensile resistance of the material by the weight of a foot of it in length, and the quotient will give the length. Modulus Of Cohesion, Or Length In Feet Required To Tear Assunder Th...
Cast Iron
Experiments on cast iron bars give a tensile strength of from 4,000 lbs. to 5,000 lbs per square inch of its section, as just sufficient to balance the elasticity of the metal, and as a bar of it is e...
Wrought Trow
Experiments on wrought iron bars give a tensile strength of from 18,000 lbs. to 22,400 lbs. per square inch of its section, as just sufficient to balance the elasticity of the metal, and as a bar of i...
Elements Connected With The Tensile Resistance Of Various Substances
Substances. Tensile Strain per Sq. Inch for limit of Elasticity. RatloofStraln to that caus-ing Rapture. Lbs. Beech.................. 3,355 .8 ...
Weight Or Power Required To Teas Asunder One Square Inch. Metals
Lbs. Copper, wrought.............. 34000 rolled.......................... 36000 cast, American....... wire............. ...
Miscellaneous Substances
Lbs. Brick, well burned................ 750 fire ............................. 65 inferior....................... 290 100 Ceme...
Compositions
Lbs. Gold 5, Copper 1..................... 50000 Brass..................................... 42000 Yellow............................................ ...
Woods
Lbs. Ash.............................. 14000 Beech.............................. 11500 Box.............................. 20000 Bay............
Results Of Experiments On The Tensile Strength Of Wrought Iron Tie Rods
Common English Iron, 1 3/16 Inches in Diameter. Description of Connection. Breaking Semicircular hook fitted to a circular and welded eye........... Lbs. 14000 Two s...
Wire Ropes. Result Of Experiments On The Tensile Strength Of Iron And Steel Wire Ropes
Charcoal Iron Wire Rope. Circum. Weight per foot. Breaking Weight Ins. Lbs. Lbs. 1 7/8 ½ 13440 3 3/8 1½ 44800 S...
Extension Of Cast-Iron Bars When Suspended Vertically
1 Inch Square and 10 Feet in Length. Weight applied at one end. Weight applied. Extension. Set. Lbs. Ins. Ins. 529 .0014 .................. ...
Steel
The tensile strength of steel increases by reheating and rolling up to the second operation, but decreases after that. The relative resistance of wrought iron and copper to tension and compression is...
Deflection
When a bar, beam etc., is deflected by a cross-strain, the ode of the beam, etc., which is bounded by the concave sur. face, is compressed, and the opposite side is extended. In stones and cast metal...
Relative Stiffness Of Materials To Resist A Transverse Strain
Ash.............................. .089 Beech............................... .073 Elm............................... .079 Oak...............................
Transverse Strength Of Materials, Deduced From Experiments
Reduced to the uniform Measure of One Inch Square, and one Foot in Length: Weigt suspended from one End. MATERIALS. Breaking weight. Value for general use. METALS. Lbs ...
Concretes, Cements, Etc
MATERIALS. concretes (English). Fire-brick beam, Portl'd cem't 8.1 sand, 3 parts; lime, 1 part .7 CEMENTS (English). Blue clay and chalk ...
Transverse Strength Of Cast Iron Bars And Oak Beams Of Various Figures
Reduced to the uniform Measure of One Inch Square of Sectional Area, and One Foot in Length. Fixed at one end, Weight suspended from the other. FORM OF BAR OR BEAM. Breaking Weight. ...
Transverse Strength Of Solid And Hollow Cylinders Of Various Materials
One foot in length. Fixed at one end; Weight suspended from the other. MATERIALS. Solid External Diameter. Hollow Internal Diameter. Breaking Weight. Breaking Weight for 1 i...
How To Compute The Transverse Strength Of A Rectangular Beam Or Bar
When A Beam Or Bar Is Fixed At One End, And Loaded At The Other. Rule Multiply the value of the material in the preceding tables, or as may be ascertained, by the breadth and square of the depth in i...
When A Beam Or Bar Is Fixed At Both Ends, And Loaded In The Middle
Rule Multiply the value of the material by 6 times the breadth and the square of the depth in inches, and divide the product by the length in feet. Note When the beam is loaded uniformly throughout...
When The Weight Is Not In The Middle Between The Ends
Rule Multiply the value of the material by 3 times the length in feet, and the breadth and square of the depth in inch and divide the product by twice the product of the distances of the weight, or s...
How To Compute The Pressure Upon The Ends Or Upon The Supports
Rule Divide the product of the weight and its distance from the nearest end or support by the whole length, and the quotient will give the pressure upon the end or support farthest from the weight. ...
When A Beam Or Bar, Fixed Or Supported At Both Ends, Bears Two Weights At Unequal Distances From The Ends
Let m and n represent distances of greatest and least weights from their nearest end, W and w greatest and least weights, L whole length, l distance from least weight to farthest end, and V distance o...
When The Plane Of The Beam Or Bar Projects Obliquely Upward Or Downward
When Fixed At One End And Loaded At The Other. Rule Multiply the value of the material by the breadth and square of the depth in inches, and divide the product by the product of the length in feet an...
How To Compute The Transverse Strength Of Cylinders, Ellipses, Etc
When A CYLINDER, RECTANGLE (THE DIAGONAL being vertical,) hollow cylinder, or beams having SEC-tionS of an ellipse, are either fixed at one End and Loaded at the Other, or Supported at both Ends, the ...
When An Equilaterial Triangle, Or T Beam. Rule
Proceed in all cases as if tor a rectangular beam, taking the following proportions of the value of the material. Fixed at one or both ends. Equilateral triangle, edge up, b Xd². X .2 of V...
How To Compute The Diameter Of A Solid Cylinder To Support A Given Weight
When Fixed At One End, And Loaded At The Other - Rule Multiply the weight to be supported in pounds by the length of the cylinder in feet; divide the product by .6 of the value of the material, and t...
When Fixed At Both Ends, And Loaded In The Middle
Rule Multiply the weight to be supported in pounds by the length of the cylinder between the supports in feet; divide the product by .6 of the value of the material, and the cube root of ¼ of the quo...
When Supported At Both Ends, And Loaded In The Middle
Multiply the weight to be supported in pounds by the length of the cylinder between the supports in feet; divide the product by .6 of the value of material, and the cube root of ¼ of the quotient will...
How To Compute The Relative Value Of Materials To Resist A Transverse Strain
Let V represent this value in a Beam, liar, or Cylinder, one foot in length, and one inch square, side, or in diameter: W the weight; l the length in feet; b the breadth, and d the depth in inches; m ...
Girders, Beams, Lintels, Etc
The Transverse or Lateral Strength of any Girder, Beam Brest-summer, Lintel, etc., is in proportion to the product of its breadth and the square of its depth, and also to the area of its cross-section...
How To Compute The Dimensions And Form Of A Girder Or Beam
When a Girder ok Beam is Fixed at one End, and Loaded at the other. 1. When The Depth Is Uniform Throuyhout The Entire Length The section at every point must be in proportion to the product of the l...
How To Compute The Depth Of A Floor Beam
When The Length And Breadth Are Given, And The Distance Between The Centres Of The Beam Is One Foot.Rule Divide the product of the square of the length in feet and the weight to be borne in pounds pe...
The conditions of the stress borne or to be provided for by them are as follows: Header or Trimmer beams support 1/2 of the weight of and upon the tail beams inserted into or attached to them. Trimm...
Girder
The condition of the stress borne by a Girder is that of a beam fixed or supported at both ends, as the case may be, supporting the weight borne by all of the beams resting thereon, at the points at w...
Wrought Iron
7½ feet in length; flanges, 6x3½ ins. X 5/8 depth; area, 5½ square ins.; 50,000 lbs. produced no set; 58,240 lbs. produced a set of 1¾ ins. White Oak Rectangle 10 feet in length, 11 X 4½ ins.: 33,60...
