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Cassell's Cyclopaedia Of Mechanics | by Paul N. Hasluck



Cassell's Cyclopædia Of Mechanics contains in a form convenient for ready reference and everyday use receipts, processes, and memoranda selected from a rich store of choice information contributed by a staff of skilful and talented technicians, upon whose practical experience and expert knowledge the information is based. The matter contained in this volume has been carefully digested, freely illustrated, and made plain to those inexperienced.

TitleCassell's Cyclopaedia Of Mechanics
AuthorPaul N. Hasluck
PublisherCassell And Company, Limited
Year1900
Copyright1900, Cassell And Company, Limited
AmazonCassell's Cyclopaedia Of Mechanics

Containing receipts, processes and memoranda for workshop use, based on personal experience and expert knowledge. With 1,200 illustrations and an index of 8,500 items

Edited By Paul N. Hasluck, Editor Of "Work" And "Building World," Author Of "Handybooks For Handicrafts," Etc. Etc.

First Series.

Cassells Cyclopaedia Of Mechanics 1
-Preface
CASSELL'S CYCLOPAEDIA OF MECHANICS contains in a form convenient for ready reference and everyday use receipts, processes, and memoranda selected from a rich store of choice information contributed bv...
-Refilling Fitzroy Barometer
It is not an easy matter for an inexperienced person to fill a barometer properly. The tube and mercury must first be made warm. The mercury may be heated to the boiling point of water in an iron vess...
-How To Make Lantern Slides
Lantern slides are made from prints, photographs, etc., in the following way. Make a negative of the subject by cops'ing in the camera in the usual way. Focus the picture sharply within a square 3 1/4...
-How To Make Socket Joint In Steam Pipe
The proportions for a cement for the socket joint of a steam pipe are, by weight, 1 part of powdered sal-ammoniac, 2 parts of flour sulphur, and 80 to 100 parts of borings; the borings should be pound...
-Etching On Steel
All processes of steel etching depend on the coating of the steel with a resist, which is scraped away from those portions to be etched or bitten into by chemical action. The resist or etching ground ...
-Dyeing Pampas Grass
To dye pampas grass, place it in fairly strong solutions of aniline dyes, and neat until sufficiently coloured. The most suitable dyes are soluble blue, picric acid, fast yellow, eosine, magenta methy...
-Mitreing Cornice Moulding
In marking off the ends of two pieces of cornice moulding which are to be joined at right angles, the procedure is as follows. Let the section of the moulding be as shown in Fig 1 Draw the plan of the...
-Painting Railway Wagons
The first or priming coat on railway wagons is made of tub white lead, raw linseed oil, patent driers, a little common black, and turpentine. The quantities may be best judged by experience, but the f...
-How To Blacken Aluminium
The bronze known in the trade as arsenic bronze, diluted with an equal quantity of water, is used for blackening aluminium. First the exposed parts of the surface should be curl' d, not straight-gr...
-Elliptical Headed Door Frame
In commencing to set out and construct an elliptical headed door frame, width oft. 6in., rise 1ft. 3in. inside measurement, to be made in two thicknesses of 2 1/2-in. and 2-in. stuff screwed together,...
-Chemists' Show Bottles
For an amber-coloured liquid for use in chemists' show bottles, dissolve 1 part of coarsely powdered dragon's blood in i parts of oil of vitriol, and dilute with cold distilled water. Blue liquid may ...
-Precautions In Making White French Polish
To protect the shellac from atmospheric influences it should, when at the merchant's, be stored in water; neglect of this precaution causes the shellac to lose its nature, and it will not then dissolv...
-How To Polish Curling Stones
As a rule, curling stones are made of granite or trap, a mixture of felspar and hornblende; therefore to polish them without machinery is very laborious work. Rig up a vertical lathe similar to those ...
-Vignetting Photographs
If it is required to make a vignette photograph without showing much dark around the head and neck proceed thus. Cut in cardboard (old plate boxes answer well) a vignette considerably smaller than the...
-Straightening Brass Curtain Poles
To straighten a brass curtain pole that has been used for a bay window, first anneal the tube where bent, then load it with lead and, after cooling, pass it through a hole in a firmly fixed bench unti...
-How To Make Taps For Watch Screw Threads
Taps for watch screw threads may be made from needles, but probably they would not last long. A tap should be made from the best steel; therefore get a length of tool steel wire of the correct size. F...
-How To Make A Wood Chuck In Sections
A section chuck in wood, suitable for spinning a silver jug in the lathe, may be made in this way. Fix a piece of hornbeam of the requisite size on the mandrel and turn it to the shape of Fig. 1; A B ...
-How To Determine Grate Area, Etc., Of Vertical Boilers
To determine the grate area of a vertical boiler, take the diameter of the firebox at the bottom of the firehole and obtain the area. For instance, in a boiler 6 ft. 6 in. high by 3ft. diameter, the f...
-How To Cut Figured Boards From Pitch-Pine Logs
Some hints are given here on sawing up a pitch-pine log so as to get the best variety in the figuring of wood to be used for panels. It must be remembered that the amount of figure in a pitch-pine log...
-Recipes For Bottle Capping Mixtures Or Waxes
The following recipes are for waxes and mixtures for use in sealing bottles. (1) Soak 71b. of good gelatine in 10 oz. of glycerine and 60 oz. of water and heat over a water bath until dissolved •...
-How To Make Coloured Crayons
Coloured crayons may he made by mixing pipeclay with water to form a stiff dough. The material may be made harder by adding a. little soap to the water. For a blue colour, add common ultramarine; for ...
-Trap Or Tub For 13-Hands Pony
Fig. 1 is a side eleval Lon and Fig. 2 a back elevation drawn to a scale of 3/8 in. to 1 ft. of a tub or trap suitable for a 13-hands pony. The length on the seat is 3ft. 3 in.: length of top rail, 3 ...
-The Manufacture Of Nitrite Of Soda
The value of nitrite of soda in the improved methods of dyeing fabrics is increasing. Below is given a brief but authentic account of the manufacture of that chemical. The raw material, from which nit...
-How To Produce Red Letters On Glass
Bed letters are produced on glass by a sand-blast process. The glass used for this purpose is known as ruby flashed glass. The letters that are to be produced are first cut out in paper. These paper l...
-Preparing Tannic Acid
An impure tannic acid may be obtained from myrobalans (a dried astringent fruit resembling a prune) by grinding them and extracting in a boiler containing hot water; the liquid may be strained and ev...
-How To Remove Stains From Linen
Tea and fruit sta ins are removed from linen by steeping the latter in a chloride of lime solution (about 1/21b. to lgal. of water), or preferably in hypochlorite of soda, which may be made by treatin...
-How To Make French Cork Boot
In fitting the second insole of a French cork boot where a box and rand are sewn in, last the boot in the ordinary way, taking care that the feather is nice and even, and that there is a good innersol...
-Varnishing A Carriage In The Wood
It is assumed that the vehicle to be varnished is made of four differently coloured woods - ash, creamy white; mahogany, reddish brown; hickory, flesh-coloured drab; and lancewood, straw colour. The s...
-Gypsum, Or Plaster-Of-Paris
Plaster-of-Paris, or gypsum, is a sulphate of lime found at places in Cheshire, Cumberland, Derbyshire, and Oxfordshire, in England, and at many places in the neighbourhood of Paris, France, hence, on...
-Recipes For Pottery Glaze
Different clays have different shrinkage, require different firing, or stand a greater or less degree of temperature, hence the glaze is a matter of trial. Glazes are coloured by admixture of small qu...
-How To Make A Silent Camera Shutter
A noiseless shutter that works inside the camera and that will give any length of exposure is made as described below. Being perfectly noiseless, they are particularly suitable when photographing chil...
-Varnishing Violin
In preparing a violin for varnishing, commence by sandpapering it all over with No. 1 paper and freeing it from scratches. Go over the entire surface lightly with a clean, slightly damp sponge, and wh...
-Coloured Printing Inks
Printing ink is not usually made satisfactorily in the absence of big plant, but below are given some simple instructions easily followed. Into a 5-gal. iron pot pour 6 qt. of old lmseed oil, and heat...
-Primary And Principal Colours
There are three primary colours - red, yellow, and blue; the ten principal colours are Chinese white or baryta white, yellow ochre, Naples yellow, vermilion, Indian red, madder carmine, emerald green,...
-Electro-Brassing Solution
For a solution for electro-brassing small iron goods, dissolve 1 lb. of good yellow sheet brass in sufficient warm dilute nitric acid to dissolve the brass without leaving any free acid; then add the ...
-Glazing Terra-Cotta Tiles
A glaze for terra-cotta tiles requiring only a moderate heat can be made from a solution of sugar of lead in hot water. Cover the tiles with the solution and expose to a clear red heat. A coke fire wo...
-How To Repair Marble Clock Case
To repair a broken corner of a marble clockcase to imitate grain, which is light green, white, and black, a hard-setting cement can be used which is made by mixing plaster-of-Paris with white of egg. ...
-Gum Bichromate Process Of Photography
The gum bichromate process of photography is an old process, and is only suitable for large work, and for subjects that do not need much definition. The process itself is as follows. Cut some sheets o...
-How To Determine Contents Of Rectangular Tank
To determine how many gallons of water would be held by a tank of specified dimensions, first find the contents in cubic feet, and then multiply by 6'23. The contents of a rectangular tank 6 ft. by 9 ...
-How To Make A Theatrical Bald Wig
In making a bald wig such as is worn on the theatrical stage, a piece of stout calico should be tightly stretched over a suitable dummy, which is generally a wooden block, and the calico should be tie...
-Simple Metronomes
A metronome, a device for measuring and beating time in music, may be made with a piece of tape and a weight, or it may be an elaborate clockwork arrangement. For the tape and weight metronome, the di...
-How To Cut Tiles
A white glazed tile may be cut into two pieces by laying it flat on a soft wood board and cutting very carefully with a chisel. To reduce the size of a tile, or to take an irregular-shaped piece out o...
-How To Clean Furs
These are methods of cleaning furs. (a) Rub with hot roasted bran, allowing the bran to enter the fur well. Then shake the fur and well brush. (6) Moisten bran with hot water and well rub it into the ...
-The Manufacture Of Water Colours
Cake and moist water colours are made by grinding the dry pigments in a mill with gum water and a little glycerine or honey to prevent them becoming too brittle; the pasty material is rolled out and c...
-How To Make Leather Case For Croquet Mallet
The leather for a croquet mallet case need not be very stout, but it must not be flimsy, unless it is backed with something, or it will wring in the sewing, and the handle portion will be unsightly. T...
-Notes On Re-Painting A House
In commencing to re-paint a house, begin in the upper rooms, first washing off the ceilings, then stripping off the paper from the walls by applying water just where it is wanted, allowing sufficient ...
-Preparation Of Selenium
Selenium is a non-metallic element with properties somewhat like sulphur. Selenium in combination with oxygen forms several acids, but cannot be said to form salts like those of metals; it does, howev...
-How To Remove Wool From Sneepskin
Soak sheepskins in lime water until the wool can be removed by scraping with a two-handled blunt knife; or leave the skin in a dark, warm, and moist place until sufficient decomposition has taken plac...
-Mounting Photographic Prints
This is the plan adopted by professional photographers for mounting prints. Immerse the trimmed prints in water tor a few-minutes and then place face downwards one on the other on a sheet of glass. Sq...
-How To Make Three-Legged Folding Fishing Stool
Below are instructions on making an angler's three-legged folding stool. Commence by marking out the section full size as shown by Fig. 1. Make a three-legged bolt out of 5/16 in. iron, as shown at A ...
-How To Make Dry Soap
A good dry soap can be made without the aid of expensive plant. To 40 gal. of water contained in a steam-jacketed pan add from 2 to 2 1/2 cwt. of soap cut up as fine as possible. A white curd soap wit...
-Foundations For Gas Engine
A solid mass of Portland cement concrete makes a good foundation for a gas engine, and is easily constructed. Solid brickwork is also used, but the excavation required is more than with concrete on ac...
-Inserting New Wrest Plank In Piano
Wrest planks of pianos should be built up of three sections - a beech centre, a maple or sycamore facing i in. or 3/8 in. thick, and a pine backing. If the facing alone is split, it is only necessary ...
-How To Make Golf Balls
Golf balls are made from pure guttapercha, procurable in rods and ready for cutting into pieces suitable for the mould, which should be of size 274. To prevent waste, the cutting is done with a knife ...
-Preparing Tartaric Acid
Tartaric acid is largely made from wine lees, i.e. the deposit formed when wine is kept in casks. Tamarinds may be extracted with boiling water, the liquid being mixed with a little pipeclay and filte...
-Stereoscopic Photography
Stereoscopic effect or the appearance of relief depends upon the combining in one in the stereoscope of two representations of the same scene taken from slightly different points of view. Stereoscopic...
-Bunscn Burner For Acetylene Gas
To make a Bunsen burner for acetylene the tube must be extremely narrow, and it is even then found to be very liable to flash back, while it requires a high pressure to bring about satisfactory combus...
-How To Clean White Kid Gloves And Shoes
For cleaning white kid gloves, make a paste by boiling 1 part of white curd soap with 4 parts of water, and adding a small quantity of ammonia; place the glove on a wooden hand and rub well with the p...
-How To Remove Grease Stains From Wall-Paper
To remove grease stains from wall-paper, make a thin paste by mixing powdered starch or flour with ben-zoline (petroleum spirit). In this mixture dip a sponge, and with it make a ring around the stain...
-How To Make Brass Dog Collar
These are instructions on making a brass collar for a dog. Cut a strip of brass 1 1/2 in. wide, and equal in length to the circumference of the dog's neck, with an additional allowance for lap at the ...
-Use Of Watch Depth Tool
A depth tool is used more in making than in repairing watches. It is required for scoring off the exact position of the pivot holes upon the watch plates, previous to drilling them. It consists of two...
-How To Remove Varnish From Boots
It is difficult to remove the varnish by means of a solvent from patent leather boots; it is better to tree these up tight and rub down with No. 1 1/2 sandpaper, then with No. 1, and finally with flou...
-Browning Bottoms Of Boots
To brown the bottoms of boots, put some thin brown paste on the bottoms and well sleek them just before they are quite dry; repeat till an even colour is obtained, and finish with white heel-ball and ...
-Bleaching Straw
Brown straw may be bleached by boiling in a solution of washing soda, and, whilst still moist, submitting it to the action of sulphurous acid. To do this, the straw must be hung in a nearly closed cha...
-Photographing Several Objects At Different Times On One Plate
It is possible to take twelve different pictures of various subjects on one 5-in. by 4-in. plate, one lens only being used. A repeating back to the camera is needed for such work. But where more than ...
-Particulars Of Welsbach Burner
Mention is made below of the principal points to be attended to in order to get good results with the Welsbach burner. The burners ordinarily supplied are intended for use with gas of from fifteen to...
-Skeletonising Animals' Skulls
The usual method of cleaning animals' skulls is to soak the bones in water frequently changed until the flesh becomes decomposed and able to be removed with the fingers and small pieces of wood. This ...
-Connecting House Drain To Deep Sewer
In laying a 4-in. diameter house drain, which is 50ft. long, to join a sewer which is 20ft. below the level of the house, the pipes should be laid at a reasonable depth, say, 2 ft. 6 in. or 3 ft., wit...
-Watch Going Too Fast
A watch will sometimes gain even when the regulator is pushed as far as possible towards slow. The regulator of every watch is provided with two curb pins, between which the outer coil of the hairsp...
-How To Make Polishing Buffs
Buffs for polishing metal are made by fastening thick buff leather with best strong glue to the edges of wooden wheels, the ends of the leather being secured by nails until firm. The edges are then co...
-Curing Sheepskins
Below is given information on curing and dyeing sheepskins. The skins should first be fleshed, that is, freed by a sharp knife from any fat or flesh. They are then cured or tawed by placing in some pr...
-Setting Out Dovetailing
In setting out dovetailing first set out the shoulder lines on each piece; if the ends are shot true this may be done by a gauge. Mark off the centre of each socket, and then half the breadth of the s...
-How To Clean Coral
Coral that has become very dusty may be cleaned in this manner. In a large pan full of soapsuds hang the coral in a net so that it is submerged but does not touch either the sides or bottom of the pan...
-Dressing Tarpaulins
Railway companies generally use a prepared sheet dressing for yellow tarpaulins. For a yellow dressing use boiled linseed oil coloured with yellow ochre ; if it does not dry quick enough, add a little...
-Bronzing Metal Urns And Other Vessels
Metal tea-urns, spirit measures, etc., are usually bronzed after all seams have been brazed and the metal has been worked to shape One method of bronzing is as follows. First pickle the article in spi...
-Permanence Of Photographic Prints
If the directions given by the makers of the paper are followed, pure chemicals used, and separate toning and fixing baths, there is little danger of P.O.P. prints fading, It is perhaps in the fixing ...
-How To Make Bar Soap
As a preliminary trial in soap making, try the cold process. Cocoanut oil should be used to the extent of from 25 to 50 per cent, if possible, as it not only rapidly saponifies but appears also to has...
-Roof Cutting Into Side Of Dome
It is required to obtain the proper sweep for the plate that runs up the slope of a roof which cuts into the side of a dome. If the dome is a semi-sphere, then the section of the dome formed by the pl...
-How To Make Stannate Of Soda
To make stannate of soda, proceed thus. Melt together 2 parts of caustic soda and 1 part of finely powdered tinstone (native oxide of tin). Add to the melted mass a small quantity of hot water, allow ...
-Testing The Speed Of A Camera Shutter
A method of estimating the speed of a camera shutter is as follows. Attach to the side rim of a bicycle wheel a piece of tinfoil. Invert the bicycle, place it in the sunshine, and focus this wheel sha...
-Mixing Oil-Colour Paint
For painting any surface that has to stand the stress of weather the paint should be of as good quality as possible. For a good oil paint take, for each pound of colour required, Alb. genuine white-le...
-How To Determine Superficial Surface Of Steam Pipes
The rule most usually adopted for determining the number of square feet of heating surface of different sized steam pipes is to calculate that a foot length of 4-in. pipe has a superficial, i.e. squar...
-Manufacture Of Condensed Milk
In making con-densed milk, milk is mixed with sugar and then evaporated by steam in a vacuum pan, in which a reduced pressure may be kept in order that the milk may lose its water at a much lower temp...
-How To Make Sugar Figures
Sugar figures are made by placing about 2 lb. of sugar in a pan and adding barely sufficient water to cover it and a little cream of tartar; melt down by a gentle beat, and boil to the degree known as...
-Hot Box For Photo Negatives And Lantern Slides
An aid in Tarnishing lantern slides made from negatives or in varnishing photographic negatives themselves is illustrated by Figs. 1 to 5, the letter references in these figures being similar. It is u...
-Dry Rot In Floor Boards
The conditions most favourable to the germination of the spores of the dry rot fungus and to its subsequent growth are (1) a still atmosphere - no draught, (2) a little moisture - not too much, (3) a ...
-Action Of Steam In Locomotive
A locomotive usually, though not always, has a pair of simple engines. These act as ordinary horizontal steam engines, steam being admitted and cut off according to the notching-up. It then expands to...
-A Simple Level
With the simple level illustrated the proper grade and levels for drains, ditches, roadways, concrete floors, foundations for houses, and for bridges, etc., can be laid out. In fact, all sorts of leve...
-Cod Liver Oil Emulsion
To prepare an emulsion of cod liver oil, triturate together in a mortar 2 oz. of gum arabic and 3oz. of water, then add 8oz. of cod liver oil; slowly beat the whole together until a smooth cream is fo...
-How To Work And Polishing Ebony
Ebony must be selected for colour, grain and texture first, as these vary very much; the cuts near the bark or outside surface often contain sand and other foreign substances which dull the edges of t...
-How To Make A Wringing Machine
A simple wringing machine can be made in this manner. Obtain two indiarubber rollers mounted on spindles; remove the cogs, as these are not used. Also obtain two slotted plates as A (see sketch), made...
-Bending And Canvassing Landau Panels
If nailed flat across the boot-side, with the top edge rounded down, or overhung to form a bead in the neck, the panel should be bent and canvassed before, fixing. This must be done very carefully, or...
-Noise In Hot-Water Tank
It is sometimes the case that a hot-water apparatus works well until the water reaches the boiling point, when a rumbling sound at the tank is heard. This noise is merely the sound of the water boilin...
-How To Make A Bound Net
In netting a round net, the loop upon which the first meshes are made can be afterwards tied up tightly to form a bottom. Or the first meshes can be cut away, the short cut ends pulled out through the...
-Manufacture Of Calcium Carbide
Calcium carbide may be made by heating an intimate mixture of finely divided coke or carbon and lime in an electric furnace, using a current of from 4,000 to 5,000 amperes. The furnace used by Willson...
-Centrifugal Pump
Herewith are dimensioned drawings of a centrifugal pump designed to lift 150 gal. per minute at 20 ft. head. To enable the volute to be correctly formed the case is in two halves. To avoid end thrust ...
-Glazing Clay Tobacco Pipes
A simple lead glaze is generally used for clay tobacco pipes. The following may be taken as examples, (a) Lead oxide (litharge), 45 parts: sand, 35 parts; common salt, 6 parts, {b) White lead, 53 part...
-How To Polish Turned Wood
Soft woods may be turned so smooth in the lathe as to require no other polishing than that produced by a few line turnings or shavings of the same wood applied while revolving in the lathe. Mahogany, ...
-Scenting Powder
To perfume a powder with otto of roses, place it in a mixing machine, i.e. a revolving cylinder or barrel provided with ribs internally. Spray the scent into the powder and set the machine in motion u...
-Ball Clay For White Enamel Body
Ball clay used in the preparation of white enamel body may have a composition of Cornish stone, 40 parts; Cornish clay, 10; and blue clay, 20. Or Cornish stone, 80 parts; Cornish clay, 20; blue clay, ...
-Pressure Of Water
A pressure is often stated as being equal to so many inches of water. If the height of water were 1 1/2 in., the expression would mean a pressure equal to that caused by a column of water l 1/2 in. hi...
-How To Make Silver Mounts For Tobacco Pipes
In making an ordinary pipe mount, a plate of silver has to be prepared to fit tightly round the two pieces of the pipe to be joined by its means. The easiest way to obtain a pattern of this plate is b...
-Cement For Jointing Hot-Water Pipes
Cement for making joints in hot-water pipes contains 80 to 100 parts, by weight, of iron borings (which must be pounded if coarse), 2 parts of flour sulphur, and 1 part of powdered sal-ammoniac. The i...
-Paint Blistering On Front Door
The blistering of paint is caused by the presence of water either in the paint or in the substance to which the paint is applied, greatly aggravated by the action of the sun upon the door. The old pai...
-Gilding And Silvering Leather
Gum mastic in fine powder is first dusted over the surface to be gilded. An iron or brass tool bearing the design upon its face is then heated to the proper temperature and gently pressed on a piece o...
-How To Clean Bronze Chandelier
To clean a bronze chandelier that is corroded by damp, take the chandelier to pieces and carefully remove all pins, screws, and other iron parts. Then place about 1/2 lb. of potash in l gal. of water,...
-How To Make Warner Wheels
Procure a pair of Warner stocks and set of spokes to match; these are supplied with the iron band mortised the exact size of the bottom part of the spoke just above the shoulder, which is sunk or hou...
-Darkening Cement For Pointing
For darkening cement to be used for pointing brickwork bricklayers use smithy ashes, which can be procured from any blacksmith. The ashes should be ground or crushed to the size of sand (not crushed t...
-Setting Out The Sides For A Step Ladder
In setting out the sides for a step ladder, first set up the vertical height C B (Fig. 1) to a convenient scale, and divide for the number of steps required (the usual distances, as shown at F, Fig. 3...
-Bricks For Cupola Of Furnace
For lining cupolas for blast furnace or other cupreous slags, nothing is better than Dinas bricks unless it be gauister bricks as made at Lowood near Sheffield. The only difference between the two is ...
-How To Determine Discharge Of Water Through Pipe
The water velocity in feet per second corresponding to a given pressure can be calculated by multiplying the square root of the pressure in pounds per square inch by 1219 The velocity being thus obtai...
-Lines On Picture Mounts
There are several methods of placing gold lines on mounts for pictures. First make small pencil dots where the lines are to end. It gold powder is used, make the lines with a strong solution of gum, a...
-Putting Felloes On Wheels
Herewith is an illustration of a device for pulling towards each other the spokes of cart and carriage wheels. This dispenses with the lever and other tools used in some methods of doing this work. Ha...
-How To Remove Paint From Floor Boards
Freshly slaked limewash, to each bucketful of which is added at least 21b. of common washing soda, makes a good paint remover. It should be applied by means of common fibre brushes - not bristles; sev...
-Willis's Odontograph
The Odontography invented in 1838 by Professor Willis, has been used to determine the radii of arcs of circles that shall approximate to the epicycloidal and hypocycloidal curves which should be used ...
-How To Make An Enlarging Lantern
Below are particulars on the construction of an enlarging lantern. Make a baseboard A, and to this attach the frame B of three sides, with a circular opening in front for a condenser at B1. Above and ...
-How To Repair Broken Rib Of Ivory Fan
The mending of the end rib of an ivory fan containing a fracture about an inch long, is a rather difficult job, as the joining up must be done from the back. Procure a thin veneer of ivory 2 in. long ...
-The Preparation Of Kaolin
Kaolin or China clay is the basis of porcelain and many pottery clays, and is produced by the decomposition of felspar. Kaolin occurring in the position of the original felspar is called residual kaol...
-How To Clean A Varnished Map
To remove dirt from a varnished map, rub the map with a damp cloth or sponge. Most of the dirt can probably be removed by placing the map on a table and rubbing stale bread-crumbs over it with the pal...
-Painting Staircase Hung With Wallpaper
The course to be adopted in painting a staircase hung with wallpaper is as follows. The first thing is to remove the paper with water containing a little soda, and to rub down the walls afterwards wit...
-Setting Out Frame For Wheelbarrow
This is an easy method of setting out the frame for a wheelbarrow. Make a drawing of the plan of the framing, as shown at Pigs. 2 and 3, to a large scale, or full size. Next set a bevel to the angle o...
-Painting Concrete Surfaces
For painting concrete, four or five coats of paint should be applied, the first and second coats of white lead well thinned with oil, and the later coats mixed with equal quantities of turpentine and ...
-Measuring Land
In ascertaining the contents of land, it is usual in measuring on a sloping surface to make allowance for the difference between the sloping length and the true horizontal distance, the latter being t...
-Method Of Using Enamel
Patent enamels should be used with the same precautions that are adopted in the ease of any other enamel. Enamelling should be done in a warm room. Get a clean flat ground on the work, give one coat o...
-Polish For Mangle Rollers
To make a polish for the rollers of mangles and wringers use 1 pt. of methylated spirit, 2 oz. of gum sandarach, 2 oz. of seed lac, 2 oz. of gum benzoin, and 2 oz. of best beeswax. Dissolve the wax by...
-Design For A Small Porch
The addition of a porch roof over the door of a workshop or tool house may be made both useful and ornamental. Pigs. 1 and 2 illustrate a design in which the porch roof is covered with imitation tiles...
-Details Of Mariners Compas
The compass bowl is suspended in gimbals in order to allow it to retain its horizontal position independently of the ship's motion. From the centre of the bottom of the bowl is a vertical steel-pointe...
-Reducing Paper To Pulp
Boil the paper with a solution of caustic soda, using some sort of stirring or beating arrangement to break up the felted fibres. It should then be turned into a tank and washed with water until free ...
-Chrome Tanning
A chrome tanning bath is made, according to an American patented process, in this manner. Twelve pounds of chromic acid are dissolved in 6 gal. of hydrochloric acid of a specific gravity of 1.146; 50 ...
-Arrangement Of Tinmen's Workshop
A workshop of convenient size for four tinmen is shown by the accompanying diagram. The benches B, made of beech-wood, should be firmly built, and secured to the floor by iron brackets. Racks for smal...
-Paint For Mirror Back
The silvered back of a mirror may be protected by applying two coats of a mixture of 41b. of red lead ground fine, 2 oz. of paper varnish; and 4oz. of turpentine. Allow twenty-four hours to elapse bef...
-Dyeing Feathers
Feathers are now dyed almost entirely with coal tar or aniline colours, these being-very brilliant. Although most of them fade, some stand exposure to light extremely well. Previous to dyeing, all fea...
-Preventing Steam Condensing On Shop Windows
The chief cause of steam condensing on shop window is insufficient ventilation. In constructing shop fronts provision should always be made for an iron ventilating grating at the top of the sash as at...
-How To Stain Tonquin Canes
The hard, crusty surface of canes renders them practically impervious to water stains. A brown tone may be gained by scorching the canes in a gas flame - a gas-stove flame for preference. Bamboo worke...
-Rendering Wood Fireproof
There have been a great number of compounds or mixtures proposed for fire proofing wood, fabrics, and other inflammable materials. Among the best of these may be mentioned ammonium chloride, ammonium ...
-Electrical Engineer's Tool Chest
The accompanying drawings show the construction of a suitable tool chest for an electrical engineer. The sides, lid, and bottom should be made of wood about 3/4 in. thick when finished; the trays can ...
-Clock Striking Too Quickly
To prevent the striking train of a clock running too fast, it is controlled by a. fly, which is a small fan fixed to the last pinion of the train. The fly should be sufficiently tight to turn when t...
-Mixing And Preparing Mortars
Often a wall has its strength estimated by the amount of power necessary to crush the bricks, instead of by the forces or influences that will render the mortar unfit for its purpose. The mortar shoul...
-Recipe For Branding Ink
To make a branding ink, saturate water with 1 oz. of either gum tragacanth or gum arabic. Work up bone black into a stiff paste with the gum solution, and incorporate with a small quantity of soluble ...
-How To Make Upholsterers' Pom-Poms
One way of making the pom-poms used by upholsterers is to lap a wood or cardboard washer with three or four thicknesses of fibres, which may be of silk, worsted, or cotton. Cut all the fibres at the o...
-Light Table For Bedroom
Figs. 1 and 2 are end and front views respectively of a light table that might stand by the bedside for the convenience of an invalid. For the ends, procure four pieces of wood each 2ft. 6in. long, an...
-Stump Moulding
The term stump moulding is generally applied to ironfounding, in which parts of cast-iron are added to other castings or to wrought-iron work, as in bedstead work, where the cast-iron knuckles are cas...
-Preserving Clay Figures
If the clay figures have been painted with ordinary oil paint it would be impossible to fire them, for the heat would immediately burn away the colours. Besides, the heat of an ordinary oven would hav...
-Colouring Gold Articles
Gold alloys of not less quality than 15 carat may be made to assume the colour of fine gold by carefully boiling them in a mixture of nitrate of potash 15 oz., table salt 7 oz., alum 7 oz., and spirit...
-How To Make Red Stencil Ink
Below are instructions on making a red stencil ink for marking boxes, etc. Get 3 1b. of pure pipeclay (not a mixture of pipeclay and whiting), and crush or scrape into a fine powder. Make a stiff mixt...
-How To Determine Diameter And Pitch Of Rivets
For single riveting up to 1-in. plates the diameter of the rivet may equal one and one-fifth times the square rent of the thickness of the plate, the rivet hole being one'-twelfth larger. The pitch ma...
-Baker's Steam-Heated Oven
The accompanying sketch shows the principle of improved decker ovens, heated by steam, for baking bread. It should not be taken as a working drawing, as the erection of such ovens must not be undertak...
-Chinese Lacquer Work
The red gold and pale yellow effects seen on Chinese lacquered cabinets, etc.. are produced by the aid of lead, tin, or silver foil laid upon a smooth surface, and coated with various gum varnishes. V...
-How To Make Wrought-Iron Cone
Below is explained how to make from 1-in. thick plates a wrought-iron cone of a rather pronounced slant. The lath being so great, the flange may be thrown oil, and the seating at the small end of the ...
-Re-Blackening Thermometer Scales
The best way of re-blackening the impressed figures and divisions of thermometer scales on boxwood is to use a drawing pen filled with japan black; this would of course be a rather tedious operation. ...
-How To Clean Engravings
The following method of cleaning engravings has been found effective whenever dirt and faint stains were to be removed, though probably it is not so efficient as the chloride of lime process (describe...
-Transferring Design To A Saucer
If it is wished merely to fit the design to the concave face of the saucer, to be painted over by hand afterwards, fold up the drawing which it is desired to transfer as shown at Fig. 1 in such a mann...
-How To Polish Ebony Mirror Frame
Unless the ebony is of a particularly good quality there will be a brown or greenish tinge that should be overcome by wiping the frame with a good quality ebony stain, which can be bought ready made. ...
-How To Remove Varnish From Oak Carving
To remove varnish from an oak carving a solution made as follows is used. Put equal parts of turpentine and methylated spirit into a stone jar and place the latter in a saucepan partly filled with wat...
-Paint For Leather Trunks
To paint leather blak, first coat it with a solution of alum 1 oz., and water lpt. The next coat should consist of drop black 1/4 lb., ground in turps, and terebine 1/2 oz. Thin with turps. When this ...
-How To Fix Marqueterie Transfers
Marqueterie transfers as used by French polishers for decorating furniture are fixed as described below. The design, with a fair margin of paper around it, is cut from the sheet, and is laid, face upw...
-Crucible Steel Furnace
The sketch herewith gives a sectional view of a crucible steel furnace. The melting chamber A should be 3 ft. high from the grate bars B, oval in shape, 26in. by 19 in., and lined with 6-in. ganister....
-Recipe For Saddle Soap
To make saddle soap, gently heat over a slow fire, constantly triturating till thoroughly incorporated, l lb. of beeswax, 8 oz. of soft soap, 2 oz. of linseed oil, and 1/2 pint of oil of turpentine; p...
-Small-Power Water Motor
The motor shown in plan by Fig. 1 and in elevation by Fig. 2 will develop 1/3 brake-horse-power with a fall of 30 ft. through a 2-in. pipe, and 1/2 brake-horse-power with a fall of 50ft., the speeds b...
-Press For Mangle Shafts
The accompanying drawings show, with scale, a machine for pressing shifts in mangle rollers to be driven by steam. Two belts, one open and the other crossed, drive the pulleys F, L, F, and L, and by m...
-How To Polish A Coffin
The following is a good method of polishing a coffin. Coat with linseed oil, and fill in with a paste of best Paris white (not l'l;ister-of-Paris) and turpentine, coloured with yellow ochre for pitch-...
-How To Renovate Fur Necklet
The only practicable method of renovating a fur necklet that is moth-eaten in parts is to cut away the latter. Open the necklet, remove the padding or lining, and place the skin, fur side down, upon a...
-How To Renovate Silvered Glass
To renovate a glass in one corner of which the silvering has assumed a frosted appearance, or has bscome spotted by damp, proceed in this manner. Cut ou1 the aftected silvering, first marking it oft s...
-Soluble Prussian Blue Used In Inks
In many ink recipes soluble Prussian blue, which is a preparation of Prussian blue and ferrocyanide of potassium, is mentioned. This soluble blue is made thus. With a pestie and mortar thoroughly inco...
-Folding Stand For Baby's Cradle
Figs. 1 and 2 are end and side views respectively of v. folding stand for a baby's cradle. To make the stand, procure four pieces of sound pine, ash, or oak, as preferred. 2ft. Tin. long, and plane th...
-Red Oil Used In French Polishing
In making the red oil used in French polishing, the alkanet root is merely broken into small pieces and the oil poured over. If well stirred up a reddish tinge will at once be imparted; leaving the ro...
-Mica And Its Uses
Mica is an anhydrous silicate of calcium and aluminium, and crystallises in a laminated mass, easily split along its axis; it can be subdivided down to 3/1000, in thickness. Deposits of this material ...
-How To Make Glass Beads
In making small glass beads, a portion of melted glass, coloured or uncoloured, is taken from the crucible upon the end of a long iron blowpipe: the melted glass is then blown into a thick bulb, to wh...
-How To Blacken Of Silver Goods By Gas
The coal gas used for lighting will sometimes cause silver and plated goods kept near the gas burners to become discoloured. This blackening is caused by the presence of sulphuretted hydrogen in the g...
-Brass Money Box
To make a brass savings bank or money box (Fig. 1), cut a piece of sheet brass 111/4 in. long by iin. wide. Clean it with emery-cloth, planish, bend it round over a mandrel, and braze the ends togethe...
-How To Bronze A Frieze
Here are instructions on bronzing a Cordelova (imitation plaster) lrieze. Apply to the frieze two coats of oil paint. For the bronze colour, mix in oil 1/2 lb. of burnt umber, 1/2 lb. of Brunswick gre...
-Using Watchmaker's Turns For Drilling A Staff, Etc
Below is described how to drill watch staffs for fine pivoting. The centres sold with a new pair of turns are of very limited use, so, when buying, a length of brass rod and a length of steel rod to f...
-The Use Of Fusible Plugs
A fusible plug is a brass case containing a core of an alloy that will melt at a temperature a little higher than the heat of the water or steam in the boiler. It is practically impossible for the cor...
-How To Fix Handle Of Walking Stick
It is often required to fix the horn head of a walking stick or umbrella to au iron screw dowel that is firmly fixed in the stick itself, the joint being covered by a silver band. As a rule, the hole ...
-Stocks For Shoeing Kicking Horses
Fig. 1 shows side elevation, and Fig. 2 end elevation, of a set of stocks for use in shoeing horses that kick. The ground is marked out to Figs. 1 and 2, and 7-in. square posts A are sunk in each corn...
-How To Blacken Brown Boots
To blacken brown boots and shoes, first clean off all the dye with a strong solution of hot soda water, using a tooth brush. When the dye is removed, rub with a little black dye, which can be bought a...
-Taking Apart Photographic Lens
The balsam used as cement between two photographic or other lenses sometimes assumes a sort of fungoid appearance. This, if slight, will practically make no difference to the working of the lens, but ...
-Gums Used By French Polishers
Shellac forms the foundation of most polishes and spirit varnish. Garnet lac is a very dark variety useful for black or varnish for japanningipurposes. Orange shellac has many grades, from common to...
-Using Mixed Jet For Limelight
A mixed jet can be used for oxygen and coal gas, and the light w-ould be about the same as a blow-through jet with the same gases. The hydrogen should be rather more than 2 to 1 of oxygen, and the bes...
-Mechanism Of Perpetual Calendar Watch
Fig. 1 shows the arrangement of a perpetual calendar dial. At the top is the month hand: on the right is the date hand; on the Left is the day-of-the-week hand. Inside the seconds dial is the moon dis...
-Curing Birds' Skins
A preservative used in curing birds'skins consists of 1 /12lb. of whiting and 1/2lb. of soft soap boiled in 1 pt. of water, with the addition of 1/2oz. of chloride of lime and 1/2 oz. of tincture of m...
-How To Polish Ebony Fretwork
The polishing should be wholly or three parts done before the fret-cutting is begun. After sawing the wood, fix it to a firm flat bench and plane the surface smooth; then proceed with the cutting, dri...