Crushing Strength Of Various Materials, Deduced From Experiments In England And America
Reduced to a uniform Measure of One Square Inch.________ FIGURES AND MATERIAL. Crushing Weight. Prisms. CAST IRON. Lbs. American, gun-metal....................... ...
Crushing Strength
The crushing strength of any body is in proportion to the area of its section, and inversely as its height. In tapered columns, the Strength is determined by the least diameter. When the height of a ...
Wrought Iron Plates, Cylindrical Tubes
LENGTH. Width. Thickness. Area. Crushing Weight. PLATES. Ins. Ins. Ins. Lbs. 10 feet.......................................... 2.98...
Expansion Or Dilatation Of Solids. - (Faraday.)
Lin | At 212, the length of the bar at 32=1. Bismuth...... 1.0013908 Brasss........ 1.0019062 Cast iron..... 1.0011112 Cement...... 1.00...
Dams (Earthwork.)
Width at top in high dams from 7 to 20 ft.. Width at top in low damn......... = height. Breast slopes.......... = 3 to l Back slopes............ = 2 to 1 Height above surface of water not less than...
Masonry
Width at bottom = .7 height; at middle = .5 height; and at top = .3 height. Tunnels - (From Actual Practice In Brickwork.) PURPOSE. Formation of Strata. Extreme Height. Extreme ...
Resistance To Detrusion
When one beam is let in, at an inclination to the depth of another, so as to bear in the direction of the fibres of the beam that is cut, the depth of the cut at right angles to (he fibres should not ...
How To Compute The Power
Rule. Multiply one-half the weight of the disc by the height due to the velocity of its circumference in feet per second. Example A grind-stone 3 3/8 feet in diameter, weighing 2000 lbs., is require...
Power Concentrated In Moving Bodies
Simple power is force multiplied by its velocity. Power concentrated in a moving body is the weight of the body multiplied by the square of its velocity; and the product divided by the aceeleratrix, o...
Comparative Weight Of Timber In A Green And Seasoned State
TIMBER. Weight of a Cub. Ft. Green. Seasoned Lbs. Oz. Lbs Oz. Amer. Pine.... 44. 12 30 11 Ash.......
Bar Of Iron
The average breaking weight of a Bar of Wrought Iron, 1 inch square, is 25 tons; its elasticity is destroyed, however, by about two-fifths of that weight, or 10 tons. It is extended, within the limits...
Models Proportioned To Machines
The relation of models to machines, as to strength, deserves the particular attention of the mechanic. A model may be perfectly proportioned in all its parts as a model, yet the machine, if constructe...
Table Of Wire Rope, Manufactured By John A. Roeb-Lino's Sons, Trenton, N. J
Prices in 1873, 10 per cent. more than table. Born of 133 WIRES. Trade Number. Circumference in locoes. Price per Foot, in cents. Ultimate Strength la tone of 2000 lbs. ...
Notes On The Use Of Wire Rope, By Mr. Roebling
Two kinds of wire rope are manufactured; the larger sizes, as also the most pliable, are composed of 133 wires, and are generally used for hoisting or running rope. Those of 49 wires are stiller, and ...
Weight And Strength of Iron Chains
The links of ordinary iron chains are usually made as short as is consistent with easy play, in order that they may not become bent when wound around drums, sheaves, etc.; and that they may be more ea...
Table Of Strength Of Chains
(Original.) Chains of superior iron will require ¼ to 1/3 more to break them. Diam. of rod of which the links are made. Weight of chain per ft. run. Breaking strain of the chain. ...
The hook - headed spikes t, commonly used for confining rails to the cross-tiea, vary within the limits of the following table; the lightest ones for light rails on short local branches; and the heavi...
Professor W. R. Johnson found that This supposes the joint and chair to rest upon a tie; but when long chairs are used, with a view of placing the rail-joint between two ties laid near each ot...
Weight Of Nails
Name. Length. Inches. No. per lb. 3 penny. 1 557 4 ...... 1¼ 353 5 ..... 1¾ 232 6 ...... 2 175 ...
A Table
Showing the Weight or Pressure a beam of Cast Iron, 1 inch in breadth, will sustain, without destroying its elastic force, when it is supported at each end, and loaded in the middle of its length, and...
Resistance Of Bodies To Flexure By Vertical Pressure
When a piece of timber is employed as a column or support, its tendency to yielding by compression is different according to the proportion between its length and area of its cross section; and suppos...
Elasticity Of Torsion, Or Resistance Of Bodies To Twisting
The angle of flexure by torsion is as the length and extensibility of the body directly and inversely as the diameter; hence the length of a bar or shaft being given, the power, and the leverage the p...
Relative Strength Of Bodies To Resist Torsion, Lead Being 1
Tin..................... 1.4 Copper........ 4.3 Yellow Brass. 4.6 Gun Metal....... 5.0 Cast Iron.......... 9.0 Swedish I...
Strength Of Beams
[From Lowndes' Engineer's Hand-book, - Liverpool, 1860.] Solid, Rectangular, and Round - To find their Strength. Square And Rectangular (Depth ins.)2 X Thickness ins. / Lengh, ft. X Tabular No. = Br...
Solid Columns
Fail by crushing with length under............ 6 diameters. Principally by crushing from...................... 5 to 15 Partly by crushing, partly by bending, from. 15 to 25 Altogether by bending...
How To Find The Strength Of Any Wrought Iron Column With Square Ends
Area of column sq. inches X tons per inch corresponding to proportion of length, as per table above = Breaking weight, tons. If the ends are rounded, divide the final result by 3 to find the breaking...
Tables Of Powers For The Diameters And Lengths Of Columns
Diameter. 36 Power. 1 in. 1. ¼ 2.23 ½ 4.3 1 7.5 2 121 ¼ 18.5 ½ 27. ¾ 3816 ...
Square Columns Of Plate Iron Riveted. Columns 10 Feet O Inches Long
Size. Thickness. Proportion of Thickness to Width. Proportion of Length to Width. Break'g weight Tons per sq. in. of Section. 4 in. X 4 in. 03 1/1...
Columns Of Oblong Section
The strength of these may be ascertained by the same rule as that of square columns. The smallest width being taken in calculating the proportion of height to width, while the longest side must be tak...
Pedestal - Bracket
Pedestal. Good proportions. Thickness of cover. 4 of diameter of bearing. of sole plate 8 Di...
Weights And Volumes Of Various Substances In Ordinary Use
SUBSSTANCES. Cubic Foot. Cubic Inches METALS. Lbs. Lbs. Brass. copper 67. zinc 83. 488.75 .2829 gun metal.....
Weight Of One Foot Of Flat Bar Iron
If a bar of lion be thicker than contained In the table, add together the weight of two numbers, or treble the weight of one number. Wanted the weight of 1 foot of bar iron, 4 inches broad and 2 1-4 i...
Russia Sheet Iron
Measures 56 by 28 inches, and is ruled by the wight per sheet The numbers run from 8 to 18 Russi in lbs per sheet 8 Russian pounds equal 7.2 English pounds; 9 = 8.1 lbs.; 19= 9 1bs.; 11=10 lbs.; 12 = ...
Weight One Foot In Length Of Square And Round Bab Iron
Side and diameter in inches. Square iron in pounds. Round Iron in pounds. ¼ .209 .164 5/16 .326 .250 3/8 .470 .369 7/1...
Cast Iron. - Weight Of A Foot In Length Of Square And Round
SQUARE. Size. Weight Size. Weight Inches Square Pounds Inches Square Pounds ½ .78 4 7/8 74.26 5/8 LSI ...
Steel. - Weight Of A Foot In Length Of Flat
Size. Thick. 1-4 in. Thick. 3-8ths. Thick. 1-2 in. Thick, 5-8ths Inch. lbs. lbs lbs. lbs. 1 .852 1.27 1.70 2.13 ...
Patent Improved Lead Pipe. Sizes And Weight Per Foot
Calibre. per foot Inches. lbs. oz. 3/8 6 3/8 8 3/8 10 3/8| 12 3/8 1 0 ...