-Photographic Vignettes
Flashed glass is used for making photographic vignetting glasses, the colour being removed from the centre by rubbing with hydrofluoric acid. The operation is a messy one, however. Cardboard is by far...
-Enamelling And Polishing Slate
The slabs of slate are cut to size, shaped, moulded, carved, or incised as may be required, then polished with sand and water to a fine surface. The enamel is then carefully and regularly laid on, or ...
-Pattern For Conical Rim
It is assumed that a copper hoop is to be put round a wooden bucket to ornament it. Below is explained how to draw a plan to which to cut the copper so that it will fit snugly to the shape of the buck...
-How To Make Shaving Paste
Shaving pastes are made, as a rule, from fine soft soaps composed of potash and lard. To make creme d'amande, dissolve lib. of caustic potash in 1 pt. of water. Melt down in a pau 3 lb. of lard and ad...
-How To Make Albumen Paper
Albumenised printing-out paper is made by coating a suitable paper with albumen containing a soluble chloride. Rives paper is generally employed, and what is known as 10 kilo should be chosen. Most of...
-Defects Of Gas-Meters
When the floats of wet gas-meters are being soldered together, the air inside the floats becomes rarefied owing to the increased temperature caused by the heat of the bolt used in soldering. When this...
-Manufacture Of Lucifer Matches
The tipping composition for strike-anywhere matches consists of red phosphorus with other ingredients as follow. (1) Phosphorus 1 part, chlorate of potash 8 parts, glue 1 parts, whiting 2 p...
-Lenses For Magic Lantern
Plano-convex lenses are generally used in magic lanterns, two to each condenser, with their convex sides towards each other. The smallest condensers used are tin. in diameter, and this is none too muc...
-Constructing A Bamboo Bedstead
Fig. 1 shows the foot of a bamboo bedstead, 3ft. wide and 3ft. 10in. high , Figs. 2 and 3 are alternative designs for the head. The framework of each of these sections must be made from canes 1...
-How To Remove Stain From Polished Wood
A soda-water stain ou polished wood should be wiped over with linseed oil as soon as noticed. If left unoiled, the only alternative is to repolish, first removing the damaged polish by rubbing with No...
-How To Make Plumbago Crucible
In making a crucible with a quantity of plumbago dust, mix the plumbago with an equal weight of fireclay, and add water while kneading to form a stiff dough. Keep this in a cool place for a few days, ...
-Varnishing Photographic Negatives
The retouching of a negative should always, if possible, be done before varnishing, such portions of the negative as are to be operated on being covered with a retouching medium. This medium may be pu...
-Colouring Gold
The simplest method of colouring gold jewellery is to bring it to a uniform heat, allow to cool (and thus become annealed), and then boil until bright in a pickle of 8 oz. of rain water and 1 oz. of s...
-The Preparation Of Chromic Acid
Chromic acid (H2CrO4) is produced by two or three methods. In one, 2 parts (by measure) of a cold saturated solution of bichromate of potassia are mixed with 3 parts of sulphuric acid: on cooling, the...
-How To Make A Bone Apple-Scoop
In every sheep there are two bones specially suited for making apple-scoops, and with them only a small amount of trouble is left for the workman. The shank bones of Welsh or othermountain sheep are g...
-Putting Sash Lines In Window Frames
Before beginning to replace broken sash lines, carefully lower the top sash to see whether the breakage is at one or botn of the lines. The 5/8-in. bead of the side at which the line is to be restored...
-Condensation From Under Side Of Iron Roof
The dropping of water from the under side of a corrugated iron roof is caused by the moisture of the warm atmosphere of the room condensing on the colder surface of the iron roof, and this condensatio...
-How To Set A Ruling Pen
By taking out the screw of the ruling pen and looking directly at the point of the pen. it will be seen whether the worn point has a flattened surface. If so, place the pen on an oilstone (tine Turkey...
-How To Make Photographic Printing-Out Paper
No one, unless he is likely to be a large consumer and able to afford a proper apparatus, should attempt to make P.O.P. The paper is sold so cheaply that it could only be made in large quantities at t...
-How To Cut Blinds
Linen or art print blinds are cut upon a large flat table, using a long straightedge and marking awl. Equal width at top and bottom can he secured by folding the stuff so as to prick b:th at once;...
-How To Make Cells For Optical Work
By following those instructions amateurs who have a small lathe not adapted for screw-cutting, and who are not adepts in the use of chasers, can make the brass cells and similar work for microscopes, ...
-The Manufacture Of Glue
Glue, size, and gelatine are varieties of the same substance; they differ only in the quantity of moisture and of impurities which they contain. Glue contains so many impurities that it is unsuited fo...
-Soldering Gun Barrels
Cramps are generally used for holding gun barrels together during soldering, although they can be bound together as a makeshift with stout binding wire. The heat is applied with iron or copper heaters...
-How To Fix Needle To Compass Card
Large compass cards often have two needles, in which case the agate cap is fixed in the card. In small cards the agate cap is fixed in the centre of the needle. Draw a pencil line on the under side of...
-Cabinet For Beadwork
The cabinet or workbox here described is suitable for holding beadwork articales It can be made of deal, and almost enough wood can be obtained from an old cube-sugar box; tins, when sandpapered, stai...
-The Preparation Of Crocus
Crocus is an abrasive material used as a polishing medium for many metals. By one method of preparing it, a mixture of salt and sulphate of iron is put into a shallow crucible and exposed to a red hea...
-Brush Marks In Enamelling
In using air-drying enamels on cycles great difficulty is sometimes experienced in getting a surface that is entirely free from brush marks. Assuming that the enamels are not stoved, the trouble may b...
-How To Repair Mackintosh
If the water penetrates the mackintosh in a few places only, obtain from a rubber warehouse some rubber cloth in the piece as near like the coat as possible; also get some rubber solution. Cut the rub...
-Boots Cracking Across The Toes
All boots, and more especially ill-fitting boots, have a tendency to crease and crack across the toes, and to counteract this tendency the following precautions should be observed. Patent leather boot...
-Testing A Try-Square
Below is given a method of testing a carpenter's square. Shoot the edge of a piece of board quite straight, apply the square as shown at A (Fig. 1), and draw a line; then turn the square as at B, and ...
-Prevention Of Nodules On Electrotypes
Warty nodules on the edges of electrotypes are usually caused by the employment of small currents. This may happen by using a small cell or small elements in the cell, or by the employment of connecti...
-Coloured Varnishes For Straw Hats
All straw hat varnishes are required to dry in a few minutes and form a, firm, pliant, and elastic cover, though a high lustre is not essential. Hence spirit varnish is particularly suitable; any desi...
-Melting Silver In An Open Fire
Procure a small fireclay crucible in which to melt the silver. For a flux use equal quantities of finely powdered charcoal and sal-ammoniac. Make up a large, bright coal fire in an open grate, and whe...
-Particulars Of Rectilinear Photographic Lens
The word rectilinear simply means right lines, and is a name applied to lenses which do not distort straight lines when such fall near the margins of the plate. Such lenses represent a square as a ...
-How To Clean W.C. Basins
To clean w.c. basins apply spirit of salts by means of a piece of old rag tied to the end of a stick, and after sufficient time has elapsed for the incrustation to become softened, or partially dissol...
-How To Make Brass Gas-Cocks
Here are given full instructions on casting and finishing small brass gas-cocks. The patterns may be of wood or brass, but brass is to be preferred, as it wears much better than wood. Core prints must...
-How To Make Hand-Cart For Carrying Furniture
The cart here described is 6 ft. long by 4ft. 6 in. wide, and may be used for carrying furniture. As the wheels are to run underneath the bed of the cart, the distance between the springs must be less...
-Why The Welsbash Mantle Gives Light
The tern perature of the incandescent bodies with which a Welsbach mantle is impregnated may be assumed as being about 3500 F. The quality of the light depends to a certain extent on the amount o...
-Stereoscope For Holding A Number Of Views
A simple effective stereoscope for exhibiting a large number of views is shown in the accompanying sketch. The apparatus consists of a box A with sliding adjustment along a wood strip B similar to the...
-Depositing Nickel On Wax Moulds
Before nickel can be deposited on a wax mould so as to get a smooth sheet it is necessary to prepare the mould with black-lead or with bronze powder as for the electrotype process, and first deposit o...
-How To Cut The Top Off A Stoneware Jar
In cutting the top off a stoneware pickle jar, first make an ink mark right round the jar at the place where it is to be cut; then with a new triangular file wetted with turpentine make a mark over th...
-How To Make Rubber Solution
With a sharp knife wetted, cut into thin slices 1 oz. of pure Para rubber. Place it in a wide-mouthed bottle, cover it with carbon bisulphide or benzene (coal-tar naphtha), and cork down. Next day the...
-How To Make A Safety Guard For A Circular Saw
The liability to accident by timber being thrown from the circular saw has necessitated the provision of safety guards. The guard about to be described is simple in construction, efficient, and compar...
-Turned Wood Case For A Drum Clock
The useful and ornamental clock case illustrated below is in three separate mouldings A, B, C, and is thus much easier to turn than if it were all in one piece. It can be made in satin walnut, mahogan...
-Black Streaks In Nickel-Plating
Black streaks in deposits of nickel are caused by bubbles of hydrogen gas, which form in clusters on the surfaces of articles and then burst. They may be prevented by gently agitating the articles whi...
-How To Fit A Watch Hairspring
In applying a new hairspring to a watch, the centre coils are broken out, about a quarter of a turn at a time, until there is room for the collet. The effect of this upon the time of the watch can be ...
-Mounting Stereoscopic Photographs
It is sometimes the case when viewing mounted stereoscopic prints that the objects in the background, when seen through the stereoscope, appear in front of the picture. The cause of this may be gather...
-Cubing Round Timber
The easiest way of measuring round timber, to get the solid contents, is to take one-fourth of the middle girth of the timber in inches, square this dimension, multiply by the length in feet, and divi...
-Copper-Plating Model Boat
Instructions are here given on copper-plating a boat made partly of metal and partly of wood. First well soak the woodwork of the boat in linseed oil to close all the pores and prevent the copper solu...
-How To Cut Shoe Finishers' Irons
Irons for ironing up the edges of boots and shoes are of various forms, a few of which are shown in the illustrations. They will serve a- examples of how irons should be made and recut. The iron is of...
-Fireproofing Theatre Scenery
In 3 gal. of water dissolve l lb. of alum. With a stock brush thoroughly soak the stretched canvas curtains or other fabric, leaving no part unbrushed. When thoroughly dry, prime in for painting. Anot...
-Ghost Illusion For Amateur Theatrical?
Paint on canvas a scene representing a room or library, and showing a bookcase. The part of the bookcase that would contain the shelves and books must be cut out of the canvas, the framework only bein...
-A Simple Sledge
The accompanying illustration shows a sledge for two persons; it can, however, be shortened to accommodate one person only. It is 5ft. long, 1ft. 5 in. wide, and 1ft. 4 1/8 in. deep, and should be mad...
-Painting And Varnishing A Phaeton
It is supposed that a phaeton is to be repainted black and picked out in red, and then varnished. If the paint is cracked very much, the best plan will be to remove it by means of a gas jet or burning...
-Hints On The Use Of A Kodak
The ordinary pocket kodak takes pictures 2 in. by l 1/2 in., and the folding and newer kodak takes pictures 3 1/4 in. by 2 1/4 in. When closed, the folding kodak measures only 1 5/8 in. in thickness. ...
-Portable Dog-Kennel
One-inch grooved and tongued boards 6 in. wide is a suitable material of which to make the portable dog-kennel illustrated by Fig. 1. The boards of the sides should he nailed to a l1/2 -in. by 2-in. l...
-How To Blacken Brass
One method of blackening brass is as follows. Dip the article in a bath consisting of 1 part of sulphate of iron and 1 part of white arsenic dissolved in 12 parts of hydrochloric acid. When the articl...
-Tempering Gun Springs
In tempering springs for guns and revolvers, make the springs red hot (be careful not to overheat them), then plunge them into cold water. Take them out, warm them over the tire, rub with suet, blaze ...
-How To Make Pipe-Eye Scroll-Irons
Coachsmiths barrel heads of scroll-irons, or pipe-eye scroll-irons, are usually made as follows. For an ordinary sized one having an oval stem, take a piece of square edge iron l in. by 3/4 in. and we...
-Detachable Lath For Table Top
The drawings herewith show a simple and effective arrangement for holding a lath to a table top. A cleat A (Figs. 1 and 2) is fixed to the end of the lath B by a couple of screws, as indicated, the cl...
-Calculating Weight Of Copper And Iron Wires
In calculating the sectional areas of wires, the diameter in inches corresponding to the number of the gauge of the wire must first be determined, and this can be got only from tables. Then to find th...
-Timing Of Watch Hairsprings
The vibrations of a watch balance occupy exactly equal times (with an average hairspring) only when they are exactly equal in extent. For instance, in a watch with an ordinary flat hairspring, the bal...
-Pattern For Saddle Shaped Boiler
A pattern for a saddle-shaped cast-iron boiler made as follows will answer for moulding in green sand. Prepare two substantial blocks A (Fig. 1) made to the inner contour of the casting. To these bloc...
-Coloured Cement Floor
In making a coloured cement floor 2 parts of Portland cement by measure are mixed with 3 parts of sand. Before adding the water, mix with it a little red oxide of iron. The exact quantity of oxide to ...
-Particulars Of Canada Balsam
Cana la balsam is a sticky, yellowish-white material, with an odour somewhat resembling turpentine. It is a crude turpentine, obtained by puncturing pine trees (Pinus canariensis), and is similar to t...
-Brush For Enamel Paint
A hog's-hair lather brush for which a barber has no further use is best for applying enamel paint. Having been constantly in hot water, the bristles are split fine so that no hair marks will be left w...
-Setting-Out The Bevel Of A Hip Rafter
Below is given a method of finding backing to hips. Set out to scale the line of the pitch of the roof as shown at A B C (Fig. 1), and a portion of the plan D E F G; EG will be the plan of the hip. At...
-Re-Tinning Copper Vessels
The object of tinning copper stewpans is to prevent chemical action on the copper, which may be injurious to health. It also gives a much better appearance to copper cooking utensils, besides facilita...
-Developing Negative Films
Nothing will prevent films curling during development, unless some mechanical means of keeping flat the film is adopted. A very good plan, however, with small films such as those of pocket kodaks is t...
-Painting Cardboard For Slate Pencil Writing
The composition for painting cardboard so as to produce a surface that can be written on with slate pencil is similar to that used for blackboards. Pour ounces of shellac should be dissolved in 1 qt. ...
-Ordnance Datum
The Ordnance datum is an imaginary horizontal plane extending over the whole country at the same height as the average mean level of the sea at Liverpool. This datum was fixed by the surveyors of the ...
-How To Polish Brass Tube
Brass tubes are prepared for polishing by being floated with a file, the teeth of which act as cutters and take off the top skin of the metal. Instead of floating, the tubes maybe polished by grinding...
-How To Clean Paraffin Barrel
Paraffin oil cannot be removed from the pores of a wooden barrel by chemical means. If the barrel is to be used for storing water, the oil could be removed by knocking out one end of the barrel and pl...
-Gramophone Or Phonograph Motor
Ordinary brass clock wheels will do for a clockwork gramophone or phonograph motor. The motive power can be the mainspring and main-wheel complete of an eight-day American clock, but a stronger wheel ...
-Recipe For Iron Cement
Iron cement, used for filling up cracks and blowholes in iron castings by application with a hot iron, maybe made as follows. Take by weight 2 parts of sulphur and 1 part of fine blacklead. Place the ...
-Cork Paint For Ships
Cork paint, sometimes used on ships' ironwork to prevent it rusting, is composed principally of white lead, oil, varnish, and quick driers. After the surface to be treated has been scraped and red l...
-Replacing Jewel Hole In Geneva Watch
The jewel hole in the balance of a Geneva watch is held in position by the thin edge of its setting being burnished over the edge of the jewel. In fitting a new jewel hole, the old one must be pushed ...
-Fire-Cracks In Plaster Walls
Fire-cracks (which in some parts of England are called air-cracks) in plaster walls should be treated before giving the primary coat of paint with a coat of weak glue size (1/4 lb. best Scotch glue to...
-Furnace For Wagon Springs
Fig. 1 is a cross section and Fig. 2 a longitudinal section of a suitable furnace to be used when making railway wagon springs. A shows the flrehole, B the blast inlets, and C the ch im-bers for the s...
-Preserving The Colour Of Bath Stone
Repeatedly cleaning off the face of Bath or other stone by rubbing, glasspapering, etc., is to be deprecated, as it removes the natural skin, and, by opening the pores of the stone, makes it absorbent...
-Re-Painting And Re-Lacquering Bedstead
In repainting and re-lacquering a half-tester bedstead it is necessary that first the brass headrail and footrail be taktn to pieces. Thoroughly clean off the whole of the old paint with a shavehook o...
-Burnt Ballast For Mortar
Where clean sharp sand cannot be had, burnt clay ballast or coke breeze are very good substitutes. Coal slack is not to be recommended. The coke breeze should be obtained from the nearest gasworks. Th...
-Taking Soundings Of Ship's Well
On each side of a ship's keelson there are limber holes, which allow the bilge water to pass freely to the lowest part of the compartment, where there is an iron perforated casing to keep out rust c...
-How To Remove Cannon Pinion From Keyless Watch
In removing from a keyless watch a cannon pinion that is fixed very tightly, if there is a square at the back take hold of it with a pair of cutting nippers in one hand and grasp the body of the canno...
-Design For A Carved Photo Frame
Walnut, oak, or canary wood is suitable for constructing the photograph frame here illustrated. It should be about Jin. or 1 in. thick, and 10 3/4 in. long by 9 in. wide. The outside margin is fin.; t...
-Brazing Brass And Iron
A brazing spelter for small articles of brass consists of 5 parts copper, 3 parts zinc, and 2 parts silver, alloyed as explained on p. 63. If the seams are not required to stand much working after sol...
-An Improved Saw-Vice
Figs. 1 and 2 show an ordinary pattern of joiners' saw-vice, differing from others only in the method of tightening up the jaws; Fig. 3 shows the bare-faced tenon for uprights, and Figs. 4 and 5 plan ...
-How To Cut Tin-Plate
If a number of pieces of tin-plate the same size and form are to be cut, it is usual to have a punch and die cut to the desired shape these are fitted to a press, and the pieces are then stamped out. ...
-Laying Marble Mosaic Pavement
The materials commonly used for marble mosaic paving are known us burnt marbles - that is, pure marbles burnt to the desired colours, such as rouge royal (red) and Russe cotto (red), with yellows, blu...
-Bronzing Brass Brackets
Fancy brass brackets, such as gas brackets, are usually only dipped in a nitric acid bath and burnished. If the dipping does not give the desired brightness, the brackets are dipped again and again, a...
-How To Make A Chemical Tank For A Magic Lantern
The following are instructions on making a small chemical tank for magic lantern experiments. Procure three glass plates 3 1/4 in. by 4 1/4 in. From one of these plates a half-circle must be cut out w...
-Remedying Pinholes In Photographic Negatives
Ordinary water colours are best for stopping pinholes in negatives. Almost any colour will do; but the work is more easily and better done when a colour that matches. the tint of the negative is used,...
-Finishing Stair Balusters Green And Bronze
Rome stair balusters are to be painted two coats nnis.i-ing sreen and bronze. The first coat should be lead-colour paint, and when this is dry give a coat of bronze green made from drop black (about o...
-How To Make Copper Foot-Warmer
To make a foot-warmer, cut a piece of No. 22 or No. 24 sheet copper to 22 in. long by 12 in. wide. Scour it thoroughly with wet sand, and tin one side of it over a coke fire with block tin, using sal-...
-Particulars Of Cellulose
Cellulose is an organic product having the same composition as starch, and is a similar composition to sugar, i.e. C6H10O5- The purest cellulose is sold by chemists, etc., as cotton-wool for medical p...
-Buff Balling Bottoms Of Boots
To make out the Dottom of a boot, the sole should be buffed or scraped with the buff knife, that has been well sharpened till it has a keen, regular edge. Only the first layer of grain is taken off th...
-Wiping Joints On Copper Pipes
Wiped joints on copper pipes are longer than wiped joints on lead or composition pipes. Copper pipes 2 in. or more in diameter have joints from 2 1/2 in. to 3 in. long; 4-in. pipes have joints about 4...
-Adjusting A Watch In Positions
Provided there are no faults in the escapement, pivots, or jewel holes, the adjusting of a watch in positions is mainly a question of exact poise of the balance. The balance, with its pivots perfectly...
-How To Remove Ink Stains From Bone Handles
To remove dirt from bone knife-handles scrub with hot soap and water, and wash well with clean water; rub on a solution of oxalic acid to remove ink stains. Agun wash, dry, and polish with a chamois l...
-Traveller's Sample Case
Figs. 1 to 5 show the construction of a traveller's sample case. Good red deal, birch, beech, or other similar hardwood, 3/4 in. to 1 in. thick, may be used, according to strength and other requiremen...
-Lining A Wooden Tank With Lead
In lining with lead a wooden tank 20ft. by 9ft. by 4ft. deep, first divide the bottom of. the tank into three parts. This gives two seams across the bottom, and where the seams come the woodwork shoul...
-Silver Solder Lor Soldering Copper
A silver solder for soldering copper is composed of 5 parts of copper, 3 parts of zinc, and 2 parts of silver. Melt the copper first, then add the silver, and lastly the zinc; directly the zinc is imm...
-Separating Gold From Ashes
A simple way of separating gold from ashes is to mix the ashes with borax and melt down in a crucible. For this purpose the highest heat of a wind furnace will be required. If the ashes contain traces...
-Waterproofing Fishing Lines
Plaited silk fishing lines are waterproofed by soaking in equal parts of boiled linseed oil and copal varnish, then stretching in some convenient position to dry, at the same time wiping off superfluo...
-Frame For Wire Blind
Fig. 1 shows the general form of the frame for a wire window blind. Fig. 2 is an elevation of the joint (A, Fig. 1)1 to a larger scale. The tenon, mortise, haunch, and wedges are indicated by dotted l...
-Filtering Cycle Oil
Dirty cycle or other machinery oil may be filtered through cotton-wool, flannel, or any similar material without affecting its lubricating properties. Flannel is not so good as closely packed cottonwo...
-Wet-Plate Photography
In wet-plate photography the plates are prepared as they are required, and are developed immediately after exposure. Any camera may be used so long as provision is made in the dark slide to catch the ...
-Cementing Broken Marble
As a cement for white marble, use line plaster-of-Paris mixed to the consistency of thick cream. A thoroughly satislaetory job, however, cannot be made in the case of a mantelpiece, as the repair will...
-Tool Chest For A Light Coach Body Maker
A tool chest suitable for a light coach body maker may be made of 1-in. sound red deal, free from knots and shakes and perfectly dry. The front and back should be jointed and glued in the centre as A ...
-How To Polish Goat's Horns
In polishing a pair of goat's horns, remove auy rough or uneven parts with a spoke-shave, then well scrape all over with a cabinet-maker's steel scraper or with the edges at the sides of a wod-worker'...
-Heat Insulating Composition
The following recipe for a non-conducting composition has been given for use with steam pipes, etc. In water, mix fireclay with four times the quantity of small coal ashes to the consistency of thin m...
-How To Cut Slot In Top Of Turned Pillar
When it is required to cut a slot in the top of a turned pillar, a box similar to the accompanying diagram should be constructed, and in each piece of board two kerfs should be truly made. The pillar ...
-Modelling In Papier-Mache
In making animal heads with papier-mache, either a natural skull or one modelled in clay is obtained, and from this a plaster mould is taken. In this mould papier-mache is forced, or sheet after sheet...
-How To Clean Aquarium Shells
It is impossible to keep delicate shells fresh and clean at the bottom of an aquarium, for they quickly become covered with a green aquatic growth that defies all efforts to be scrubbed oft. The shell...
-Particulars Of Oil Of Turpentine
Oil of turpentine, spirit of turpentine, and ordinary or common turpentine are all the same thing. Crude turpen tine is turpentine as it is derived direct from the pine trees. Oil of turpentine really...
-Yellow Stain For Venetian Blinds
A high-class satin stain for use on Venetian blind laths previous to varnishing can be obtained by dissolving 1 oz. of amboge in 1 pt. of methylated spirit. A cheaper plan would be to mix dry y...
-How To Determine Bevels For Joints Of Oval Cask
In finding the correct bevels for the joints of an oval cask first set out the oval or ellipse, and a good method of doing this is shown by the illustration. Let A B and C D be the given diameters. Di...
-Forging Axles For Vehicles
The iron for vehicle axles should be of the best quality. The method of working is as follows. A number of small bars are put up in a bundle sufficient to make an arm, and bound with iron rod to preve...
-A Watch-Case Galvanometer
To make a simple galvanometer as in Fig. 1, get an old brass watch case with one of the brass plates removed. In the centre of this drill a very small hole to suit an end-stone, such as jewellers use ...
-Soldering A Joint In A Watch Case
To solder a joint in a watch case, the old joint must first be filed off clean. This should leave a semicircular groove in which the new joint can lie true. The joint is cut from drawn silver or gold ...
-How To Make Black Crayons
To make black crayons, mix 10 parts of pipeclay, 1 to 1 1/2 parts of lampblack, and 1 part of Prussian blue with water to a stiff paste. Well knead all the ingredients together. Allow the paste to rem...
-Green Stain For Oak Picture Mouldings
To stain oak picture mouldings a bronze green, mix bronze green, procurable at paint stores, in hot vinegar or in dilute French polish. If the mouldings are to be polished, mixing in vinegar is advise...
-Acetylene Gas Generator For Magic Lantern
Herewith is a sketch (one-eighth full size) of a portable and automatic acetylene gas generator for use with a magic lantern. The apparatus works well, and will give about 400 candle-power for about t...
-How To Polish Tin-Plate Goods
Tin-plate goods, before being polished, are scoured by being held against a revolving mop greased sufficiently for the purpose by contact with a tallow candle. Finish by polishing with a dry mop on wh...
-Stains On Marble
Marble erections against a backing of brickwork will in a year or so's time show a. brownish stain, and probably this will gradually spread. The stains are caused by the close proximity of the marble ...
-How To Make Railway Coupling Shackles
To get railway couplings to stand, the grain of the iron in the shackles must follow round the eyes. To accomplish this, the bar is first nicked with the fuller as shown at A (Fig. 1), and the end dra...
-How To Clean Leather-Work Brackets
To clean a pair of leather-work brackets mix a little carbonate of magnesia with benzoline to form a thin fluid, and apply it, in large quantity, quickly to the leather. Place the brackets in the open...
-How To Use A Twaddel's Hydrometer
Twaddel's hydrometers are sold in sets of six or separately; they read us follows: - No. 1. 0 to 24 = sp. gr. of l.00 to 1.12. 2. 24 480 = 1.12 1.24. &#...
-Hydraulic Mean Depth
The hydraulic mean depth of a liquid flowing through a pipe is equal to the sectional area of liquid divided by the wetted perimeter. The sectional area of liquid is equal to The wetted perimet...
-Power Saw For Soft Stone
The ordinary frame saw originally intended for sawing hard stone, and driven by power, is now used successfully for sawing Bath and other soft stones, including Beer stone and alabaster. The saw is a ...
-How To Stain Plaster Panels To Imitate Mahogany
Cast plaster panels are made to match mahogany in the following manner. Procure three bottles, and place 1/4 pt. of methylated spirit in each. In No. 1 steep 1/2 oz. of gamboge; in No. 2 1 oz. of drag...
-Enlarging With Pocket Kodak
A pocket kodak camera may be used for enlarging, as shown in the sketch. A is a baseboard about 15 in. long by 6 1/2 in. wide. The exact dimensions will depend upon the size of the camera and the focu...
-Extracting Salt From Sheepskin Rug
Suppose it is required to treat a white sheepskin rug which, during damp weather, becomes covered with moisture. First remove any lining or edging that is on the skin, mix together bran and hot water,...
-Watches Stopping In One Position Only
When a watch will go in one position and stop in another, the fault can generally be traced to a defective pivot or pivot-hole; thus, if the watch be held so that the balance works on one pivot or in ...
-Preserving Berries
In preserving winter berries, immerse them in a fairly strong cold brine prepared with ordinary table salt and water. The berries will keep in this way for a long time. Artificial berries are nearly a...
-How To Make Waterproof Overalls Or Oilskins
Unbleached calico is generally used for cheap oilskins, fine drill for better-class goods, and sometimes, but rarely, silk. Best linseed oil, with very little driers, is the most suitable dressing, an...
-Cross In Telescope Of A Level
The cross used in the telescope of a level is fixed in the eye end of the instrument, and just within the focus of the eyepiece, generally 1 in. from the eye end. But this varies according to the foca...
-Comparison Of Formulae For The Discharge Of Water In Pipes
The fundamental formula for calculating the velocity of water flowing through a pipe or channel, and for calculating the rate of discharge, is based on that of Chezy, a French engineer, who proposed i...
-How To Make Gold Wire Name Brooches
The wire employed for making American name brooches is a hard, tough brass of a gold colour, coated with gold. Various qualities are used, from a lightly gilded wire costing 5s. per pound to a heavily...
-Pipes Running Fill-Discharge In Cubic Feet Per Minute
Authority for Formula. Inclination. 1 in 50 1 in 150 l in 80 1 in 250 1 in 500 1 in 100 ...
-Design For A Doll's Wooden Bedstead
Figs. 1 to 5 show the construction of a doll's bedstead. The size will vary according to requirements; any kind of wood may be used. The posts and rails can be .jointed by stub tenons and mortises as ...
-Dusting-On Process Of Photography
In the dusting-on process of photography, a glass plate is coated with a mixture of sugar and dextrine, and sensitised with bichromate of potash, the object being to produce a film that will lose its ...
-Hollowing Tinplate
A hollowing block cut preferably from the trunk of an oak or beech tree will be required for hollowing tinplate: a convenient size will be about 3ft. high and 2 ft. 6 in. in diameter. The holes on the...
-Stephenson's Thermometer Screen
The sketch Bhows a Stephenson's thermometer screen, which consists of a box, either square or oblong, raised 4ft. from the ground. The box may have louvred sides, that is, the sides may be made in a s...
-Principles Of Hydraulic Lifts
Hydraulic lifts are of many forms and sizes, from the small dinner lift to the passenger or luggage elevator. The principles on which they work are very simple, and can be illustrated by a common syri...
-Construction Of Fireguard
Fig. 1 shows the fireguard complete as it would stand round the fireplace. It should be of a size to fit against the centre of the mantelpiece jambs, and should stand about 30 in. high, though the hei...
-How To Repair Broken Cornice Of Ceiling
If the broken cornice is a fluted one, make a zinc mould of it, using the good part of the cornice as a pattern. Remove all loose plaster, dust with a stiff brush, and well wet the cavity with water. ...
-Whitening A Discoloured Ceiling
In whitening an old paper-lined ceiling that has gone a bad colour, clean off the ceiling and remove all loose paper; then apply a coat of size, which may be made by dissolving 6oz. of glue in 6pt. of...
-An Easily-Made Snow Plough
For the construction of the snow plough here illustrated, two elm slabs about 5ft. by 10 in. by l 1/2in. are required; the planks might be longer and wider with advantage. Cut one end of each plank as...
-Setting And Preserving Butterflies, Etc
Insects to be preserved in a collection should be killed separately in a wide-mouthed stoppered jar, at the bottom of which is cyanide of potassium covered with plaster-of-Paris. As soon as it is quit...
-Table For Silvering Plate Glass
The illustration shows a hot table suitable for use in silvering glass; it has the middle slate removed. One-inch board should be used for the top of the table, the slate top S being 1 1/2 in. thick. ...
-How To Polish Cornelian Stones
Perhaps the best way of polishing cornelian stones in the rough is first to grind them level on a suitable stone, or on a piece of Yorkshire grit obtained from a tombstone cutter. The stone must be ke...
-Spinning Copper
Copper is one of the easiest metils to spin in the lathe, because it is pliable arid can be annealed straight off when it becomes hard. The tool must bear on the metal with firmness, but it is best no...
-Bier Stand For A Mortuary
The accompanying sketch shows the construction of the frame of a mortuary bier stand. All the dimensions are clearly marked on the sketch, and when the top is boarded over with 1-in. boards (which sho...
-Particulars Of Microscope Slides
Some microscope cells are made by painting rings of marine glue upon a slide, and repeating this until the cell is deep enough Other cells are formed by cementing pieces of plate glass (with the inter...
-How To Make Carbon Paper
In preparing black carbon paper either of the two following compositions may be used, (a) Finest lampblack 5 parts, olive oil 5 parts, cerasin wax 1 part, and petroleum ether 10 parts, (b) Lampblack 5...
-How To Make Opalines
In preparing opalines, immerse a photographic print in a 5-per-cent. solution of gelatine. Warm the glass, and pour on it in a pool a portion of the gelatine solution; immediately lay the print, face ...
-Air Pump For Blowlamp
An air pump for a blowlamp, and particularly suitable for the apparatus described on p. 151, may be made from brass tube l in. in diameter and 6 in. long. Take a thick circular disc of brass of the sa...
-Cementing Joints Round Cooking Ranges
A cement that will not crumble and break away from joints in a cooking range and from around the front edges of range covings cannot be obtained. The heat appears to affect the cement, but the real ca...
-The Pulsometer
The illustration shows a sectional elevation of a pulsometer, which is an appliance for raising water by the alternate pressure and condensation of steam. To describe the parts, K is a pipe from a boi...
-How To Make Typewriter Inks
One of the most popular recipes for ink for typewriter ribbons is as follows. Melt some petrolatum, having a high boiling point, on a water bath. Petrolatum is a soft hydrocarbon obtained from the res...
-Fog On Photographic Dry Plates
If light reaches a dry plate by any other way than through the lens when the plate is exposed in the camera, the result is fog; that is, the sensitiveness of the plate is destroyed, and development pr...
-Lead-Light Glazing
As a cement for fixing lead lights to steel frames, the following preparation will probably give satisfaction. Mix liquid glue with a sufficient quantity of wood ashes to form a thick mass; the ashes ...
-How To Make Triad Pictures
A triad picture is simply three pictures in one-, from a standpoint exactly in lront of it a certain view, represented by X (Fig. 1), is seen. From a point a little to the right-hand side is seen a to...
-The Manufacture Of Artificial Gems
As early as 1837 Gaudin made artificial rubies by heating ammonia, alumina, and potash by means of an oxy-hydrogen blowpipe; the intense heat volatilised the potash and alumina, afterwards producing c...
-Principles Of Sewing Machines
The princip'e of the lockstitch sewing machine is, roughly speaking, as follows. The needle descends to the bottom of its stroke, and simultaneously the shuttle slides, vibrates, or oscillates as far ...
-How To Remove Rust Marks From Wood
In re-painting wooden structures disfigured by the marks caused by iron nails having turned rusty, first rub out the rust marks with sandpaper, getting as much rust as possible off the nail heads; the...
-Testing Gravel For Gold
In testing a hard rocky gravel for gold, first finely powder a sample of the gravel, moisten it in a tall cylinder with water, and pass chlorine gas through it, whereby soluble chloride of gold is for...
-Water-Tight Sliding Door
The opening to which a sliding water-tight door is to be fitted in a ship should have an angle frame all round at the edges of the plate to stiffen up the plating. This angle is on the side of the pla...
-Proportions For A Compensation Pendulum
A zinc and steel compensation pendulum for a regulator clock having a dead-beat escapement is of fairly simple construction. For a seconds pendulum the central rod is of steel, 5/16 in. thick, and mea...
-Laying Tar Footpaths
Tar footpaths are inexpensive as compared with flagging, etc., and if properly laid, water will not soak into them, nor will the heat of the sun melt the tar. It is laid in two layers - the bottoming ...
-How To Clean And Mounting Antlers
Below are given instructions on cleaning and mounting a pair of stag's antlers. Well wash and scrub the antlers with warm water and soap. Thoroughly dry them with a cloth or towel, then give another s...
-Gilding Steel Pins
Highly polished steel pins, free from grease and oil, may be gilded in an electro-gilding solution of gold cyanide. When a quantity of pins is required, they may be gilded in dozens at a time if suspe...
-Varnish For Walnut Gunstock
A walnut gnnstock maybe coated with a very bright varnish made according to the following recipe. Take 1 oz. of best orange shellac, 4 oz. of gum sandarach, 2 oz. of gum benzoin, 1 oz. of Venice turpe...
-How To Make Photographic Silhouettes
In making photographic silhouettes, as the exposure required is so much less than that necessary for au ordinary portrait, a slow lens can he used. Stretch a sheet across an open doorway where it can ...
-How To Work Circular Mouldings
Fig. 1 shows a piece of circular moulding worked on the flat surface. First cut out the required shape or plan; get the piece equal in thickness and parallel in width. Sink squares as shown by dotted ...
-Preparation Of Skins For Glove Making
Kid gloves are made chiefly from lamb and kid skins, whick have to pass through many processes, such as washing, hairing, paddling, tanning, staking, colouring, and polishing. First the skins, eac...
-How To Polish Paste For Brown Boots
A good polishing paste for brown boots can be made with 20 fluid oz. of good malt vinegar, 10 fluid oz. of filtered water, 2 oz. of good glue, 1 dr. of soft soap, and 1 dr. of isinglass. Colour with a...
-Tools For Engraving Letters
Generally speaking, the shank or some other portion of a letter is engraved with a Hat tool ami finished with a lozenge graver whetted at three angles. Block lettering is wholly cut with a Hat tool. O...
-Construction Of Camera Shutter
A camera shutter similar in working to the unicum is made as follows. Construct a gi'ooved framework A consisting of a board B with an opening for flange and grooved rails A'. Cut two blades in ebonit...
-How To Polish Painted Furniture
Before painted furniture can be French polished, the paint must be removed; do this as explained on p. 237. Should the furniture have been finished out with enamel paint or varnish with a spirit basis...
-Pattern For Compassed Bed Of Under-Carriage
Below is described one way of marking out a pattern for the compassed bed ol an under-carriage. As an example, Fig. 1, which represents an ordinary compassed bottom bed of a brougham under-carriage, i...
-Jointing Electric Wires
In jointing up seven-strand electric cables, the insulating covering is removed for several inches from each of the two ends to be joined, and the copper surfaces are scraped absolutely clean. They sh...
-Hints On Choosing A Dwelling-House
In ascertaining whether a house is a desirable dwelling place, first examine the walls of the house, and if settlements or cracks are discernible, it is more than likely that the foundations are fault...
-How To Repair Worn Watch Pivot Holes
It is not necessary to plug and re-drill watch pivot holes when they are worn. Purchase some watch bouchons. These are brass pins, turned true and drilled accurately to centre. Select one that will ne...
-Waterproofing Fabrics
Woven fabrics may be rendered waterproof in a variety of ways, one of the commonest methods being to apply a coating of rubber solution and then to vulcanise the film of rubber remaining after the eva...