Brass, Copper, Steel And Lead. Weight Of A Foot
BRASS. COPPER. STEEL. LEAD. Diam. & side of Square. Weight Round. Weight of Square. Weight Round. Weight Square. Weight Round. Weight of...
Cast Iron. Weight Of A Superficial Foot From ¼ To 2 Inches Thick
Size. Weight In. Lbs. ¼ 9.37 3/8 14.06 ½ 18.75 Size. Weight In. Lbs. 5/8 23.43 ...
Cast Iron. Weight Of A Foot In Length Of Flat Cast Iron
Width of Iron. Thick, ¼ in. Thick, 3/8 in. Thick, ½ in. Thick, 5/8 in. Thick, ¾ in. Thick, 7/8 in. Thick, 1 inch. Inches. lbs. lbs. lb...
Solid Contents Of Equal-Sided Timber
If the log is shorter than is contained in the table, take half or quarter of some length; if longer, double some length. The length of the log is given on the top of the columns, the diameter in the ...
Logs Reduced To One Inch Board Measure
If the log is longer than is contained in the table, take any two lengths. The first column on the left gives the length of the log in feet The figures under D denote the diameters of the logs in inc...
Relative Strength Of Cast And Malleable Iron
It has been found, in the course of the experiments made by Mr. Hodgkinson and Mr. Fairbairn, that the average strain that oast iron will bear in the way of tension, before breaking, is about seven to...
How To Find The Weight Of Any Casting
Width in ¼ ins. X Thickness in 1/8 ins., or vice versa, / 10 X Length, ft. = Weight, lbs. cast iron. For instance: to find the weight of a casting 3¼ ins. X 1 1/8 ins. X 2 ft. 6 ins. long. 13 X 9 / ...
Wheel Gearing
The Pitch Line of a wheel, is the circle upon which the pitch is measured, and it is the circumference by which the diameter, or the velocity of the wheel, is measured. The Pitch, is the arc of the c...
Bevel Gear
Wheels which act upon each other at an angle. When the tooth of a wheel is made of a material different from that of the wheel, it is termed a Cog; in a pinion it is termed a Leaf, and in a trundle a...
How To Compute The Number Of Teeth In A Pinion Or Follower To Have A Given Velocity
Rule Multiply the velocity of the driver by its number of teeth, and divide the product by the velocity of the driven. Example The velocity of a driver is 16 revolutions, the number of its teeth 54...
How To Compute The Proportional Radius Of A Wheel Or Pinion
Rule Multiply the length of the line of centres by the number of teeth in the wheel for the wheel, and in the pinion for the pinion, and divide by the number of teeth in both the wheel and pinion. T...
How To Compute The Number Of Teeth Required In A Train Of Wheels To Produce A Given Velocity
Rule Multiply the number of teeth in the driver by its number of revolutions, and divide the product by the number of revolutions of each pinion, for each driver and pinion. Example If a driver in ...
How To Compute The Velocity Of A Pinion
Rule Divide the diameter, circumference, or number of teeth in the driver, as the case may be, by the diameter, etc., of the pinion. When There Are A Series Or Train Of Wheels And Pinions. Rule Div...
General Illustrations
1. A wheel 96 inches in diameter, having 42 revolutions per minute, is to drive a shaft 75 revolutions per minute ; what should be the diameter of the pinion? 96 X 42 ----- = 53.76 inches. 75 2. If...
Pitch Of Wheels. A Table Whereby To Compute The Diameter Of A Wheel For A Given Pitch, Or The Pitch For A Given Diameter
From 8 to 192 feet. No. of Teeth. Diameter- 8 2 61 9 2.93 10 3.24 11 3.65 12 3.86 13 4.18 14 ...
How To Determine The Proportion Of Wheels For Screw-Cutting By A Lathe
In a lathe properly adapted, screws to any degree of pitch, or number of threads in a given length, may be cut by means of a leading screw of any given pitch, accompanied with change wheels and pinion...
Table Of Change Wheels Foe Screw-Cutting
The leading Screw being ½ inch pilch, or containing 2 threads in an inch. Number of teeth in Number of threads in inch of screw. Lathe spindle-wheel. Leading screw-wheel....
Strength Of The Teeth Of Cast Iron Wheels At A Given Velocity
Pitch of teeth in inches. Thickness of teeth in inches. Breadth of teeth in inches. Strength of teeth in horse-power at 3 feet per second. 4 feet per second. 6 ...
How To Find Size Of Teeth Necessary To Transmit A Given Horse Power. (Tredgold.)
Horse power X 240 / Diameter of wheel, ft. X Revs. per min = Strength of tooth. ... strength / Breath, ins. = Pitch, ins. Strength / (Pitch, ins.)2 = Breadth, ins. The above rule will be foun...
How To Find The Size Of Teeth To Carry A Given Load In Pounds
Load, lbs. / 1120 = Breaking strength of teeth. Load, lbs. / 280 = Strength for very low speeds, and for steady work ; being 4 times the breaking strength. Load, lbs. / 140:= Strength for ordinary p...
How To Find The Quantity Of Water That Will Be Discharged Through An Orifice Or Pipe In The Side Or Bottom Of A Vessel
Area of orifice, sq. in. X No. corresponding to height of surface above orifice, as per table = Cubic feet discharged per minute. Height of Surface above Orifice. Multiplier. F...
How To Find The Height Necessary To Discharge A Given Quantity Through A Given Orifice
Cubic feet water discharged , . , . ., -----------------------------------= No. corresp. to height, as per table. Area orifice, sq. inches The Velocity of Water issuing from an Orifice in the Side ...
In taking the dimensions of a Cask, it must be carefully observed: 1st, That the bung-hole be in the middle of the cask; 2d, That the bung-stave, and the stave opposite to the bung-hole, are both regu...
First Variety
Bung-Diameter, 32 Head-Diameter, 24 Difference, 8 Multiplier, 7 5.6 Head-Diam., 24 29.6 Mul...
Table Of The Capacities Of Casks, Whose Bung Diameters And Lengths Are 1 Or Unity
II. 1st War. 2d Var. 3d Var. 4th Var. 50 0021244 .0020300 .0017704 .0016523 51 0021340 .0020433 .001...
How To Ullage, Or Find The Contents In Gallons Of A Cask Partly Filled
To find the contents of the occupied part of a lying cask in gallons. Rule Divide the depth of the liquid, or wet inches, by the bung-diameter, and if the quotient is under .5, deduct from the quoti...
How To Find The Ullage Of A Filled Part Of A Standing Cask, In Gallons
Rule Divide the depth of the liquid, or wet inches, by the length of the cask; then, if the quotient is less than -5, deduct from the quotient one-tenth of what it is less than .5, and multiply the r...
Alloys And Compositions
Allot is the proportion of a baser metal mixed with a finer or purer, as when copper is mixed with gold, etc. Amalgam is a compound of mercury and a metal - a soft alloy. All compositions of copper ...
Rare And Valuable Receipts And Tables For Mechanical Purposes
Yellow Brass, For Turning (Common article.) - Copper, 20 lbs.; zinc, 10 lbs.; lead from 1 to 5 oz. Put in the lead last before pouring off. Red Brass, For Turning Copper, 24lbs.; zinc, 5lbs.,lead, ...
Colored Gold
1. Full Red Gold Gold, 5 dwt.; copper, 5 dwt. 2. Red Gold Gold, 10 dwt.; silver, l dwt.; copper, 4 dwt. 3. Green Gold Gold, 5 dwt; silver, 21 {gr. 4. Gray Gold Gold, 3 dwt. 15 gr.; silver, 1 dw...
Alloys For Gold
22 parts gold, 2 parts copper, is 22 carats fine; 20 parts gold, and 4 parts copper, is 20 carats fine; 18 parts gold, and 6 parts copper, is 18 carats fine. 1. Red Gold Copper, 66.67 parts; gold 33...