-Carrying Camera On Cycle
The best way of carrying a camera on a cycle is a much-del.ated question. The slides may be carried knapsack fashion on the back of the rider, the stand across the top bar of the frame, and the camera...
-Killing Butterflies
To kill, pinch them under the wings between the finger and thumb, or, for a collection, procure a killing hottle, which may be bought from most naturalists, or nay be home-made. Get a wide-mouthed b...
-British Association Screw-Threads
The following table gives particulars of the Swiss small screw gauge as adopted by the British Association: - No. Diameter (approximate) in Inches. Pitch in Inches...
-Double-Action Harp
The action is complicated, and unless it works with the greatest accuracy it is worse than useless. Briefly, the principle consists in placing beneath the wrest-pin a small collar having two studs fas...
-Laying Red Tar-Paving
A very dull red tint may be obtained by using crushed red granite instead of limestone. The objection is that each particle of granite has a smooth surface, and the tar does not adhere satisfactorily....
-Toughening Paper
Soak ordinary unsized paper in sulphuric arid (2 parts of acid to 1 part of water) forafew minutes, then thoroughly wash it with water containing a little ammonia until no trace of acid remains, and l...
-Straightening Warped Fretwork
The warping or twisting of fretwork is ofttimes counteracted by the use of three-ply wood - that is, three pieces of very thin board or veneer glued together, the middle one being transverse to the ot...
-Bending And Fitting Ribs For Small Boat
Use straight-grained American elm or oak, the former for preference. After being shaped and dressed, the ribs are steamed or soaked in boiling water till pliable, and bent over the knee where necessar...
-Cementing Felt To Iron Rollers
To make a cement, cover glue with moderately strong acetic acid instead of with water, and treat it as for ordinary glue. Another cement is made by dissolving 2 parts of shellac and 1 part of Venice t...
-Electric Current Carrying Capacities Of Copper Wires
The following table is based on a current density of 1,003 amperes per square inch; the loss will then be 2 volts for 80 yd.: - No. s.w.g. Diameter in Inches. Area...
-White Spots On Polished Furniture
These may be caused by water spotting, damp, or the use of plaster-of-Paris as a grain filler. Try rubbing the surface with a mixture of equal parts of linseed oil, turpentine, and vinegar; then clean...
-How To Make Tongues On Spokes Of Cart Wheels
Take off the tips of the spokes to about the size of tongue required with a tool somewhat like a large countersink inverted, with cutters inside, then with the hollow bit cut down to depth this cutsth...
-Preparation Of Pitch Pine For Varnishing
Pitch-pine furniture is generally finished by the application of several coats of good quality spirit varnish. Interior fittings likely to be subject to hard wear are best finished with a good oil var...
-How To Cut Out Umbrella Covers
For umbrella covers, first make the pattern by which to cut out the sections or gores. This may be of strong paper, but for permanent use sheet zinc is best. First cut a square of paper, each edge of ...
-Flow Of Water Over A Weir
The following is a rule for finding the exact discharge of water in cubic feet, or gallons per second, passing over level weirs. The depth of the water on the weir x width x velocity, all in feet, wil...
-Hints On The Manufacture Of A Speculum
In the manufacture of specula, plate glass is used, provided the size of the mirror is not such that the disc has to be specially cast. The thickness is in proportion to the diameter, the general rati...
-How To Make Zinc Stencil Plates
Zinc stencil plates for marking boxes and sacks may be cut by hand with the aid of a mallet, a sharp chisel, a pair of bent-nosed snips, and a plate of thick sheet zinc. Taking the letter 0, shown by ...
-Dyeing Curtains And Tablecloths Turkey Red
The red dye fastest to light, washing, etc., is alizarin or Turkey red. For wool, mordant with a bath of sulphate of alumina and cream of tartar, and dye in a bath of alizarin paste and acetate of lim...
-Paint Blistering On Woodwork
Blisters in almost all cases are due to the escape of moisture that is present in all wood, new or old. New wood is, of course, more liable than old to give off moisture, and the paint to become more ...
-How To Fix Mooring Bollards
For mooring steamers of about 900 tons, the concrete block for the mooring posts or bollards should be not less than 7ft. 6 in. square and 8 ft. deep, with a block of Bramley Fall stone 5ft. square an...
-Adding An Electric Alarm To A Clock
To fix an electric bell to a Vienna regulator clock, arrange the electric circuit so that the battery is in a convenient position, and the bell in the bedroom; include the clock in the circuit. One wi...
-Reading A Gas Station Meter
The gas made on a gasworks is always measured by the station meter, and in modern establishments corrections are made for temperature and pressure, in order that the gas may be measured under standard...
-Smoky Kitchen Chimney
It is unusual for close-fire kitcheners to give trouble by smoking, and unless the cause is down-blow (which only occurs when the wind blows from certain quarters), then it must be concluded that the ...
-How To Remove Fat From Sheepskins
Practical curriers immerse the skins in fermented bran and water. Washing the skin in a solution of potash will also remove surplus oil; so also will soap and soda and water. Having taken away the oil...
-Brass Polishing Composition
Crocus is very good for polishing any metal under the hardness of iron, and it may be used for finishing iron and steel, after the rough polishing is done. It may be made into hard cakes by mixing wit...
-Photographing A Procession Instantaneously
To take a series of photographs of a procession, the camera should be directed up the road so that the proession is shown approaching.' Do not attempt to take the procession broadside on, as the expos...
-Forging Rods For Engine
To forge the two rods shown in the accompanying dimensioned sketches, if steel were used and a steam hammer available in an engineer's shop, the webs might be drawn down from the larger ends. Iron of ...
-Damp Preventive For Brickwork And Stucco
For painting brickwork and stucco exteriors to repel the damp, amongst many other materials the following have been recommended: (1) Boiled oil applied hot; (2) soft soap and alum, the latter applied ...
-How To Make Trousers Stretchers
The simplest form of trousers stretcher is that illustrated by Fig. 1; it is known as the Invisible trousers stretcher, as it is used by putting it inside the trousers leg. It is made of stout iron...
-Filling Cracks In Blackboard
As a filling for cracks and holes in a wooden blackboard, if the crack is tin. or more in width, a slip of wood should be fitted and glued in the opening and afterwards planed down level to the surfac...
-How To Renovate Lacquer Of Microscope
To clean a microscope that has become rusty through lying in a damp place, well rub the affected parts with paraffin. If the spots are merely superficial the paraffin will fetch them off; but if the d...
-Silvering Brass And Copper
Any article of brass or copper can be silvered by the French-silvering process as follows: Dissolve a stick of nitrate of silver in 1/2 pt. of water; add common salt, which will deposit the silver in ...
-Duresco And Petrifying Liquid
The nature of Duresco and petrifying liquid, and the proper way to use them on damp walls has been explained as follows: - Duresco is a water paint consisting of pigments ground up in a medium contain...
-Camera View Finder
A view finder is an apparatus in which can be seen a miniature representation of the picture that is thrown on the ground-glass screen of the camera. It is fixed outside the camera in such a position,...
-Tuning A Piano
A wedge, a tuning hammer, a piece of ivory, and a tuning-fork are necessary. About 7s. 6d. should be paid for the hammer, for unless the temper is good the continual strain will soon cause it to wobbl...
-Yellow Stain For Oak
A suitable stain is gamboge, steeped in methylated spirit; this yields a powerful yellow tone. If this, or turmeric, does not suffice, try lemon chrome mixed in 1 part French polish and 3 parts spirit...
-Stain For Edges Of Brown Boots
To make this, get a pennyworth of burnt sienna in water, and mix it with water; shake well before applying to the edges of the boots so as to get an even stain. Put it into two small bottles, say two-...
-Hoisting The Materials For A Tall Chimney
The usual method of hoisting the materials for a tall chimney in course of construction is to have outside the foot of the chimney a steam crab or winch, provided with a wire rope of sufficient length...
-Producing Squeak For Punch And Judy Perform Ances
A penny squeaker is used to produce the peculiar squeak by professional Punch and Judy men for their performances, but, as a rule, these instruments are too large and roughly made. Pronounce the word ...
-Heating Cucumber House
To heat a glass house, size about 10 ft. square, for growing early cucumbers, a boiler to burn coke, with 3-in. or 4-in. cast-iron hot-water pipes, is recommended. A gas boiler would not prove so econ...
-How To Remove Stain And Varnish From Furniture
To each bucketful of freshly slaked hot lime add about 2 lb. of common washing soda. Apply liberally by means of old brushes. Carved portions may be cleansed by making the mixture into a paste by addi...
-Solutions For Etching On Brass
A reliable solution may be made by dissolving nitric acid in about five times the quantity of water. Another solution is made by mixing a solution of nitric acid and water (l to 10 parts respeetivelyi...
-Jewel Case With Secret Drawers
The following instructions for making a .jewel case with secret drawers refer to one about 12 in. by 10 in. by Sin. Fig. 1 is a view of a jewel case when open; the carcase is put together with secret ...
-Glazing Tobacco Pipes
For a glaze, dissolve 1 part of acetate of lead (sugar of lead) in 5 parts of water, and dip the pipes into the solution or apply with a brush; then, after drying, tire at a low red heat. Another glaz...
-Standard Acid And Alkali Solutions
Standard acid and alkali are solutions of an acid or alkali the exact strengths of which are known. The usual standard solutions are the normal and the deci-normal. The normal solution of hydrochl...
-Laying Concrete Floor
Although some experts recommend that, for stability, a concrete floor should be laid in three layers, the upper and lower of strong-material, having the bulk of rougher material between them, this pla...
-Preparation Used By Fire-Eaters
The preparation used by so-called fire-eaters to make the skin resist the action of fire is strong solution of calcium chloride which would remain moist on the skin and protect it to some extent. The ...
-Boiled Oil As A Damp Preventer For Brick Walls
Boiled oil has been highly recommended as a cure for dampness caused by absorptive bricks. Its efficacy is due to the fact that it fills the pores of the bricks. It should be applied boiling hot, and ...
-Re-Enamelling Bath
To re-enamel a hot and cold water bath, specially prepared enamel paints are used. Thoroughly clean the surfaces of the bath with petroleum and well scour rusty places with emery cloth; when clean and...
-Printing Photographs On Fabrics
There are several methods of printing photographs on fabrics. The simplest is the platinotype, as the material - silk, satin, linen, calico, etc. - is supplied sensitised and ready for use by the Plat...
-Sinking A Tube Well Through Chalk
A deep stratum of chalk would be penetrated by boring, for which purpose a tube of large diameter is necessary. A frame, which holds the first length of tube in position vertically, is set over the se...
-Welding Cast Steel
In welding cast steel, the flux may consist of borax 1/4 lb., washing potash 1/4 lb., and a small quantity of powdered white glass. These should be melted together and pounded. Cast steel should be ke...
-How To Cut Steel Type And Dies
For steel type and die-cutting a considerable plant of tools is required, consisting of, for steel-type work, a strong bench, heavy vice (about 56 lb.), an assortment of large coarse and small fine fi...
-Photographing Coloured Pictures
Coloured pictures, or any coloured object, can only be photographed successfully by the help of a screen or interceptor, which gives the true tone values of the colours. In addition, the emulsion with...
-How To Make Taps For Watchwork
Taps for tapping screw-holes in watchwork should be made of good steel wire. First soften it by heating to a red, and allow to cool. Then file to a slow taper and thread it cautiously, using plenty of...
-Red Terra-Cotta And Blue Bricks
The varieties of clay used in the manufacture of terra-cotta are the blue, buff, and red clays of Cornwall, Devon, and Dorset, red London clay, and many others. Some varieties of Leeds clays are also ...
-Lacquering Copper And Brass Candlesticks
Take them to pieces and boil in a strong solution of soda to remove old lacquer and dirt. Dip in a weak solution of nitric acid and re-polish them. Then make them hot in an oven or on a hot plate and ...
-Wiping A Plumber's Underhand Joint
The pipes having been dressed out straight, square the ends with a rasp. The burr should be cleaned out of the end of one pipe, and the outer arris cleaned off (see Fig. 1). Open the other pipe-end (F...
-Quantities For Concrete
Approximately, the voids in gravel, if free from sand, may be estimated at from 25 to 30 per cent, of the bulk, and in broken brick or stone at from 10 to 5'J per cent.; but if it is desired to obtain...
-Painters' Fillings
The fillings vised for stopping the suction of wood, plaster, etc., previous to painting, may vary according to the nature of the work. A very commonly used filler is made from starch by incorporating...
-Wash For Stained Stucco Work
There is a wide range of choice in the many washable distempers now on the market; but whether any of them would cover defects so as to prevent their re-appearance depends entirely upon what causes th...
-Papier-Mache Mouldings
For making papier-miche mouldings as used for theatrical purposes, obtain some thick, coarse brown paper; tear it into small pieces 3 in. or 4 in. square, and soak them in cold water. Now make some go...
-Vanadium
This is one of the metals of theantimony group, and may be obtained as a greyish-white powder. It will decompose water at a tempera ture of about 90 ('., and dues not tarnish in the air. It is insolub...
-Heating Greenhouse By A Flue
In heating a small span roof greenhouse, 12 ft. by 8ft. by 5 ft. to eaves, by a flue, the chief points to remember are that the horizontal portion of the flue must have a rise of 1ft. in 10 ft., and t...
-Curing Goat's Skin
Trim it on the flesh side with a sharp knife, and then well brush with a solution of 21/2 lb. of alum and 1 lb. of common salt in 1 gal. of warm water; the skin should he treated two or three times wi...
-Inlaying Raised Frets In Finger-Board Of Guitar
Get a small piece of a broken keyhole-saw, and insert it, teeth outwards, in a block of wood; this will cut a groove of uniform depth. The projection of the Teeth must be correctly determined beforeha...
-Reeds Of Organ Pipes
These consist of a piece of hard-rolled brass, fixe 1 by a wedge upon the flattened segment of a short cylindrical tube closed at one end, as O. This is inserted in a solid block resting in an inverte...
-Heating Schoolroom
A schoolroom 63 ft. by 35 ft. by 22 ft. high has nearly 51,000 cub. ft. of space in it, which, with an ordinary area of window glass and good walls, can be heated by 9 ft. of 4-in. pipe per 1,000 cub....
-Putting Geneva Watch In Beat
To see roughly where to put the hairspring on a balance so that the watch is in beat, after putting in a new hairspring, look at the opening in the cylinder; this should face the 'scape wheel. Usually...
-How To Repair Hole In Boat
Cut out the plank at the part and replace it with a well seasoned piece, butting the remaining parts of the plank over a rib. If thought necessary, put in an extra rib or two, if the hole is above wat...
-Soldering Spout On A Copper Kettle
To re-solder a spout on a copper kettle, first thoroughly clean the copper where the spout is to be inserted with apiece of emery cloth, and also clean the spout around its large end. Then tin the cop...
-Clarifying Glue Or Gelatine Syrup
Decant it into a tall tank and let it rest for several hours, when most of the impurities will settle' to the bottom, and, after decanting the glue, the bottoms may be added to the next boiling. If a ...
-How To Repair Damaged Stonework
It is presumed that the stone from which a piece has been accidentally broken is one of the Yorkshire grit stones, similar to that obtained from the Howley Park or Idle quarries For mending this ki...
-Proportions Of Sand And Lime For Mortar
In mixing lime and sand by bulk, and not by weight, it is necessary first to ascertain the cubic feet contained in the lime, a cubic foot of which weighs 391b.; hence 5 tons x 22401b./391b. = 287 cub....
-Enlarging Photographs Without A Camera
The best enlargements are made by utilising a room as a camera. The window should be blocked up with a screen in which should be cut an opening just large enough to be covered by the reversing back of...
-Autograph Moulds For Rubber Stamps
To get a satisfactory mould, great care in all the processes is essential. Coat a piece of flat metal plate evenly with melted beeswax to a depth of about 1/16in. Before this has got quite hard write ...
-Ink Eraser
One kind is made by dissolving 1 part of oxalic arid in In parts of water. Another kind can be made by adding 1 part of chloride of lime and ,1/16 part of strong- acetic acid to 10 parts of water. Oxa...
-Thermo-Electric Piles
The simplest form is shown in Fig. 1. It consists of a number of strip-, say of bismuth and antimony. These are joined, and alternate junctions, as 1,3, and 5, heated as shown, while the other junctio...
-Pendulum And Rod For Dutch Clock
The pendulums of Dutch clocks only weigh an ounce or two, and the bobs are usually made of turned wood about 2 in. diameter and 1/2 in. thick. The rod is of iron wire, hammered flat at the top end and...
-Colouring Matter Used For Gelatine Photographic Films
The colouring matters used depend on the purpose for which the plates are required. Eosine, alizarine blue, ceruliue, etc., are employed. Eosine is generally used for isochromatic plates. This colour ...
-Dry-Cleaning Valencia Waistcoat
To dry-clean a striped Valencia waistcoat and lining, cut 2oz. of Sunlight soap into shavings, and pour over it 1 1/2 pints of boiling water in which is placed a small piece of alum. Beat this into a ...
-Lining Out Cart Wheels
When lining out a cart wheel one of the best ways is to tilt the horse back, by putting a block underneath the front part, to any angle required (being careful not to overdo it, or wheel and horse wil...
-How To Make Opaque Coloured Glass
Opaque glass or enamel may be made by adding white insoluble substances to the ordinary flint or soda glass while it is in a melted condition. Bone phosphate or bone ash and barytes are most commonly ...
-Ink-Pad Tor Rubber Stamp
To make a pad, cut from the lid of a cigar-box a piece of wood of the desired size. Upon this place several thicknesses of sheet-cotton cut to size. A stretch of fine woollen cloth and a top or surfac...
-How To Make Painters' Knotting
To make a gallon of knotting, as used for painting knots in new woodwork, 1/4 lb. of powdered shellac is dissolved in 1 1/2 gal. of methylated spirit; to do this, place it in a warm place, and frequen...
-Length And Weight Of Clock Pendulums
There is no rule as to the weight of a clock pendulum; it is regulated, according to the quality of clock. The best clocks carry the heaviest pendulums. Weight does not affect the time of vibration ; ...
-Pipes Required To Heat Drying-Room By Steam
The quantity of pipe required depends on the pressure of steam available. With a low pressure, say 101b. per square inch, to obtain 1500 Fah. 150 sq. ft. sur-iace of steam pipe per 1,000 cub. ft. of s...
-Dyeing Light Cloth Black
Put 101b. of logwood and 31b. of bruised galls in 3 gal. of water; boil for two hours, and strain. Place the .oat in the dye, and allow it to remain for half an hour. Take it out, and add about 21b. o...
-How To Preserve Blown Eggs
To prevent birds' eggs cracking or crumbling after they are blown, well rinse them out with corrosive sublimate dissolved in spirit of wine (a few grains to the ounce); this is a deadly poison. Insert...
-Concrete To Cover A Brick-Paved Floor
The materials used should be broken bricks, clean sharp sand, and Portland cement, in the proportions of 6 parts aggregate to 1 part cement. An area 16 ft. by l4 ft, by 2 in. contains til cub. ft., or...
-Cream-Coloured Paint For Table Oilcloth3
For a paint for table oilcloths, try white lead or zinc white ground in oil, with 1 oz. of patent driers to the pound, and enough boiled linseed oil to make it flow. This paint should be applied in a ...
-How To Make Sarsaparilla Beer
Dissolve l 1/2 oz. of compound extract of sarsaparilla in lgal. of hot water, and when the solution is complete stir in 2 lb. of moist sugar. When the liquid is lukewarm, stir in a wineglassful of bre...