Alloys For Silver Coin And Plate
1. English Standard Copper, 7.50parts; sliver, 92.50 parts. 2. American Standard Copper, 10 parts; silver, 90 parts. French The Same Gilding Metal for common jewelry is made by mixing 4 parts cop...
Artificial Gold
This; is a new metallic alloy which is now very extensively used in France as a substitute for gold. Pure copper, 100 parts; zinc, or, preferably, tin, 17 parts; magnesia, 8 parts; sal-ammoniac, 3-6 p...
English Standard For Silver
Pure silver, 11 oz. 2 dwts.; copper, 22 dwts. Melt. Silver Imitations Copper 1 lb.; tin, ¾ oz.; melt. This composition will roll and ring very near to silver. Britannia Metal Copper, 1 lb.; tin, 1...
Fine Brass
Copper, 2 parts; zinc, 1 part; mix. Organ Pipes consist of lead alloyed with about half its quantity of tin to harden it. The mottled or crystalline appearance so much admired shows an abundance of t...
Yellow Brass
(for castings). - 1. Copper, 61.6 parts; zinc, 35.:? parts; lead, 8.9 parts; tin, 0.2 parts. 2. Brass of Jemappes.- Copper, 64.6 parts; zinc, 33.7 parts; lead, 1.4 parts; tin, 0.2 parts. 3. Sheet Bras...
How To Weld Cast Iron
Take of good clear white sand, 3 parts; refined solton, 1 part; fosterine, l part; rock salt, 1 part: mix all together. Take 2 pieces of cast iron, heat them in a moderate charcoal fire, occasionally ...
How To Galvanize Iron
Cleanse the surface of the iron perfectly by the joint action of dilute acid and friction, plunge it into a bath or melted zinc covered with sal-ammoniac, and stir it about till it be alloyed superfic...
Tempering Saws, Etc
The usual method of tempering saws is to heat, and then dip them in oil. This process is slow, costly, and laborious. It is also disadvantageous, because the Bawl become warped, and require to he hamm...
Tempering
The article, after being completed, is hardened by being heated gradually to a bright red, and then plunged into cold Water: it is then tempered by being warmed gradually and equably either over a fir...
Crucibles
The best crucibles are made from a pure fire clay, mixed with finely ground cement of old crucibles, and a portion of black lead or graphite: some pounded coke may be mixed with the plumbago. The clay...
How To Purify Gas
The purifier is to be filled with milk of lime, made by mixing 1 part of Blacked lime with 25 parts of water. A very great Improvement in the purification of gas has been effected by Mr. Staffer, of E...
Composition Used In Welding Cast Steel
Borax, 10; sal ammoniac, 1 part; grind or pound them roughly together; then fuse them in a metal pot over a clear fire, taking care to continue the heat until all spume has disappeared from the surfac...
Burglar And Drill Proof Diamond Chill
Take 1 gal. urine, and add to it 1 oz. borax and 1 oz. salt. How to Re-cut Old Files and Rasps - Dissolve 4 oz. of saleratus in l qt. of water, and boil the files in it for half an hour; then remove,...
Tempering Liquid
To 6 qts. soft water put in corrosive sublimate, 1 oz.; common salt, 2 handfuls; when dissolved, it is ready for use. The first gives toughness to the steel, while the latter gives the hardness. Be ca...
How To Mend Broken Saws
Pure silver, 10 parts; pure copper, 1 part; pure brass, 2 parts; all to be filed into powder,and thoroughly mixed; place the saw level on the anvil, broken edges in contact, and hold them so; now put ...
Japan Flow For Tin
All Colors Gum sandarac, 1 lb.; balsam of fir, balsam of Tolu, and acetate of lead, of each, 2 oz.; linseed oil, ½ pint; spirits of turpentine, 2 qts. Put all into a suitable kettle, except the turpe...
How To Tin Copper Stew Dishes, Etc
Wash the surface of the article to be tinned with sulphuric acid, and rub the surface well, so as to have it smooth and tree of blackness caused by the and; then sprinkle calcined and finely pulverize...
Gold Lacquer For Tin
Transparent, All Colors Alcohol in a flask, ½ pt.; add gum shellac, 1 0z.; turmeric, ½ oz.; red sanders, ¼ oz. Bet the flask in a warm place, shake frequently for 19 hours or more, then strain off th...
Crystallized Tin Plate
The figures are more or less beautiful and diversified, according to the degree of heat, and relative dilution of the acid. Place the tin-plate, slightly heated, over a tub of water, and rub its surfa...
Tin Cans
Size of Sheet, for from 1 to 100 Gallons: For 1 gallon, 7 by 20 inches. For 25 gallons, 30 by 56 inches. 3 ½ 10 by 28 40 ...
Browning For Gun Barrels
Spirits of nitre. 1 lb.; alcohol, 1 lb.; corrosive sublimate, 1 oz.; mix in a bottle, and cork for use. Directions: Polish the barrel perfect; then rub it with quick-lime with a cloth, which removes g...
Hardening And Filling For Fire-Proof Safes
Experience has shown that the tire and burglar proof diamond chill for iron or steel, described in another part of this work, has no superior as a hardening for security in the construction of safes; ...
How To Silver Clock Faces, Etc
Old silver lace, ½ oz.; nitric acid, 1 oz. Boil them over a gentle fire for about 5 minutes in an earthen pot. After the silver is dissolved, take the mixture off, and mix it in a pint of clean water,...
How To Reduce Metallic Oxides
This may be effected by the dry and the moist processes; but the deoxidizing agent of the greatest value to the metallurgist is coal in its several varieties, and the derivative materials yielded by i...
How To Enamel Cast Iron And Hollow Ware
Calcined flints 6 parts; Cornish stone or com position two parts, litharge 9 parts, borax (i parts, argillaceous earth 1 part, nitre 1 part, calx of tin 6 parts, purified potash 1 part. 2. Calcined fl...
Emery Wheels For Polishing
Coarse emery powder is mixed with about half its weight of pulverized Stourbridge loam, and a little water or other liquid to make a thick paste; this is pressed into a metallic mould by means of a sc...
Refining Gold And Silver
The art of assaying gold and silver is founded upon the feeble affinity which these have for oxygen in comparison with copper, tin, and other cheap metals, and on the tendency which the latter metals ...
Annealing
This consists in putting the pure gold into a small, borons crucible, or cupel, and heating it to redness in the muffle. Weighing must be done with the utmost accuracy. The weight in grains troy, doub...
Enamelling On Gold And Copper
The basis of all enamels is a highly transparent and fusible glass, called frit, flux, or paste, which readily receives a color on the addition of the metallic oxides. Preparation Red lead, 16 parts...
Silver Plating
File the parts which are to receive the plate very smooth; then apply over the surface the muriate of zinc, which is made by dissolving zinc in muriatic acid; now hold this part over a dish containing...
Electro Gold Plating
Take a \$2.50 piece of gold, and put it into a mixture of 1 oz. nitric, and 4 oz. muriatic acid (glass vessels only are to be used in this work;) when it is all cut. dissolve ½ oz. of sulphate of potas...
Elkington's Patent Gilding
Fine gold, 5 oz. (troy;) nitro-muriatic acid, 52 oz. (avoirdupois;) dissolve by heat, and continue the heat until red or yellow vapors cease to be evolved; decant the clear liquor into a suitable vess...
Gold Silvering On Metals
Mix 1 part of chloride of silver with 3 parts of pearlash,1½ parts common salt, and 1 part whiting; and well rub the mixture on the surface of brass or copper, (previously well cleaned,) by means of a...
Coloring Of Gilding
Defective colored gilding may also be Improved by the help Of the following mixture: Nitrate of potash, 3 oz.; alum, 1½ oz.; sulphate of zine, 1½ oz.; common salt, 1½ oz. These ingredients are to be p...
Silver Plating Fluid
Dissolve 1 ounce of nitrate of silver in crystal, in 12 ounces of soft water; then dissolve in the water 2 oz. cyanuret of potash; shake the whole together, and let it stand till It becomes clear. Hav...
How To Temper Gravers And Drills
When the graver or drill is too hard, which may be known by the frequent breaking of the point, temper as follows: Heat a poker red hot, and hold the graver to it within an inch of the point, waving i...
Jeweler's Armenian Cement
Isinglass soaked in water and dissolved in spirit, 2oz. (thick); dissolve in this 10 grains of very pale gum ammonia (in tears) by rubbing them together; then add 6 large tears of gum mastic, dissolve...
How To Make Door Plates
-Cut your glass the right size, and make it perfectly clean with alcohol or soap; then cut a strip of tinfoil sufficiently long and wide for the name, and with a piece of ivory or other burnisher rub ...
Etching On Glass
Druggist bottles, bar-tumblers, signs, and glassware of every description, can be lettered in a beautiful style of art, by simply giving the article to be engraved, or etched, a thin coat of the engra...
Etching Varnish
Take of virgin wax and asphaltum each 2 oz.; of black pitch and Burgundy pitch, each ½ oz.; melt the wax and pitch in a new earthenware glazed pot, and add to them, by degrees, the asphaltum, finely p...
After you have etched a name or other design upon uncolored glass, and wish to have it show off to a better advantage by permitting the light to pass only through the letters, you can do so by taking ...
Glass Staining
The following colors, after having been prepared and rubbed upon a plate of ground-glass, with the spirit of turpentine or lavender, thickened in the air, are applied with a hair-pencil. Before using ...
Stained-Glass Pigments
No. 1. Flesh Color Red lead, 1 oz.; red enamel (Venetian glass enamel, from alum and copperas calcined together): grind them to a fine powder, and work this up with alcohol upon a hard stone. When sl...
Silvering Looklng-Glasses With Pure Silver
Prepare a mixture of 3 grs. of ammonia, 60 grs. nitrate of silver, 90 minims of spirits of Wine, 90 minims of water; when the nitrate of silver is dissolved, filter the liquid, and add a small quantit...
Porcelain Colors
The following are some of the colors used in the celebrated porcelain manufactory of Sevres. and the proportions in which they are compounded. Though intended for porcelain painting, nearly all are ap...
Glass And Porcelain Gliding
Dissolve in boiled linseed oil an equal weight either of copal or amber; add as much oil of turpentine as will enable you to apply the compound or size thus formed, as thin as possible, to the parts o...
Soluble Glass
1. Silica, 1 part; carbonate of soda, 2 parts; fuse together. 2. Carbonate of soda, (dry.) 54 parts; dry carbonate of potassa, 70 parts; silica, 192 parts; soluble in boiling water, yielding a fine tr...
How To Drill And Ornament Glass
Glass can be easily drilled by a steel drill, hardened but not drawn, and driven at a high velocity. Holes of any size, from the l6th of an inch upwards, CM be drilled, by using spirits of turpentine ...
Gilding Glass Signs, Etc
Cut a piece of thin paper to the size of your glass, draw out your design correctly in black lead-pencil on the paper, then prick through the outline of the letters with a fine needle, tie up a littl...
How To Gild Letters On Wood, Etc
When your sign is prepared as smooth as possible, go over it with a sizing made by the white of an egg dissolved in about four times its weight of cold wafer; adding a small quantity of fuller's earth...
Dyes For Veneers
A Fine Black Put 6 lbs. of logwood chips into your copper, with as many veneers as it will hold without pressing too tight; fill it with water, let it boil slowly for about 3 hours, then add ½ lb. of...
How To Silver Ivory
Pound a small piece of nitrate of silver in a mortar, add soft water to it, mix them well together, and keep in a phial tor use. When you wish to silver any article, immerse it in this solution, let i...
Farmers' Paint
Farmers will find the following profitable for house or fence paint: skim milk, 2 quarts; fresh slacked lime, 8 oz.; linseed oil, 6 oz., white Burgundy pitch, 2 oz.; Spanish white, three pounds. The l...
Painting In Milk
Skimmed milk, ½ gallon; newly slacked lime, 6 oz.; and 4 oz. of poppy, linseed, or nut oil; and 5 lbs. Spanish white. Put the lime into an earthen vessel or clean bucket: and, having poured on it a su...
Milk Paint For Barns. Any Color
Mix water lime with skim-milk, to a proper consistence to apply with a brush, and it is ready to use. It will adhere well to wood, whether smooth or rough, to brick, mortar, or stone, where oil has no...
Paints, Different Sorts
Blue Blue-black, 25 lbs.; whiting, 100 lbs.; road dust, silted, 200 lbs.; lime-water, 12 gallons. Factitious linseed oil to grind. White Patnt Whiting, 500 lbs.; white-lead, 400 lbs.; lime-water, 2...
Whitewash
The best method of making a whitewash for outside exposure is to slack half a bushel of lime in a barrel, add one pound of common salt, half a pound of the sulphate of zinc, and a gallon of sweet milk...
Substitute For Plaster Of Paris
Best whitening, 2 lbs.; glue, 1 lb.; linseed oil, 1 lb. Heat all together, and stir thoroughly. Let the compound cool, and then lay it on a stone covered with powdered whitening, and heat it well till...
Glue
Powdered chalk added to common glue strengthens it. A glue which will resist the action of water is made by boiling 1 lb. of glue in 2 qts of skimmed milk. Cheap Waterproof Glue Melt common glue wit...
Fish Oil Paints
Dissolve white vitriol and litharge, of each 14 lbs., in vinegar. 82 gals.: add whale, seal, or cod oil, 1 tun, and boil to dryness, continually stirring during the ebullition. The next day, decant th...
Porcelain Finish, Very Hard And White For Parlors
To prepare the wood for finish, if it be pine, give one or two coats of the Varnish - Transparent for Wood, which prevents the pitch from oozing out, causing the finish to turn yellow, next, give th...
Japan Drier, Best Quality
Take linseed oil, 1 gallon; put into it gum shellac, ¾ lb.; litharge and burned Turkey umber, each ½ lb.; red lead, ½ lb.; sugar of lead, 6 oz. Boil in the oil till all are dissolved, which will requi...
Drying Oil Equal To Patent Driers At One Quarter Their Price
Linseed oil, 2 gallons: red lead and umber, each, 4 oz.; sulphate of zin , 2 oz.; sugar of lead, 2 oz. Boil until it will scorch a leather, when it is ready for use. Prepared Oil For Carriages, Etc ...
Oil Paint
How To Reduce With Water Gum shellac, 1 lb.; sal-soda, ½ lb.; water, 3 parts; boil all together in a kettle, stirring till dissolved. If it does not all dissolve, add a little more sal-soda; when coo...
How To Build Gravel Houses
This is the best building material in the world. It is four times cheaper than wood, six times cheaper than stone, and superior to either. Proportions for mix-in*?: To eight burrows of slacked lime, w...
Mastic Cement For Covering The Fronts Of Houses
Fifty parts, by measure, of clean dry sand, fifty of limestone (not burned) reduced to grains like sand, or marble dust, and ten parts of red lead, mixed with as much boiled linseed oil as will make i...
Excellent Cheap Roofing
Shingles Superseded Have your roof stiff, rafters made of stuff 1½ by 8 inches, well supported and 6 feet apart, with ribs 1 inch by 2 inches, set edgeways, well nailed to the rafters, about 18 inche...
How To Render Wood Indestructible
Robbins's Process This seems to be a process of inestimable value, and destined to produce very important results. The apparatus used consists of a retort or still, which can be made of any size or f...
Varnishes
Waterproof Flour of sulphur, 1 lb.; Linseed-oil, 1 gal.; boil them until they are thoroughly combined. This forms a good varnish for waterproof textile fabrics. Another is made of oxide of lead, 4 lb...
Stains For Wood
Green Stain Strong vinegar, 3 pints; best verdigris, 4 oz. ground fine; sap green, ½ ounce; mixed together. Black Stains For Wood 1. Drop a little sulphuric acid into a small quantity of water; bru...