-Ebonising Pine
To ebonise pine, take 1 gal. of water, l lb. of logwood chips, 1/2 lb. of copperas, 1/2 lb. of extract of logwood, 2 oz. of indigo blue, and 2 oz. of lampblack. Put into an old iron pot and boil slowl...
-White Ground For Drawing Boards
To obtain a white ground on drawing boards so that drawings made with charcoal and coloured chalks may be easily rubbed out, mix dry white lead to a stiff paste with gum arabic dissolved iu water-, ad...
-Matt Surface On Photographic Prints
To obtain a matt surface on photographic prints, matt P.O.P. should be used, this giving the finest results. But a matt surface can be given to an ordinary glazed print by squeegeeing it on to the rou...
-How To Determine Power Of Engine From Indicator Diagrams
To calculate the horse-power of an engine from diagrams, each diagram should be marked off, as shown, by ten lines perpendicular to the atmospheric line A L. The extremities of the diagram are marked ...
-Flat Flame And Bunsen Gas Burners Compared
Comparing the heat given off by gas burnt in an ordinary gas-burner and that burnt in a Bunsen burner, Professor Lewes states that aluminous flat-flame burner gives a temperature of:-,462 P., and...
-Catch For Fastening Door Of Street Lamp
The diagrams show a catch suitable for a large lamp. Fig. 1 is a front elevation of the angle iron forming the bottom of the door, with a small rectangular box riveted upon it, in which a flat bolt is...
-Use Of The Box Sextant In Surveying
The box sextant is an instrument about 3in. in diameter, to be held in the hand, for ascertaining approximate angles between any given stations. It is made with or without a telescope, and is in gener...
-How To Make An Everset Photographic Shutter
A shutter suitable for use with a single lens at the diaphragm (as employed in the bull's-eye kodak, and shown complete at Fig. 1) may be made as follows: - Cut thin brass or zinc to the shape shown b...
-Method Of Hinging Screen Frames
It is often difficult to decide which is the best and cheapest way of hanging screen frames. A screen should be hinged so that it will close both ways, but the expense of the double folding joints mad...
-Transferring Photographs To China, Etc
To finish off a photograph so that it will look like china without enamelling, several simple methods of transferring are available. Among these is the use of Eastman Transferrotype paper, and various...
-Boring A Railway Tunnel From Both Ends
In the construction of railway tunnels it is usual to work from both ends, and sometimes from intermediate points also. The line of route is laid out on the surface to facilitate observations undergro...
-Garden Tripod Stand For Telescope
A cheap equatorial stand that does not require much lathe work in its construction must have an axis on which to rotate, to provide the horizontal motion; the vertical motion being provided by a metal...
-Time For Photographic Exposures
All photographic exposures being somewhat in the nature of an experiment, because of the ever-varying conditions of the atmosphere, it is possible only to give approximate times. Over-exposed plates m...
-Clockwork Metronome
To make a clockwork metronome, a pendulum must be employed. The usual arrangement is to have a short lead bob pendulum, about 3 in. long, pivoted upon an arbor. The rod is extended upwards, and this u...
-Protecting Exposed Water Mains From Frost
There are incorrect ideas as to how a bad heat-conducting material protects pipes from frost. Water absorbs and holds heat, but the heat is readily dissipated, or radiated, or becomes absorbed by cold...
-Simple Method Of Copying Negatives For Lantern Slides
The following is a simple way to make lantern slides by reduction, the ordinary camera and lens being used, supported preferably on a table: - First make a carrier to hold the lant in plate in the dar...
-How To Make Wax Candles
Wax candles are made in machines each capable of moulding fifty or one hundred candles at one time. The machine is simply a framework holding a large tray having a number of circular holes. Under each...
-Colouring A Malacca Cane
To colour a malacca cane, mix some spirit aniliue dye in thin spirit varnish. Bismarck brown yields a rich red; yellow may be obtained in various shades, but must be very strong in order to gain a goo...
-Properties And Use Of Picric Acid
Picric acid is formed by the action of nitric acid upon phenol (carbolic acid). Picric acid is a pale yellow crystalline substance sometimes used in dyeing, as it yields a fine pale yellow upon silk. ...
-Small Cart For Pony
A cart suitable for a pony from 11 to 12 hands high is shown below. The length of the body is 4 ft. at the bottom and 2 ft. 6in. on the seat. The bottom panel sides are 10 1/2 in. deep under the seat ...
-Kallitype Process In Photography
The Kallitype process of printing is the subject of a patent. It con-sists of first coating any fairly pure piper with a mixture of silver nitrate and ferric oxalate. The ferric oxalate is reduced to ...
-Waterproofing Canvas
To make chemical canvas prepare two baths, one containing l lb. of yellow soap in a gallon of warm water, the other containing l lb. of alum in a gallon of warm water. Pass the canvas through the wa...
-Advantages Of Copper Range Boilers
The lasting quality of a copper range boiler as compared with an iron one, when used to heat hard water, is not worth the extra cost. The incrusted deposit that is the usual cause of boilers becoming ...
-Mounting Photographs
Fill a large hand basin Oldish with water, and immerse the photographs in it for a few minutes, allowing them to drain slightly after removal, and then place them with the image downwards on a sheet o...
-Crate For Carrying A Pig
The accompanying drawing is almost self-explanatory. The size of the crate would depend upon the size of the pig, but about 4ft. 6in. long by 2ft. 6 in. wide and 2ft. 6in. high will be large enough fo...
-Covering A Pulley With Leather
A cement made as follows may be used with great success, both for covering pulleys with leather and on belt joints before riveting. The leather will tear before coming off, if carefully done. Make an ...
-White Coating For Model Boats
Most makers of model boats have found that it is practically impossible to give a model a pure white surface by painting it in the ordinary way with zinc or white-lead. After standing a day or two it ...
-Air Vessels On Pumps
The bottle shaped air vessels are used to produce an even, uniform discharge from the pump, the action of the pump plungers being intermittent. Air is stored inside the vessel, and the water, alter ha...
-Grotesque Target For Shooting Gallery
The illustration shows a front elevation of a novel shooting gallery target with the front removed. Make a square box, say 2ft. square and from 4 in. to 6in. deep; have a circular hole about 9in. diam...
-How To Make Angle Zinc
To make angle zinc to be used for constructing an aquarium, after cutting the sheet zinc to the required width, mark it deeply with the scriber or cutter along the bending line on the underside. Then ...
-Pickle For Gun-Metal Castings
The percentage of water to sulphuric acid to be used as a pickle for gun-metal castings depends on the composition of the metal. Try by experiment. A pickle for the outer skin would be 10 of water to ...
-Recharging Ink Pad Of Typewriter
A suitable ink may be made by dissolving 1 part of aniline black (soluble in oils) in (5 or 8 parts of oil of cloves by a gentle heat; while still warm, apply it to the pad with a camel-hair brush. An...
-How To Start A Dynamo
Before starting a dynamo, examine it carefully to see that the brushes, lubricators, etc., are in order. The machine may then be run at full speed for a short time, with the brushes off, to see that t...
-Retouching Medium For Photographic Negatives
The simplest retouching medium is made by dissolving about half ateaspoonful of powdered resin in 1 oz. of turpentine. Add the resin a little at a time, shaking well, It will probably take about two d...
-"Pavodilos" Joint In Flooring
A sketch of the Pavodilos rebated joint as used in floor boards prepared for secret nailing is shown by Fig. 1. It is patented, and the name is registered as a trade mark by the manufacturer of the ...
-Securing Dowelled Work Together
The holes for dowels should be made exactly opposite each other in each piece forming the joint. Then the dowel should be accurately fitted in. When the work is ready for gluing up, the dowels should...
-Composition Of Muntz Metal
Muntz metal consists of 57 parts of copper and 43 of zinc, or 60 of copper and 40 of zinc, or 66 of copper and 34 of zinc. ...
-How To Determine Contents Of Circular Tank
A rule for finding the contents, in gallons, of circular tanks is a - follows: First find the contents in cubic inches and multiply by .0036, or in cubic feet and multiply by 6.23. The cubic capacity ...
-Proportioning Rooms For Sound
Wyborn's Notes for Architects and Draughtsmen gives the following rules for the proper proportions for a building in order that speaking from platform or pulpit may be distinctly heard all over the ...
-Concrete For Foundations
In gauging up concrete, burnt ballast, with or without clean brick rubbish, will make fair common lime concrete, but for good concrete there should be no burnt ballast, and the brick rubbish should be...
-How To Fit Windsor Chair As Barber's Chair
The following is a sketch that shows how to convert a Windsor chair into a barber's chair. Make two bracket-, as in Fig. 1, out of elm or other hard, tough wood, and bore a hole through the centre of ...
-Jonval Turbine
This works by pressure, and may be drowned or connected to a suction tube. It is an axial or parallel-flow turbine, the water passing through the motor in directions parallel with the central shaft. T...
-How To Work Celluloid
To work thin sheet transparent celluloid into different shapes, it is pressed with heat in a hydraulic or other press or mould, and allowed to cool gradually. A French recipe for non-inflammable cellu...
-Diminished Twisted Column
In setting out and working- a diminished twisted column for masonry, first set out the column to the extreme diameter of outside of wreath or roll, with the diminish and entasis as in an ordinary colu...
-Construction Of Double-Contact Electric Push
The essential parts are shown in the adjoining illustration. A push A is connected to a spring B. Underneath the push is a smaller spring contact C, and at the side opposite 13 is another contact D. B...
-Separating Lead From Zinc
The mixture can be raised above a red heat, when the zinc will burn away; or it can be granulated, and then placed in acid to dissolve the zinc. Or stir into the molten mixture a quantity of ground su...
-Taking Apart And Cleaning English Lever Watch
Before attempting to clean a watch, it is advisable to become thoroughly acquainted with its mechanism. First remove the hands and dial, then unscrew the balance cock and take out the balance, unpinni...
-Girard Turbine
This is a parallel-flow impulse motor, the power being due almost entirely to the velocity of the water. The guide blades, in the vertical form of motor, may be closed by special vertical shutters wor...
-Power Transmitted By Leather Belts
In the diagram given below, the curve A refers to single belts, best oak tanned, curve B to similar light double belts, and the remaining curve C to heavy double belts. Each curve shows the horse-powe...
-How To Make Sheraton Easy Chair
The frames of these chairs are made of deal, and the legs of hard wood such as birch. The inside only of the chair is upholstered, the outside being covered with the same material as secured to the fr...
-Sizes Of Whitworth Nuts And Bolt-Heads
The following table gives the thickness of the bolt-heads and the widths of hexagon nuts in the Whitworth standard. The third, fifth, and seventh columns are to the nearest sixty-fourth of an inch: - ...
-Inexpensive Filter For Oil
To make a cheap filter for light machine oil, obtain a large ribbed glass funnel about 6 in. diameter; take a clean sheet of thick white blotting paper, and cut from it a circle 10 in. diameter, then ...
-Brazing Bandsaws
Ordinary handsaws may be brazed as follows: - Taper the ends of the saw by filing so as to form two wedge-shaped ends for about the length of three teeth. Lap the ends, and place a small quantity of t...
-Strength Of Springs For Vehicles
The following list has been furnished by a leading axle maker: - Mail and Collinge axles suitable for a vehicle bearing the load shown: - Size 1 1 1/8 l 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 5/8 1 3/4 1 7/8 2 in. d...
-Springs
A comprehensive list cannot be given, as there are so many variations in size; the quality of steel also has a great influence. The following are a few customary sizes of trap and cart springs, with t...
-Wire Rests In Wet-Plate Photography
In wet-plate photography, the silver wires on which the plate rests are fixed in the carrier, as shown in the accompanying illustration. This special device is used because the drippings from the wet ...
-Lead Of Slide Valve Of Steam Engine
The lead of a slide valve is the amount by which the steam port is open when the piston is just going to commence its stroke. The supply of steam to the cylinder then commences before the stroke, and ...
-Damp-Proof Stiffening Solutions
For stiffening materials that will be exposed to damp, a solution similar to that used for stiffening hats is suitable. This is composed of 5 parts shellac and 1 part borax, with sufficient water. A u...
-How To Polish Ebony Walking-Stick
To polish an ebony walking-stick a jet black, mix Frankfort black or black aniline spirit dye with the polish; the latter may be made by dissolving 6 oz. of garnet shellac in 1 pt. of methylated spiri...
-Ink For Rubber Stamps
To make a good rubber stamp ink, pulverise 180 gr. of aniline violet and dissolve in 2 oz. of boiling distilled water; add one teaspoonful of glycerine and half a teaspoonful of treacle. ...
-Fern Case Construction
Fig. 1 shows a section through a part of a case for rearing ferns. The bottom is of deal, with a polished mahogany edging or rim which forms a base, the bottom being tongued to it on each side and fix...
-Steam Consumption In Engines
The most economical steam consumptions in simple, compound, and triple engines per indicated horse-power hour have been found on trials. A simple Corliss engine has used 17 1/2 lb., and a simple Schmi...
-Removable Vestibule Screen
The sketch shows how a frame may be fixed, without injury to the premises, as a tenant's fixture, removable at the expiration of the lease. No plugs are allowed to be put into walls, and where fixing ...
-Resin Used In Spirit Varnish
Shellac dissolved in spirit forms the basis of most spirit varnishes; the addition of resin is often advised on the score of cheapness. It also assists the varnish to flow level, gives it more body, a...
-How To Renovate Patent Leather Shoes
To renovate the enamel of patent leather shoes, tree them up tight, and with a sharp knife skive off all the ragged parts of the enamel. Now rub over the whole with very tine sandpaper. This will make...
-Putting Spring Seat To Cushion-Seat Couch
To convert a cushion-seat couch into a spring-seat couch, take off the conch Lack; this will be nailed to the body along the bottom and into the head. If the bottom is boarded, remove the boards, and ...
-Turning A Crank-Shaft
The adjoining sketches show one method of turning the crank-pin of a small crank-shaft of an engine, Fig. 1 being a front elevation and Fig. 2 a side view. Iron slabs, lettered A, are fastened, one at...
-Proportions Of Square Nuts And Bolts
The following are the usual proportions of square nuts and bolt-heads: - The width across the flats of black nuts may be one and a half times the diameter of the bolt, plus from .18 in. to .44 in.; or...
-Dull Black Finish For Furniture
To make a black stain that will give a dull finish, as seen on Chippendale furniture, it is usual first to stain the wood with extract of logwood and copperas, followed by solutions of acetate or sulp...
-How To Make Collodion
Take 1 oz. of pyroxylin or collodion cotton, 36 oz. of ether, and 12 oz. of alcohol of 90 per cent, strength; place in a dry, stoppered bottle, and shake from time to time till dissolved. The ...
-Drying A Mop
As a means of twisting a mop for the purposes of drying, other than by the ordinary method of using one hand and a wrist, a hole is sometimes bored through the handle about 15 in. from the upper end, ...
-Red Filling For Letters On Engraved Door-Plate
When filling an engraved door-plate with wax, the utmost cleanliness must be observed, as any foreign matter rises to the surface, and the wax should be rubbed down till a clean and brilliant colour i...
-Hardness Of Water
The hardness of water depends to a very large extent upon the nature of the rock through which it percolates, and the extent to which it penetrates. Deep well water obtained from a shaft sunk to a gre...
-Soldering A Silver Watch Case
Ordinary easy running silver solder, which melts at a lower heat than silver, will do. But to make sure, shred the solder into very thin strips, and apply plenty of borax to them as well as to the joi...
-Size Of Corliss Valves Tor Steam Engines
The diameter of Corliss valves used for the admission of steam to engine cylinders when the diameters of the cylinders are known may equal one-eighth the diameter of the steam cylinder plus 2 in., whi...
-Dressing Up Spokes Of Carriage Wheels
An easily made apparatus that will hold the spokes of wheels whilst dressing them up is illustrated by Fig. 1, which is a side view showing a spoke in position. The bottom rail A is 1 3/4 in. deep by ...
-How To Clean And Relacquering Brass
To clean and relacquer brass fittings, take all the parts to pieces and place them in a boiling solution of carbonate of soda or potash, l lb. to a gallon of water. To remove the old lacquer, swill in...
-Tinning Sheet Copper
If to be tinned on one side only, first smear with salt and water the opposite side; then, with a pad of tow, wash the other side with killed spirits (chloride of zinc), and also sprinkle a little pow...
-Green Stain For Wood
A clear dark green -may be made by mixing aniline dyes as sold at most druggists' with plenty of hot vinegar. Green and blue yield a useful tone. Or apply hot 2 oz. of verdigris 1/2 oz. of China blue,...
-How To Make Photographic Prints By Gas And Dull Light
Any gelatino-chloride paper may be slightly printed and afterwards developed. The great drawback to the process is the liability of obtaining degraded high lights with a consequent flattening and fogg...
-How To Clean Buff Leather Gaiters
To clean gaiters made of sun tanned sheepskin, with the flesh side outside, wash them thoroughly and scrub out all the dirt. When quite dry, scrape them all over very lightly, paying special attention...
-Secret Or Invisible Inks
The usual invisible or sympathetic inks are made from cobalt nitrate or chloride, which in the hydrated condition (that is, containing water) are a pale pink, but become deep green by loss of water on...
-How To Put A Bristle On A Waxed Thread
To put a bristle on a waxed thread, as used in shoemaking. D shows the bristle split, and the end of the taper of the thread in the crutch of it at E. Hold this point between the thumb and linger of t...
-Sticking Artists' Canvas To Millboard
Having rubbed the back of the canvas with coarse glass-paper, coat the material with some strong glue, rub down thoroughly, and press until dry. Failure often occurs through not properly removing the ...
-Photographic Lens For Portraits And Enlarging
Any lens may be used for enlarging quarter-plate pictures to about 12 in. by 10 in. Theoretically, the best lens to use for the purpose is the one that has been employed to take the picture. Practical...
-How To Fit Swing Curtain Rails To Iron Bedstead
To fasten rails on the two posts of a half tester iron bedstead to carry curtains so that they will swing, Fig. 1 shows the arrangement as fixed on the pillar of bedstead. An iron bracket of wrought f...
-Distance Of Stop From Lens In Camera
There is no arbitrary rule for finding the distance of the stop from the lens. It is best discovered by experiment; the point chosen is where the maximum of sharpness is given with a minimum of distor...
-How To Stain Wood In Imitation Of Mahogany
If the article is unpolished, it may he stained with one pennyworth of burnt sienna ground in water. Mix with stale beer, and brush well over, wiping off the surplus with rag; two coats may be given. ...
-How To Make A Cheap Writing Table
The accompanying illustrations show how to make a small writing table. The timber used may be common deal, in boards 4 1/2 in. wide and 3/4 in. thick; 56 ft. will be sufficient. Saw seven lengths for ...
-Self-Polishing Blacking
To make blacking that requires no polishing, take 4 oz. of treacle, 1/2 oz. of lampblack, a tablespoonful of yeast, two eggs, a teaspoonful of olive oil, and a teaspoonful of oil of turpentine; mix we...
-How To Polish Stalactites
The principal thing in polishing stalactites and small stones after they are cut is to grade the hardness of the polishing material with the stone to be polished. For cutting a surface level, use vari...
-Curing Rabbit Skins
To cure rabbit skins, mix-bran and three or four times (by measure) as much boiling water, and add l lb. of alum and 1/4 lb. of salt to every gallon of water. Stir to dissolve the salts, and then cove...
-Rule For Velocity Of Steam
It has been found that the discharge of steam through an opeuing into a pressure less than three-fifths the initial is about 900 ft. per second. The following rule has been given to determine the velo...