Mahogany Color
Dark 1. Boil ½ lb. of madder and 2 oz. logwood ships in a gallon of water, and brush well over while hot; when dry, go over the whole with pearlsh solution, 2 drs. to the quart. 2. Put 2 oz. dragon's...
Used Cold Take alcohol, l gal.; camwood, 2 oz.; set them in a warm place, 24 hours; then add extract of logwood, 3 oz.; aquafortis, 1 oz.; and when dissolved it is ready for use; it makes a very brig...
Miscellaneous Stains
Yellow is produced by diluted nitric acid Red is produced by a solution of dragon's blood in spirits of wine. Black is produced by a strong solution of nitric acid. Green is produced by a solution of ...
Polishes
Carver's Polish White rosin, 2 oz.; seed lac, 2 oz.; spirits of wine, l pt. Dissolve. It should be laid on warm. Avoid moisture and dampness whan used. 2. French Polish Gum shellac, 1 oz.; gum arab...
Mosaic Gold Powder For Bronzing
Melt 1 lb. tin in a crucible, and ½ lb. of purified quicksilver to it; when this is cold, it is reduced to powder, and ground, with ½ lb. sal-ammoniac and 7 oz. flour of sulphur, till the whole is tho...
French Burnished Gilding
Encollage, Or Glue Coat To a decoction of wormwood and garlic in water, strained through a cloth, a little common salt and some vinegar are added. This is mixed with as much good glue, and the mixtur...
Gliding On Wood
To gild in oil, the wood after being properly smoothed, is covered with a coat of gold sue, made of drying linseed oil mixed with yellow ochre; when this has become so dry as to adhere to the fingers ...
Sizing For Boots And Shoes In Treeing Out
Water, 1 quart; dissolve in it by heat, isingiass, l oz.; adding more water to replace loss by evaporation; when dissolved, add starch, 6 oz.; extract of logwood, beeswax, and tallow, of each 2 oz. Ru...
Brilliant French Varnish For Leather
Spirit of wine, 3/4 pint; vinegar, 5 pints; gum Senegal in powder, 1/2 lb.; loaf sugar, 6 oz.; powdered galls, 2 oz.; green copperas, 4 oz. Dissolve the cum and sugar in the water; strain, and put on ...
Deer Skins. Tanning And Buffing For Gloves
For each skin take a backet of water, and put into it 1 quart of lime; let the skin or skins lie in from 3 to 4 days; then rinse in clean water, hair, and grain; then soak them in cold water to get ou...
Process Of Tanning Calf, Kip, And Harness Leather In From Six To Thirty Days
For a 12 lb. calf skin, take 3 lbs. of terra japonica, common salt 2 lbs.; alum, 1 lb.; put them into a copper kettle with sufficient water to dissolve the whole by boiling. The skin will be limed, ha...
French Patent Leather
Work into the skin with appropriate tools 3 or 4 successive coatings of drying varnish, made by boiling linseed oil with white lead and litharge, in the proportion of 1 lb. of each of the latter to 1 ...
Cheap Tanning Without Bark Or Mineral Astringents
The astringent liquor is composed of water, 17 gals.; Aleppo galls, ½ lb.; Bengal cateohu, 1 ½ oz. and 5 lbs. of tormentil, or sept foil root. Powder the ingredients, and boil in the water 1 hour; whe...
Currier's Paste
First Coat Take of water, 2 qts; flour, ½ pint; Castile soap, 1 oz.; make into paste. Second Coat Take or first paste, ½ pt; gum tragacanth, l gill; water, l pt.; mix all together. This will finish...
Dyes For Leather
Blue For each skin, take 1 oz. of indigo, put it into boiling water, and let it stand one night; then warm it a little, and with a brush smear the skin twice over, and finish the same as the red. Re...
How To Marble Books Or Paper
Marbling of books or paper is performed thus: Dissolve four ounces of gum arable in two quarts of fair water; then provide several colors mixed with water in pots or shells, and with pencils peculiar ...
Bookbinder's Varnish
Shellac, eight parts; gum benzoin, 3 parts; gum mastic, two parts; bruise, and digest in alcohol, forty-eight parts; oil of lavender, one-half part. Or digest shellac, four parts; gum mastic, two part...
Spotted Marble For Books, Etc
After the fore-edge of the book is cut, let it remain in the press, and throw on linseeds in a regular manner, sprinkle the edge with any dark color till the paper is covered, then shake off the seeds...
Best Cement For Aquaria
It is the same as that used in constructing the tanks of the Zoological Gardens, London. One part, by measure, say a gill of litharge; 1 gill of plaster of Paris; l gill of dry, white sand; 1/3 of a g...
Dyes For Ivory, Horn, And Bone
Black 1. Lay the articles for several boon in a strong solutio of nitrate of silver, and expose to the light. 2. Boil the article for some time in a strained decoction of logwood, and then steep it i...
Ivory
Etching Fluid For Ivory Take dilute sulphuric acid, dilute muriatic acid, equal parts: mix. For etching varnish take white wax,2 parts; tears of mastic, 2 parts: mix. How To Gild Ivory Immerse it i...
How To Cut And Polish Marble
The marble saw is a thin plate of soft iron, continually supplied, during its sawing motion, with water and the sharpest sand. The sawing of moderate pieces is performed by hand; but that of large sla...
Marble
Powerful Cement For Broken Marble Take gum Arabic, 1 lb.; make into a thick mucilage; add to it powdered plaster of Paris, 1½ lbs.; silted quick-lime, 5 oz.; mix well; heat the marble, and apply the ...
How To Make A Chemical Barometer
Take a long, narrow bottle, and put. into it 2½ drs. of camphor; spirits of wine, 11 drs. When the camphor is dissolved, add to it the following mixture: Water, 9 drs.; saltpetre, 38 grs.; sal-ammonia...
Waterproofing For Clothing
Boiled oil, 15 lbs.; beeswax, 1 lb.; ground litharge, 13 lbs.; mix, and apply with a brush to the article, previously stretching against a wall or on a table, previously well washing and drying each a...
Easy Method Of Preventing Moths In Purs Or Woolens
Sprinkle the furs or woolen stuffs, as well as the drawers or boxes in which they are kept, with spirits of turpentine, the unpleasant scent of which will speedily evaporate on exposure of the stuffs ...
How to Renovate Clothing
Black Reviver For Cloth Bruised galls, 1 lb.; logwood, 2 lbs.; green vitriol, ½ lb.; water, 5 quarts; boil two hours; strain, and it is ready for use. How To Renew Old Silks Unravel and put them in...
How To Write On Glass In The Sun
Dissolve chalk in aqua fortis to the consistency of milk, and add to that a strong solution of silver. Keep this in a glass decanter well stopped. Then cut out from a paper the letters you would have ...
How To Transfer Prints, Etc., To Glass
Take of gum sandarach, 4 oz.; mastic, 1 oz.; Venice turpentine, 1 oz.; alcohol, 15 oz. Digest in a bottle, frequently shaking, and it is ready for use. Directions: Use, if possible, good plate-glass o...
How To Photograph On Glass
Take dry saltpetre, ½ oz.; strong oil vitriol, ¾ oz.; mix in a tumbler, ad 1 20 grains of dry cotton wool, stir with a glass rod five minutes, remove the cotton, and wash from all traces of the acid i...
Bottle Glass
No. 1. Dark Green Fused glauber-salts, 11 lbs.; soaper's salts, 12 lbs.; waste soap-ashes, ½ bushel; silicious sand, ½ cwt.; glass-skimmings, 22 lbs.; broken green glass, 1 cwt. to 1¼ cwt.; basalt, 2...
Crystal Glass
No. 1. Refined pot-ashes, 60 lbs.; sand, 120 lbs.: chalk, 24 lbs.; nitre and white arsenic, of each 2 lbs.; oxide of manganese, 1 to 2 oz. No. 2. Pure white sand, 120 parts; refined ashes, 70 parts; s...
Plate Glass
No. 1. Pure sand, 40 parts; dry carbonate of soda, 26½ parts; lime, 4 Parts; nitre, 1½ parts; broken plate. No. 2. Ure's Quartz-sand, l00 parts; calcined sulphate. Of Soda, 24 Parts; Lime, 20 Parts...
Window Glass
Crown Glass No. 1. Sand, 300 lbs.; soda-ash, 200 lbs.; lime, 30 to 35 lbs.; 200 to 300 lbs. of broken glass. No. 2. (BOHEmian.) - Pure silicious sand, 63 parts: potash, 22 parts; lime, 12 parts; oxid...
Magic Paper
Take lard oil, or sweet oil, mixed to the consistencey of cream, with either of the following paints, the color of which is desired: Prussian blue, lamp-black, Venetian red, or chrome green, either of...
Savage's Printing Ink
Pure balsam of copaiba, 9 oz.; lampblack, 3 oz.; indigo and Prussian blue, each 5 drachms; Indian red, ¾ oz.; yellow soap, 3 oz. Miz, and grind to the utmost smoothness. Holes in Millstones are fille...
Fitting A New Back In An Old Millstone
Block your stone up with a block of wood, having its face down until it lies even, solid, and perfectly level; then pick and scrape off all the old plaster down to the face blocks, so that none remain...
Mill Dams
When building a dam, you should select the most suitable place. If you can, place it across the stream near a rocky bluff, so that the ends of the dam may run into the bluff. This will prevent the wat...
Frame Dams
In building a frame dam commence with a good foundation, laying the first sills in the bottom, of sufficient depth. They should be large square timbers that will last in the water without rotting. Whe...
How To Restore Burnt Steel, And Weld Cast Steel
Borax, 48 oz.; sal ammonic, 16 oz.; prussiate potash, 8 oz.; rosin, 4 oz.: alcohol. ½ gill; soft water, ½ pint. Put into an iron pan, and hold over a slow fire till it comes to a slow boil, and until ...
Incrustation Of Boilers. (Delfosse's Patent)
If the boiler be stationary, and fed with fresh water, the amount of anti-petrify-ing mixture per horse power for 336 hours' consumption may bo made by mixing together 12 oz. muriate of soda, 2 drs. o...
Colored Glass. (Fine Blue)
To 10 lbs. flint glass, previously melted and cast into water, add zaffer, (6 drs., ½ oz. of calcined copper, prepared by putting sheet copper into a crucible, and exposing it to the action of a fire ...
How To Take A Plaster Of Paris Cast From A Person's Face
The person must lie on his back, and his hair be tied behind, into each nostril put a conical piece of paper open at each end to allow of breathing. The face is to be lightly oiled over, and the piast...
How To Harden And Temper Cast Steel
For saws and springs in general, the following is an excellent liquid: Spermaceti oil, 20 gals.; beef suet rendered, 20 lbs.; neat's-foot oil, 1 gallon; pitch, 1 lb.; black resin, 3 lbs. The last two ...
How To Clean Old Oil-Paintings
Dissolve a small quantity of salt in stale urine; dip a woolen cloth in the mixture, and rub the paintings over with it till they are clean; then wash them with a sponge and clean water; dry them grad...
Etruscan Gold Coloring
Alum, 1 oz.; fine table-salt, 1 oz.; saltpetre (powdered,) 2 oz.; hot rain-water, sufficient to make the solution, when dissolved, about the consistency of thick ale; then add sufficient muriatic arid...
How To Make A Diamond Mill
Make a brass chuck or wheel, suitable for use on a foot-lathe, with a flat, even surface or face of about 1½ or 2 inches in diameter; then place a number of the coarsest pieces of your diamond-dust on...
How To Temper Case And Other Springs Of Watches
Draw the temper from the spring, and fit it properly in its place in the watch; then take it out and temper it hard in rain-water (the addition of a little table-salt to the water will be an improveme...
How To Drill Into Hard Steel
Make your drill oval in form, instead of the usual pointed shape, and temper as hard as it will bear without breaking; then roughen the surface where you desire to drill with a little diluted muriatic...
How To Put Teeth In A Watch Or Clock Wheels Without Dovetailing Or Soldering
Drill a hole somewhat wider than the tooth square through the plate, a little below the base of the tooth; cut from the edge of the wheel square down to the hole already drilled; then flatten a piece ...
Jeweller's Alloys
Eighteen Carat Gold For Rings Gold coin, 19½ grs.; pure copper, 3 grs.; pure silver, 1½ grs. Cheap Gold, Twelve Carat Gold coin, 25 grs.; pure copper, 13½ grs.; pure silver, 71/3 grs. Very Cheap F...
The Northern-Light Burning Fluid. Costs About Eight Cents Per Gallon
Get good deodorized benzine, 60 to 65 gravity, and to each barrel of 42 gals. add 9 lbs. pulverised alum, 3½ oz. gum camphor, and 3½ oz. oil of sassafras, or 2 oz. oil bergamot; stir up and mix thorou...
How To Reduce Oxide Of Zinc
The oxide may be put in quantities of 500 or 600 lbs. weight into a large pot over the fire; pour a sufficient quantity of muriatic acid over the top, to act as a flux, and the action of the fire will...
How To Clean Watches
It is hardly necessary to say that great caution must be observed in taking the watch down - that is, i separating its parts. If you are new at the business think before you act, and then act slowly. ...
How To Refine Gold
If you desire to refine your gold from the baser metals, swedge or roll it out very thin, then cut into narrow strips and curl up so as to prevent its lying flatly. Drop the pieces thus prepared into ...
How To Refine Silver
Dissolve in nitric acid as in the case of the gold. When the silver has entirely disappeared, add to the water. ink, then, a sheet of clean copper into it - the silver will collect rapidly upon the co...
How To Hard Solder Gold, Silver, Copper, Brass, Iron, Steel, Or Platina
The solders to be used for gold, silver, copper and brass are given in the preceding part. You commence operations by reducing your solder to small particles and mixing it with powdered sal-ammoniac a...
How To Soft Solder Articles
Moisten the parts to be united with soldering fluid; then, having joined them together, lay a small piece of solder upon the joint and hold over your lamp, or direct the blaze upon it with your blow p...
How To Make Gold Solution For Electro-Plating
Dissolve five pennyweights gold coin, five grains pure copper and 4 grains pure silver in 3 oz. nitro muriatic acid; which is simply two parts muriatic acid and one part nitric acid. The silver will n...
How To Make Silver Solution For Electro-Plating
Put together into a glass vessel, one oz. good silver, made thin and cut into strips; two oz. best nitric acid and ½ an oz. pure rain water. If solution does not begin at once, add a little more water...
How To Plate With A Battery
If the plate is to be gold, use the gold solution for electroplating; if silver use the silver solution. Prepare the article to be plated by immersing it for several minutes in a strong lve made of po...
How To Make Gold Amalgam
Eight parts of gold and one of mercury are formed into an amalgam for plating, by rendering the gold into thin plates, making it red hot and then putting it into the mercury while the latter is also h...
How To Make And Apply Silver Plating Solution
Put to gether in a glass vessel one ounce nitrate of silver, two ounces cya-nuret potassa, four ounces prepared Spanish whiting, and ten ounces pure rain water. Cleanse the article to be plated as per...
How To Enamel Gold And Silver
Take half a pennyweight o1 silver, two pennyweights and a half of copper, three pennyweights and a half of lead, and two pennyweights and a half of muriate 01 ammonia. Melt together and pour into a cr...
Planing Metals
The first operation about planing is to oil your planer and find out if the bed is smooth. If it is not file off the rough places: then change the dogs to see if they will work well, and find out the ...
Fixing Watches
Depth Of Teeth Every gear cut with a different number of teeth to the inch, should be cut of a depth to the pitch line, to cor-ond with the number of teeth to the inch. This is called pro-portion. Th...