-Distinguishing Worsted From Cotton Cloth
The best way to distinguish a cotton cloth from a worsted cloth is to unravel the edge, and if of cotton it will have a wiry appearance; worsted is soft and woolly. But if there is any doubt, hold the...
-Dead Black For Interior Of Camera
To make a dull black stain for the interior of a camera, mix powdered lampblack and French polish, using of the latter only just enough to make the black adhere. Too much will produce a polished appea...
-Difference Between Linen, Cotton, Wool, And Silk
To distinguish the difference between linen, cotton, wool, and .silk, examine the fibres under the microscope with a moderately low power. It will be found that the linen or flax fibres consist of tra...
-Flattening Buckled Copper
To flatten copper that is buckled, hammer the surface with a light planishing hammer on a bright tinman's anvil, commencing at the end and going backwards and forwards across the metal with a series o...
-Private Altar
For a small private altar which can be closed when not in use the accompanying figure is suggested. The dimensions are as follows: Length,24 in.; projection from wall, 20 in.; height of altar, 21 in.:...
-Liquid Used For Gold Paint
In the manufacture of gold paint pale copal varnish, thinned with turpentine, is often used. Some gold paints are made with a white spirit varnish; others are mixed with a medium prepared by dissolvin...
-Cements For Oil Lubricators
There are two suitable cements that will withstand oil and heat. The first is made by separating the white from the yolk of an egg, and mixing the former to a stiff paste with powdered quicklime. The ...
-How To Make Cart Grease
The materials employed are resin oils, resin, heavy petroleum, animal greases, soda, lime, etc. The following may be taken as examples: - (a) Petroleum residue 40 gal., resin 601b., animal urease 501b...
-Oven For Case-Hardening Cycle Parts
The construction of an oven for case-hardening cycle parts is shown in sketch. Fig. 1 is a longitudinal elevation showing the air holes at the sides. These are simply spaces for half bricks. Fig. 2 is...
-Easily-Made Lantern Slides
To make these, some glass cut to the size of the lantern slide, and some prints about the size of the slide, must be selected. A series illustrating travels or manufacture will be found a very suitabl...
-White Acid For Glass Embossing
Hydrofluoric acid, diluted with water, is principally used in glass etching, but there are several fluorides used for the purpose. Fluoride of ammonia is formed by adding ammonia to hydrofluoric acid ...
-Weight Of Cast-Iron Balls
To calculate the weights, first determine the contents of the balls in cubic inches, and then multiply by '26. To find the contents of a sphere or ball in cubic inches, cube the diameter in inches (th...
-Solutions For Silvering Glass
(a) Dissolve 60 grains of silver nitrate in loz. of water, and pour this solution quickly into a boiling solution of 48 grains of Rochelle salt in about 1 oz. of water. On cooling, filter the liquid, ...
-Covering Circular Frames With Plush
Take a circular piece of plush, 2 in. to Hin. larger in diameter than the frame, cut all round the edges to the depth of plush that will overlap the frame; lay the plush right side down on the table w...
-Selecting Portland Stone
The chief points in the selection of Portland stone for building purposes depend upon the purpose for which the stone is required. There are four distinct kinds, of which three are usually sent into t...
-How To Make Marking Inks
The only really reliable marking inks that will not wash out of linen, apart from stamping inks, are those that contain compounds of silver, gold, or platinum. Silver inks are indelible as long as the...
-How To Make Gold Cardboard Mounts
The openings or sinkings of cardboard mounts are cut from close-grained board made for the purpose. The surface of the cut-out mount is coated with gilders' thin matt size, which is made by mixing fai...
-Apparatus For Distilling Water
The still may be made from a large iron kettle and the condenser from a coil of tin pipe placed in a pail of cold water. In the kettle lid bore a 1-in. hole and solder into it a bent piece of pure tin...
-How To Make Purse Nets For Catching Rabbits
Purse rabbit nets are square worked on a 2-in. mesh, using ten or twelve rows of the same number of stitches. Flax sewing twine, bought in skeins, is suitable. The draw line can be rove through all me...
-How To Remove Enamel From Mahogany
To remove enamel from mahogany panels, take a bucketful of freshly made limewash and add 2 lb. of common washing soda. Apply to the panels with an old brush. Several applications may be necessary. As ...
-Transfer And Re-Transfer Papers For Lithography
To make yellow transfer paper, mix together equal quantities of best flake white and isinglass or gelatine, adding sufficient gamboge to give the required tint. Put the ingredients in water, and heat ...
-Replacing A Broken Or Cracked Window Pane
Knock out the old glass and putty. This can be done with an old knife worn down to about 2 in. or 3 in. from the handle. When the knife has made its way into the putty, keep it flat against the window...
-Vignetting Apparatus For Photographs
The covers and bottoms of old plate boxes in which a hole with scalloped edges has been cut answer very well. They will stand some 3/4 in. away from the negative - an essential in securing a soft vign...
-How To Polish The Panels Of A Brougham
After the carriage has the full amount of varnish on, it must stand by for at least four mouths for the varnish to get thoroughly hard; it may then be very lightly faced down with pumice-stone and wat...
-Speeds For Turning And Boring Metals
For turning cast iron the speed of the job past the tool may be 150in. to 190 in. per minute; for wrought iron, 260 in. to 280 in. per minute; for yellow brass, 300 in. per minute; and for chilled rol...
-Gilding Lines On A Boat
To apply transfer gold leaf to gilt lines, rub the varnish down smooth and paint the lines to be gilded with equal parts of good oak varnish and japanners' gold size, into which has been worked a Litt...
-Converting Oak Branches To Charcoal
When oak branches are so small that useful wood cannot be got out of them, perhaps the best way to utilise them would be to convert them to charcoal. Small branches are, however, not the best for maki...
-Cooling Air
A simple method of cooling air which is drawn by a fan from the outer atmosphere is to make a frame and cover it with coarse canvas or cloth having lar_e interstices, and across the top of the frame c...
-Brush Polish For American Organs
For a dull finish almost any kind of soft gum varnish is generally considered good enough; for a bright finish the following formula is recommended: Shellac 4oz., sand-arach 3 oz., Venice turpentine 1...
-Applying Gold Bronze To Picture Frames
Mix the bronze with japanners' gold size and turpentine, and use it with a good body. The paint will never look equal to gold leaf; its durability will be increased, ever, by coating with varnish. ...
-Door Curtain To Contain Autographs
A suggestion is here given for carrying out a design of an autograph door curtain, to be worked with coloured silk on a cloth ground. The curtain is 8ft. long by 4ft. in width. The border is arranged ...
-Projection Of Spiral Curves
Assuming a parallel spiral, the method to be adopted is the same as that. for the projection of a helix or single spiral line on a geometrical cylinder. The points A, B, C, D, in the accompanying illu...
-Gold-Lining Picture Mounts
To gold-line mounts for pictures, prepare a solution of strong gum arabic, and add a small quantity of moist sugar; strain through muslin. Placing a ruler where the line is required, with a quill make...
-Keeping Water In Gas-Holder From Freezing
Mix the water with commercial glycerine, or use a solution of calcic chloride instead of water in the tank. The most practical way of getting over the difficulty, however, is to insert a steam pipe in...
-Finishing Piano Cases
Most varnished surfaces can be got to a dead level and brilliant gloss by first rubbing level with hair cloth or felt and finest-grade pumice powder, and bringing up the gloss with tripoli, crocus, ro...
-Forming Concrete Window Sills And Heads
Make wooden moulds, wrought inside, of the dimensions and shapes of the heads and sills, arranging one side to be removable, as shown in the sketch. Wedges driven through iron straps tighten up the mo...
-Yellow Finish On School Furniture
To obtain the yellow or amber tone seen on chairs and stools used in schools and clubs, dark-coloured shellac is generally used if the articles are finished by French polish or spirit varnish. A more ...
-Testing Gaspipes And Fittings For Soundness
The most satisfactory method of testing the soundness of gaspipes and fittings is to subject them to air pressure in excess of the pressure of the gas which will flow through them. All cocks having be...
-Waterproofing Grey Millboards
Dissolve l lb. of yellow soap in a gallon of warm water; also dissolve l lb. off alum in a gallon of warm water. Dip the millboard for a few seconds in the soap solution, and directly afterwards into ...
-How To Remove Oil-Painted Letters From Glass
Brush over the letters a strong solution of caustic soda, or a mixture of 2 parts of pearlash, 1 part of quicklime, and sufficient water to make it into a cream. Allow the liquids to remain on the gla...
-How To Make Soap Box And Tumbler Rack
Any odd pieces of sound wood fin. or 1/2 in. thick may be used to make the article illustrated, and the several pieces when cut out are put together with round brass-headed screws. The back board meas...
-Preparing End Grain Wood For French Polishing
Cabinet-makers finish the end grain of wood ready for polishing with a finely set iron-faced plane, and where this does not leave the wood sufficiently smooth the steel scraper may be used. Some cabin...
-How To Make Stereotyper's Flong
Flong may be made with two sheets of soft but tough matrix paper and four sheets of strong tissue, put together with stereotyper's paste. The paste recommended by an American authority upon stereotypi...
-Facing And Staining Picture Frame Mouldings
Patent or glue size and best whiting- mixed and spread on like paint is generally used; several coats may be given. Or plaster-of-Paris and whiting in equal parts could be used. When quite dry, smooth...
-How To Polish Razors
To remove from a hollow razor the marks caused by grinding, a glazer is required. This may lie of wood only, or wood covered with leather on the edge, which must he dressed with emery of the various g...
-Re-Colouring Bronzes
Imitation bronzes, made of spelter metal, may he restored by careful washing, polishing with soft chamois leather, and lacquering warm with best silver lacquer. Ke-bronzing must be done by electro dep...
-How To Make Saucepan Covers
Saucepan covers of copper and tin are made in two shapes, as shown in section by Figs. 1 and 2. To make a cover like Fig. 1, bend a thin strip of metal to the shape of the section; this strip of metal...
-Background For Photographic Portraiture
For a background for full and three-quarter length portraits, a light bluish grey is the best colour, it should not be a flat tint, but graduated with soft clouds of various shades. To make such backg...
-How To Make A Plaster Relief From A Photographic Negative
To make a bas-relief in plaster-of-Paris from a photographic negative, the process briefly is as follows: - Soak a sheet of No. 4 gelatine in a solution of bichromate ot potash, made by dissolving 1 d...
-Gold Veins In Book Edge Marbling
The gold veins in marbled paper, or on the marbled edges of books, may be produced as follows: - Let the rest of the marbling be thoroughly dry. Then beat well together 1 part white of egg, 1 part spi...
-Waterproof Dressing For Overalls
Unbleached calico or drill sheeting is generally used for making overalls; all the seams should be double seam. For a dressing, really good boiled oil is perhaps the most durable, though some sailors ...
-Remedy For Smoky Chimney
The most prolific cause of smoking with open ranges is the large open space that exists over the range and forms the mouth of the chimney. The draught in Those ranges is not very keen at the best, and...
-How To Make A Metalworkers' Mandrel Dolly
A mandrel dolly is made by first fixing the mandrel securely to a strongly made bench, by means of iron clamps passing over the square end of the mandrel, and holding them in position by nuts and bolt...
-Paste For Laying Linoleum And Oilcloth
To make cheap flour paste suitable for laying linoleum and oilcloth, mix rye flour with a little cold water, then add boiling water, well stirring the paste while the water is being poured. Melt some ...
-Converting Bacon Cuttings Into Soap
The fat is first rendered in a large cylinder with an inlet for steam, exits for water and melted fat, manholes for charging and withdrawing fat, a false bottom for the latter to rest on, and a safety...
-Stitching A Square Edge To The Cushion Of A Couch
To stitch up the front edge of a couch seat so as to procure and retain a tine point, the tools required are a. double-pointed 8-in. mattress needle, areeulator, which is something like a broad Hat pa...
-Cement To Withstand Paraffin Oil
Glue is one of the best materials tor withstanding paraffin or any other oil. Another cement is made by dissolving 1 part of caustic soda in 5 parts of water, and boiling with 3 parts of resin till di...
-A Table Book-Rest
Procure a board 13 in. wide and 1/2 in. thick, planed smooth and as free from knots as possible. A piece 15in. long, shaped as shown in Fig. 1, firms the board A (Pigs. 1 and 3). The star at the top o...
-Regilding Soldered Joints Of Plated Goods
An electro-gilding solution made as follows is required: Dissolve 1 oz. of potassium cyanide in lpt. of distilled water made hot in an enamelled iron saucepan; suspend in this two strips of pure gold ...
-Ascertaining Flash Point Of Oils
The flash point of oils is determined in two ways - by the open test and by the close test. By the first method a small porcelain or metal dish is partly filled with the oil and placed on a sand...
-Heating Cylinder From Two Fires
A breakfast room grate and a kitchen range, if the two fires are back to back, can be utilised to heat a cylinder. There must be a boiler in each fire, the saddle boiler in the range being connected t...
-Use Of The Optical Square
This is an instrument 2 in. diameter by 3/4 in. thick, to be held in the hand and arranged as shown in the accompanying figure, in which A is the sight hole where the eye is placed, B and c are openin...
-How To Make Blowers For Register Stoves
Commence hollowing the semicircular blower by working round the circular part with a series of regular blows from a bullet-faced hammer, and holding the edge of the metal over a shallow hole in the ho...
-Value Of Gold And Silver
Gold has a fixed market value per ounce which never alters. Pure gold (24 carat) is worth £1 5s. per ounce troy; 22-cara1 gold (guinea gold or wedding-ring gold) is worth £3; 17s. lid. per ounce troy;...
-Cause Of Clicking Noise In Hot-Water Pipes
The clicking noise that proceeds from hot-water pipes after hot water has been drawn is caused by the expansion of a pipe (or pipes) when suddenly heated. If the pipe is cold, as is probably the case,...
-Purple Stain For Wood
To make a purple stain, obtain l1b. of logwood chips or 1/4 lb. of logwood extract. 1/4 lb. of pearlash, 2oz. of powdered indigo, and 3 qt. of water. Boil the logwood till the full strength is obtaine...
-How To Fit Worm Screws And Raised Frets To A Banjo
To fit worm screws and raised frets to a banjo, get a pair of plates with machines fitted, and adapt them to the head of the banjo by squaring the scalloped sides and slotting the present holes quit...
-Varnish For Cork Frames
For a varnish suitable for cork frames intended for indoors, there is nothing to equal spirit varnish, which consists of methylated spirit lpt., shellac 4oz., and resin 2oz.; it dries quickly and give...
-Roughcasting Walls
The walls are first plastered with lime and hair mortar, having, for the best class of work, some cement added to improve it. After this has set, a second coat of mortar, mixed so as to be fat, is spr...
-Felling A High Chimney Shaft
To ensure that the stalk shall fall in a narrow compass, it will be desirable to fix three guy ropes from the top, equally divided round the circle, and made fast at a distance from the base of the sh...
-Tuck Pointing Brickwork: Methods And Materials
The ordinary process of tuck-pointing is as follows. The joints of the work to be pointed are raked out to the depth of Jin., then filled in with stopping. If the stopping is not coloured, all the wor...
-Watch Carried In The Pocket Losing Time
All watches (except extremely fine ones) lose to a certain extent in the pocket and go faster when lying horizontally, the difference varying from thirty seconds to one minute per day. It is caused by...
-How To Make Silver Bronze Powder
The best silver bronze is made by mixing silver leaf with honey or gum water, and grinding to powder in a mortar, after which the powder is washed with water and dried. For a common silver bronze, mel...
-"Marine" Glue
Marine glue is made from 1 part of Lndiarubber (cut into shredsi and 12 parts of coal-tar naphtha; these are kept in a bottle in a warm place and shaken from time to time till the rubber is dissolved;...
-How To Make A Child's Chair
The strong useful chair illustrated below is suitable for children in their teens, and will stand wear and tear for a great many years, provided it is made from a hard wood. All the spindles can be ma...
-How To Clean Sheet Brass After Annealing
Large sheets of brass should be annealed in a properly constructed muffle or furnace; small pieces may be done in an open fire of cinders or small coke, not too hot. Heat the plates to a dull red heat...
-Strength Of Sheet Iron Water Tanks
Rectangular tanks are tested as follows: 3/15in., 101b.; Jin., 51b. per square inch. The corresponding values for cylindrical tanks are 401b. and 251b, per square inch. The cylindrical shape is almost...
-Photographic Mountants
The best of all photographic mouutants is starch. Place a teaspoonful of crushed starch in a teacup and mix into a thin cream with cold water, then, whilst stirring, add boiling water till the starch ...
-Chemical Fire Engine
The chemical fire engine is fitted with two tanks, one of which contains a solution of bicarbonate ot soda and the other sulphuric acid. By allowing the acid to flow into the bicarbonate, carbonic aci...
-Preparing Moonlight Scenes For Diorama
The high lights should be cut with a sharp knife, each cut being horizontal, and from lin. to 3 in. in length. Take care the cuts do not run into each other. The path of the moonlight across the water...
-Lens For All-Round Photographic Work, Etc
For all-round work with a whole-plate camera, procure a rapid rectilinear of about 9J-in. focus by a ....... maker, Mich as Boss, Dallmeyer, Wray, or Taylor. The components of the lens should be of di...
-Hollowing The Underside Of Ridge Roll
To hollow the underside of a ledge for covering the joint of a roof as shown in the accompanying sketch (Fig. 1), the end of the piece of wood should be marked out and a small plough groove made, as s...
-Obtaining Smooth Surface On Glass Balls
To get a perfectly smooth surface on glass balls direct from the moulds, remove the outer hard skin of glass by revolving the balls with a little flue emery powder and water; after that they will gri...
-Darkening Light Brown Leather Shoes
To darken a pair of light tan shoes, give them a couple of coats of Propert's dark stain, and afterwards polish with the darkest brown cream that can be obtained. If the leather has not been creamed b...
-Enlarging A Quantity Of Small Photographs
To enlarge to cabinet size, with as little expense as possible, a considerable number of small photographs, stamp size, the prints must be copied the same size, and the negatives thus obtained enlarge...
-Height Of Domestic Hot-Water Expansion Pipe
The expansion of water in these apparatus never exceeds 1 in 30; that is, the top water line in the apparatus never stands higher than the cold-water line in the cistern which feeds it, more than lft....
-How To Make Liquid Malt Extract
To prepare a small quantity of liquid malt extract, cover the malt with water and heat to a temperature of 180' F. for an hour, then press out the extract from the grains. The addition of a small quan...
-Oiling Watches And Clocks
In choosing the oil to be used for watches and clocks, it should be remembered that a watch will generally go from two to three years before the oil dries up. A clock, as a rule, will go from three to...
-Dimensions Of Canoe To Carry One Person
A canvas canoe of the following dimensions would carry one person of ordinary weight on about 4 1/2-in. draught, but by adding 2ft. to her length she would be considerably easier to propel: - Length o...
-How To Determine Contents Of Cylindrical Tank
First determine the contents of the tank in cubic feet. To do this, square the diameter in feet and multiply by.7854: then multiply by the length in feet. Thus the contents of a circular tank 7 ft. in...
-Shaping The Top Kail Of Greenhouse
To determine the bevel or slant of the top cross-bar so that the piece shown in Fig. 1 shall be fitted as in Fig. 2, draw (Fig. 3) to scale as shown. Along a horizontal line mark off the span of the g...
-How To Gild Piano Fronts
Artistic designs similar to work seen on piano panels are usually put on by transfer process after the panels have been bodied up; the subsequent polishing and finishing out will give an appearance of...
-Pattern For Square Aquarium Top
To make a perforated square zinc top for an aquarium, that could be taken off and put on as required, commence by drawing a plan and elevation (Figs. 1 and 2) to the required size. Divide the semicirc...