Cements
Rust Joint. Quick Setttng 1 Lb. Sal Ammoniac In Powder, 2 Lbs. Of Flour Of Sulphur, 80 Lbs. Iron Borings. Made To A Paste With Water. Slow Setting 2 lbs. sal ammoniac, 1 lb. of sulphur, 200 lbs. ir...
Browning
Browning, Or Bronzing Liquid Sulphate of copper, 1 oz.; sweet spirit of nitre, 1 oz.; water, 1 pint. Mix. in a few days it will be fit for use. Browning For Gun Barrels Tinct of mur. of iron, 1 oz....
Lackers
For Small Arms, Or Waterproof Paper Beeswax, 13 lbs.; spirits of turpentine, 13 gallons; boiled linseed oil, 1 gallon. All the ingredients should be pure and of the best quality. Heat them together, ...
Inks
Indelible, For Marking Linen, Etc 1. Juice Of Sloes, 1 Pint; Gum, ½ An Ounce. This Requires No Preparation Or Mordant, And Is Very Durable. 2. Nitrate Of Silver, 1 Part; Water, 6 Parts; Gum, 1 Part...
Glues
For Parchment Parchment shavings, 1 lb.; water, 6 quarts. Boil until dissolved, then strain and evaporate slowly to the proper consistence. Rice Glue, Or Japanese Cement Rice flour; water, sufficie...
Stains
To remove - Stains of Iodins are removed by rectified spirit. Ink stains by oxalic or superoxalate of potash, Ironmoulds by the same; but if obstinate, moisten them with ink, then remove them in the u...
How To Find The Area Of The Sector Of A Circle - How To Find The Contents Of A Pyramid Or Cone
How To Find The Area Of The Sector Of A Circle Rule Multiply the length of the arc D G E by its radius D C, and half the product is the area. The length of the arc D G E equal 9½ feet, and the radi...
Practical Geometry - Non-Condensing Engine
Practical Geometry PRACTICAL Geometry is an important branch of knowledge to all who are in any way engaged in the art of building. The workman, as well as the designer, requires its aid ; and unless...
Indicated Horse Power - Pine Clay
Indicated Horse Power This is the gross power exerted by an engine, without any deduction for friction, the mean pressure upon the piston being determined by an Indicator, or by a computation based u...
Asphalt Composition - Mining
Asphalt Composition Mineral pitch 1 part, bitumen 11, powdered stone, or wood ashes, 7 parts. 2. Ashes 2 parts, clay 3 parts, and sand 1 part, mixed with a little oil, makes a very fine and durable ...
Waves - Stirling's Mixed Or Toughened Iron
Waves The undulations of waves are performed in the same time as the oscillations of a pendulum, the length of which is equal to the breadth of a wave, or to the distance between two neighboring cavi...
Increase In Strength Of Several Woods By Seas0ning - Wind-Mills. - (Molesworth.). To Compute The Angles Of The Sails
Increase In Strength Of Several Woods By Seas0ning Ash........44.7 per cent. Beech.....61.9 Elm......12.3 per cent. Oak.....28.1 White pine....9 per cent. * With 840 lbs. the deflection was ...
Axis Of Shaft Of Wind-Mill With Horizon - How To Find The Strength Of Any Hollow Wrought Iron Column
Axis Of Shaft Of Wind-Mill With Horizon 8 upon level ground. Breadth of whip at axis, 1/30 length of whip. Depth u 1/40 Breadth of whip at end, 1/60 Depth 1/80 ' Width of sail 1/3...
Crane - How To Compute The Pitch Of A Wheel
Crane The strains on the principal parts can be ascertained with great ease in the following manner - the strength being proportioned accordingly. To find the Strain on the Post. Weight suspended, t...
How To Compute The True Or Chordial Pitch - How To Compute The Number Of Teeth Of A Wheel For A Given Diameter And Pitch
How To Compute The True Or Chordial Pitch Rule Divide 180 by the number of teeth, ascertain the sine of the quotient and multiply it by the diameter of the wheel. Example The number of teeth ...
How To Find The Horse Power That Any Wheel Will Transmit - How To Soften Iron Or Steel
How To Find The Horse Power That Any Wheel Will Transmit (Pitch, ins.)2 X Breadth, ins. X Diameter, ft. X Revs. per minute / Appropriate No. according to speed, as above = Horse Power. How To Find...
Cast Iron Cement - Varnish, For Smooth Moulding Patterns
Cast Iron Cement Clean borings or turnings of cast iron 16; sal ammoniac, J; Hour of sulphur, 1 part; mix them well together in a mortar; and keep them dry. When required for use, take of the mixture...
How To Melt Steel As Easily As Lead - Case Hardening For Iron
How To Melt Steel As Easily As Lead Tins apparent impossibility is easily performed by heating the bar of iron or steel red hot, and then touching it with a roll of brimstone, when the metal will dro...
For Malleable Iron - The Finest Bronze
For Malleable Iron Put the articles in an iron box, and stratify them among animal carbon, that is, pieces of horns, hoofs, skins or leather, just sufficiently burned to be reduced to powder. Late th...
Soft Cement, For Steam Boilers, Steam Pipes, Etc - Browning For Twist Barrels
Soft Cement, For Steam Boilers, Steam Pipes, Etc Red or white lead, in oil, 4; iron borings, 2 to 3 parts. Hard Cement Iron borings and salt water, and a small quantity of sal ammoniac with frees...
Varnish And Polish For Gun Stocks - Polishing Powder For Gold And Silver
Varnish And Polish For Gun Stocks Gum shellac, 10 oz.; gum sandarac, 1 oz.; Venice turpentine, l drachm; 98 per cent. alcohol, 1 gallon; shake the jug occasionally for a day or two, and it is ready f...
Reviver Of Old Jewelry - Compound Iron Paint
Reviver Of Old Jewelry Dissolve sal-ammoniac in urine, and put the jewelry in it. for a short time; then take it out, and rub with chamois leather, and it will appear equal to new. How To Recover ...
Wash Wash For Barns And Houses - Painter's Cream
Wash Wash For Barns And Houses Water lime, 1 peck; freshly slacked lime, 1 peek; yellow ochre in powder, 4 lbs.; burnt amber, 4, lbs. To be dissolved in hot water, and applied with a brush. Durabl...
Waterproof Oil Blacking - Tree Marble
Waterproof Oil Blacking Camphene, 1 pint; add all the India rubber it will dissolve; currier's oil, 1 pint; tallow, 7 lbs.; lamp-black, 2 oz. Mix thoroughly by heat. Shoemaker's Heel Ball Beeswax...
Rice-Marble - How To Write In Silver
Rice-Marble Color the cover with spirits of wine and turmeric, then place on rice in a regular manner, throw on a very line sprinkle of copperas water till the cover is nearly black, a let it remain ...
Best Bronze For Brass - Chain Dip Solution, For Brass Chains, Etc
Best Bronze For Brass Take 1 lb. muriatic acid, and ½ lb. white arsenic. Put them into an earthen vessel, and then proceed in the usual manner. Another Bronze For Brass One ounce muriate of ammonia...
Pickle For Frosting And Whitening Silver Goods - How To Frost Watch Movements
Pickle For Frosting And Whitening Silver Goods Sulphuric acid, 1 dr.; water, 4 oz.; heat the pickle, and immerse the silver in until frosted as desired; then wash off clean, and dry with a soft linen...
How To Destroy The Effects Of Acid On Clothes - How To Extract Grease From Stone Or Marble
How To Destroy The Effects Of Acid On Clothes Dampen as soon as possible after exposure to the acid with spirits ammonia. It will destroy the effect immediately. How To Wash Silver Ware Never use...
Paint For Window Glass - Booth's Grease For Railway Axles
Paint For Window Glass Chrome green, ¼ or..; sugar of lead, 1 lb.; ground fine, in sufficient linseed oil to moisten it. Mix to the consistency of cream, and apply with a soft brush. The glass should...