-Grease For Undercarriage Of Victoria
The best lubricant to use on the perch bolt and felloe pieces when putting together the under-carriage of a victoria is mule by melting some tallow, then mixing with it sufficient axle oil so that it ...
-How To Remove Brass Collars From Glass Ware
If it is wished to preserve the collars, allow them to stand for some time in dilute hydrochloric acid, which will dissolve out the plaster-of-Paris. If the collars are not required, place them in str...
-Tightening Up Floor Boards Without Using A "Dog"
Floor boards can be tightened up without the aid of a floor dog by the method shown at Fig. 1. The board next the wall should be well secured to the joists, and then three or four boards can be laid d...
-Transferring Drawings To Linen
Transfer drawings of flowers, etc., are made with some composition on tissue or tracing paper from stencil plates cut to suit the particular patterns. The composition is a material consisting of resin...
-How To Blacken Brass Buttons
To make shiuy brass buttons black, immerse them in a strong solution of copper nitrate or sulphate- Then heat them on a hot plate or carefully in the flame of a Bunsen burner till they are black. Well...
-Bevelling Plate Glass
To obtain a bevel edge on plate glass, either circular revolving tables or fixed ones maybe used. The table for grinding is of thick cast iron, and is fed with sand and water the smoothing table is of...
-Taking Apart A Geneva Lever Watch
In taking a Geneva lever watch apart, first remove it from its case; then lever off the hands, remove the dial, and take off the motion wheels underneath it. Next remove the central set-hand arbor by ...
-Particulars Of Salinometers
There are two kinds, one giving the percentage of common salt in the solution, the other used by marine engineers as a guide to the point at which to blow off. Salinometers are made either of glass or...
-Mixing Lime Concrete
For ordinary foundations, with no great or concentrated loads, the following proportions may be adopted: Bricks, broken to pass through a 2-in. ring, 4 1/2 parts; clean, sharp sand, 2 1/2 parts; groun...
-How To Clean Velvet-Pile Table Cover
To clean a velvet-pile table cover, first remove all dust by hanging up the table cover and carefully beating it; then treat it several times with benzine, pressing each time so as to remove all the d...
-Heat-Resisting Covering For Steam Boilers
Hair, cotton, fibres of organic origin, and feathers arc the best materials, 1 bough fine sawdust and cork powder have been used. Clay with fibres, and fibres with cow-dung have also been employed. Th...
-How To Make A Pedestal For A Table
The following illustrations give a design for a pedestal for a walnut table top; the table is 2ft. diameter and Jin. thick. Fig. 1 shows the elevation and Fig. 2 the greater part of the plan, looking ...
-Method Of Burning Limestone
No very great improvements in the method of burning mountain limestone have been made for several years, but there are kilns, such as the Hofmann kiln, and calciners which are great improvements on th...
-How To Get Rid Of Mites In Furniture
Use ordinary furniture polish on the wood of the furniture, and place a saucer full of strong ammonia below the sofa and chairs from time to time. As a rule, a dry room is best for furniture, and ther...
-Varnishing A Van In The Natural Wood
Where the grain is to show out plain it is not sustom-nry to stain the wool: staining blurs the natural grain, on account of one part absorbing more stain than another. The method usually adopted for ...
-Enlarging With Fixed Focus Hand Camera
The accompanying sketch shows an arrangement for making either enlarged negatives or prints. In the bottom of a lidless box M cut an opening 4 7/8 in. by 3 1/8 in.; fit grooves A A top and bottom, to ...
-Using Gold Bronze
To apply gold bronze to furniture in paint form, coat the furniture with paint, japan, spirit varnish, or anything that will prevent suction; then coat where the bronze is wanted with gold size or qui...
-Utilising Old Vulcanised Indiarubber
The tools required would be a small rotary cutter, a sheet-iron box with sliding front and chimney at top. an iron tray, two large ring gas burners, knives or spatulas, and iron moulds shaped like the...
-Obliterating An Engraved Crest On A Silver Jug
To remove an engraved crest from a small silver jug, (1) file out the work with a fine fiat file if the surface of the jug is of a full or rounded nature, anil with a riffler or small bent file if hol...
-Shaping Soap Into Bars And Tablets
The soap is made by boiling fats and caustic soda in large pans, from which it is run through channels over the frames : the latter are large rectangular moulds built up of iron plates bolted toget...
-Calculating Heating Surface Of Radiators
For calculating the heating surfaces of radiators and pipes for schools, greenhouses, etc., the following notes are useful: - For brick buildings, for a temperature of 50 F., use 7sq. ft. of heat...
-How To Find The Mitre, Etc. Of Raking Cornice Moulding
A (Fig. 1) shows the true section of the raking moulding. The five points have been taken in the ciu-ve, and lines 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 drawn through them. Then from these points perpendiculars are draw...
-Clock Escapements And Motive Power
When a cheap clock, such as an American spring clock without a fusee, is first wound up, the motive power is very great, and when the sane clock is nearly run down, the power has diminished to perhaps...
-How To Make Marlboro' Easy Chair
Figs. 1 and 2 show front and side views respectively of the framing. The total height is 4 ft.; width, 2ft.; height of seat without cushion, 1ft. lin.; height of arms from seat, lft.; and width of sea...
-Colouring Drawings
The colours used in architectural and mechanical drawings vary according to circumstances. Some draughtsmen use a very pale sepia for York stone in elevation, pale Payne's grey for Portland or Bath st...
-Oleomargarine
This is the softer portion of the purest and ireshest beef suet from the ribs, rendered at 140 F. to 150 F., arid the fat poured off clean and pressed at 95 F. The product is of a butte...
-Bamboo Newspaper Rack
Four 1-in. and two 5/8-in. canes will be required; from the former four lengths should be bent or toed out and cut off 20 in. long. Four pieces, each 16 in. long, for the four rails should now be cut ...
-Photographing An Oil Painting
Whether the pointing is under glass or not, it will probably be advisable to let it face the window. All reflections must be got rid of; sometimes slightly tilting the picture and swinging the back of...
-Vienna Regulator Striking Clock
In the accompanying figure the wheels between the plates are represented by plain circles to show their positions. The gut lines are wound up on barrels, fitted with winding ratchets and clicks and cl...
-How To Make Crystoleum Photographs
A portrait should be chosen giving good gradation without very deep blacks. A pair of concave glasses in different sizes may be bought of any artists' colourman, and should be chosen to fit the pictur...
-Stain And Varnish For Elm
For indoor work, use a good quality spirit varnish; for outdoor work, use a good oak, copal, or carriage varnish. A wipe over with raw linseed oil will fetch out the figure, a reddish tinge being impa...
-Two Boilers To One Hot-Water Cylinder
When a cylinder system apparatus is to be heated by two boilers, one boiler is generally connected to the cylinder in the usual way, and the pipes from the second boiler connected to the pipes of the ...
-Construction Of Tenons For Entrance Gates
The construction of tenons for gates, such as entrance gates to parks or lodges, is shown by portions of two typical examples of gates (Figs. 1 and 5). The forms of the tenons, etc., are indicated by ...
-How To Test Gold
File a clean spot upon the metal to be tested, so that any gilding or outside colouring may be removed. Apply a small drop of pure nitric acid to this spot, and watch it closely. If the metal is brass...
-Dry-Cleaning A Valencia Waistcoat
Sprinkle a mixture of fuller's earth and magnesia over the waistcoat, theu rub it in with a clean piece of flannel. With another piece of flannel apply benzine to the waistcoat, after which sprinkle s...
-How To Stain White Wood Teak Colour
Brush over the article some raw sienna ground in water, mixed in stale beer, and allow it to soak in. When nearly dry, wipe off the surplus with clean rag; this will give a yellowish undercoat. Now ta...
-Producing Crystals Upon Wickerwork
To produce crystals upon wickerwork, such as baskets, boil about 21b. of alum in 1 gal. of water, and, while still hot, pour this into a jar large enough to hold the baskets. When cool, some of the al...
-Gilding Glass
For gilding on glass, isinglass and distilled water are used; sometimes a little pure spirit of wine is added, but nut necessarily, as the best results can be obtained with the distilled water and isi...
-How To Make A Portiere Rod
The rod A (Fig. 1) is cut from a broomstick; at one end is fixed a fancy wood knob, at the other end a piece of brass pipe to act as a ferrule; into this end is screwed a round-headed brass screw bent...
-How To Polish Marble
Marble, such as is used for mantelpiece jambs, is polished in a variety of ways, the choice depending largely upon the nature and quality of the material, which vary greatly. The following method will...
-Filtration Of Oils By Heat
Tow, such as brewers use for the nitration of malt liquor, answers well as a filtering medium for viscous fluids. The filtration is expedited by heat, and may lie accomplished in the following simple ...
-Manufacture Of Porcelain And Earthenware Goods
The finer qualities of earthenware or porcelain goods are manufactured from mixtures of. various clays, calcined bones, etc., from which every organic constituent has been burned out. All these iugred...
-How To Blacken And Bronzing Brass
To obtain a black colour, dip the brass in a strong solution of copper nitrate or copper sulphate, and then heat on a hot plate or hold the article in a Bunsen flame. To bronze the metal, dissolve 1 1...
-Self-Winding Clocks
Many have been made. Some of these are being continually wound up by means of a fan placed in a tall chimney shaft, up which there is a natural draught that always keeps the fan revolving. The fan is ...
-Machine For Withdrawing Axle Boxes From Wheels
Fig. 1 shows the machine in position on a stock of a wheel ready to force the axle box back. The top corners are made with knuckle joints, so as to allow of side play to take various sizes of stocks, ...
-Recipes For Cheap Red And Black Paints
For a cheap black paint for rough outside work, melt together equal parts of pitch and coal-tar, and thin to a working consistency with coal-tar naphtha. The naphtha may be dispensed with if the melte...
-Painting Lines On A Glass Plate
To paint narrow lines on a plate of glass such as is used for show signs, first clean the side of the glass to be lined with a few drops of ammonia in warm water; then polish with a piece of soft pape...
-Apparatus For Washing Large Photographic Prints
Large prints are not generally washed in the mechanical manner adopted for small prints, because of the difficulty of keeping the prints from clinging together, and the impossibility of changing the w...
-How To Make Clinical Thermometers
These, like ordinary chemical thermometers, are made from special tubing with a capillary bore. The bulb is blown by a mechanical blower. The arrangement for preventing the mercury running back into t...
-Hoop-Iron Bond For Brickwork
Hoop-iron bond is either a plain ban 1 of iron, such as is used to fasten bales of goods, about 1 in. wide by No. 20 gauge thick, or it is stouter, and specially made with triangular stabs in it to ca...
-Usual Simple Forms Of Hot-Water Apparatus
The sketches below represent the two commonest schemes of hot-water apparatus in their simplest form. They would be erected tints for small property, and also for large property if some of the many sp...
-Tuck Pointing And Re-Colouring Brickwork
The method generally adopted for colouring ordinary brickwork is to apply with a brush a solution of green copperas (l lb. to 5 gal. of water). This should be tried on a few bricks, and allowed to dry...
-Enlarging Photographs By Daylight
For making enlargements by utilising the window of a dark room, construct a bracket A (see illustration) and an upright easel B, running in guiding rails X. Outside the window hinge a reflector D, con...
-How To Stain Pine To Imitate Chippendale
To stain yellow pine in imitation of Chippendale mahogany, procure some burnt sienna, ground in water, mix with stale beer, and add a small quantity of vandyke brown and rose pink; mix well together. ...
-Dissolving Gum Copal
Copal varies in quality, as hard, half hard, and soft, and gives best results when dissolved in properly heated vessels. Soft gums contain a small percentage of water, and if cold turpentine is added ...
-Demagnetising A Watch
Place the watch over an alternating current transformer so that it is in the magnetic field, and then decrease the current gradually to nothing. Another way is to spin a bar magnet just over the watch...
-How To Determine Speed Of Photographic Shutter
Choose an object, say the wheel of a bicycle, which may be got to make exactly one revolution per second. Fasten to one of the spokes near the tyre a disc of bright tinfoil, and focus the wheel as lar...
-Fastening Legs To A Bamboo Table Top
Fig. 1. shows a simple method of fastening the legs. Strips of deal or other suitable wood are bored to receive the top ends of the legs, which are glued and fastened with a sprig as indicated. The st...
-Timber-Framed Buildings
There are many ways of constructing these, but three methods adopted where cost is a consideration are as follows: - (1) Planting 7 in. by 2 in. deals on the face of a wall; (2) framing timbers togeth...
-Method Of Panelling With Veneers
Wood panelling, although a very suitable and much-used enrichment, is generally very costly. The following is a strong and effective method of fitting it at a greatly reduced cost. First cut some oak ...
-Painting Clock Dials
To repaint clock dials, all the old paint must first be removed, and the plate cleaned thoroughly from grease. The white ground can be painted with white enamel, obtainable in 3d. and 6d. tins. These ...
-Covering A Small Roof With Zinc
A small roof of the shape indicated in Fig. 1 may be covered as shown in Fig. 2, which is a section across one roll at A - B (Fig. 1); Fig. 3 is a section on C - Dot the end roll showing apron to weat...
-One-Solution Developers For Photographic Negatives
These developers are usually employed for the development of snapshot exposures, and are therefore compounded for under-exposed plates. The following are given in grains per ounce, from which any quan...
-How To Renovate Plaster Bronzes
Brush them carefully with a soft brush and paint the surface with gold size, and, when this is sticky after standing a short time, apply the bronze powder with a pad of chamois leather. Dry in an oven...
-Cementing Leather To Iron
To cement leather to iron, first paint the latter with Lead colour, such as white-lead and lampblack. Soak slue in cold water until it is soft, then dissolve it in vinegar at a gentle heat, add one-th...
-How To Make Gelatine Moulds
When making gelatine moulds for easting plaster ornaments, etc., the glue or gelatine must be of good quality; it is soaked in water till soft, and melted over the fire in the usual way. The gelatine ...
-Self-Feeding Poultry Food Bin
Fig. 1 shows a section and Fig. 2 a front view of the bin, which may be made of 3/4-in. pine. The sides are made with the grain of the wood running from top to bottom, a ledge being nailed across the ...
-Meaning Of Tension, Compression, And Strain
A body is in tension when a force, acting on it parallel to its axis, tends to separate its particles by drawing them apart. A compression force is one that acts parallel to the axis of the body and ...
-Speed Of Photographic Shutter
There is no fixed speed at which a photographic shutter should be worked, because so much depends upon the strength of the light, the aperture of the lens, the speed of the plate, and the rapidity wit...
-Black Paint For Lettering On Glass
To make a black liquid suitable for writing letters on opal glass, take 1/2 lb. of lampblack, dry. and place it on an iron plate, well saturate it with turpentine, then set tire to it and let it burn ...
-Dyeing Fancy Grasses Various Colours
Allow the grasses to soak for some time in a very hot and strong solution of aniline dye in water. Those dyes which are not soluble in water may be dissolved in spirit, and the solution added to water...
-Tempering Cold Setts For Cutting Steel Rails
The methods of tempering ordinary engineers' cutting tools are suitable for setts. Warm water is preferred by many, but cold water gives a harder temper. Water which has been long in use is better tha...
-Colouring Malleable Castings
A good green colour is obtained on malleable castings by blackleading the castings, and then lacquering them, when heated, with a green lacquer. Or they may be painted over with bronze powder, which m...
-Fixative For Pencil Drawings
Pencil drawings made on ordinary drawing paper may be protected from smudging or becoming blurred by a thin coating of methylated spirit into which some resin has been dissolved. The varnish may be ap...
-Design For Small Pulpit
Fig. 1 shows a sketch plan, Fig. 2 shows front elevation, with a portion removed on the left in order to show the stairs. Fig. 3 shows the side elevation. Enlarged details are given as follows: - Fig....
-Painting A Cart
To be used for trade purposes, it would look very well with the body painted chocolate lined out with vermilion; the under parts, such as shafts, wheels, etc., being painted a light yellow, picked out...
-Boring Holes In Bricks
For boring holes about 1/2 in. or 3/4in. diameter at any place in an ordinary brick wall, an old twist-bit used as a boring to 1 may be made to serve the purpose: a piece of steel tube, such as...
-White Cement Floor
For making a hard white cement floor for a room, lay an ordinary cement concrete foundation, about 5in. thick (4 to l),nnd on this lay a coat, lin. thick, of Portland cement and clean white sand (1 to...
-Efficiencies Of Water Motors
For small power purposes, for pressures of 50 lb. per square inch and upwards, if efficiency is defined as the ratio of the work received from the motor compared to that put into it, the following lis...
-Hot-Air Oven
The modern hot-air oven suitable for enamelling and japanning here shown is about 10 ft. by 8ft. by 7 ft. high, with iron swing doors in front. An ordinary furnace Are, fire-brick lined, is built at t...
-How To Make A Hair Mattress
The top of a hair mattress is made of sateen Leeds ticking, bordered with fancy striped Belgian. The underside can be covered with fine hessian, but if made of the same material as the top the mattres...
-Design For Bamboo Cabinet
In the accompanying sketch the uprights of top are 2 ft. 6 in. long, the cross rails 3ft. 3iu.,and the mirror 20in. by 15in. Use 1 1/4-m, or 1 1/2n. canes for the work. Make up the front and back of t...
-How To Renovate Brasswork Of Bedstead
Take the loose brasswork to pieces and boil off the old lacquer in a hot solution of carbonate of soda and water - 1 lb. of carbonate to 1 gal. of water; then swill the parts in clean water. Repolish ...
-Darkening A Mahogany Picture Frame
To darken a Spanish mahogany picture frame, dissolve loz. of bichromate of potash in 1 pt. of warm water. Apply the solution with a sponge or brush, getting it well into all quirks or hollows; wipe of...
-How To Make A Pencil Marking Gauge
This tool is not generally found among woodworkers' tools, but if it were more adopted it would be found an advantage over the common rough way of using the fingers and pencil as a gauge. It will be s...
-Frame For Working Embroidery
The accompanying sketches of a corner and back view will give an idea of how to make a suitable frame on which to work embroidery. The tenon A (Fig. 1) is cut, not in the middle, but towards one side ...
-How To Make Thin Glass Covers For Microscope Slides
The semi-fluid glass is first blown out into a very large thin bulb and the blowpipe swung from side to side until the bulb elongates into a cylinder. The rounded ends of the cylinder are cracked off ...
-Deadening Sound Coming Through Party Walls
The fault of sound coming through a party wall generally does not lie so much in the wall itself as in the joists. It will probably be found that the joists rest in the party wall, possibly touching e...
-Newspaper Rack In Bamboo
The rack shown in the accompanying illustration has four corner posts, each 19 in. long, slightly bent at the bottom to form the feet. The posts are connected by three rails A, B, and C, back and fron...
-Sharpening A Cabinet-Maker's Steel Scraper
A scraper, to be of any use, must have the edge as keen and sharp as possible. The contrivance shown in Figs. L and 2 for trueing the edge of a steel scraper does away with the necessity for a vice, o...
-Repolishing A Bath Top
Scrub off the polish with strong washing soda, using a little powdered pumice stone or Bath brick to assist. When dry, smooth down with glasspaper. Bath tops are usually French polished with a trace o...
-Wheelwright's Horse For Mortising Wheel Naves
The horse shown in Figs. 1 and 2 is to be preferred to the pit for light work. It stands close against a wall, prefei'ably under a window; the larger parts can be made of deal. Itis very light, and ca...
-How To Fit A New Hairspring To A Watch
It is first necessary to know how many beats per hour the balance is required to make. This varies according to the kind of watch. A Geneva or an American watch will beat 18,000 per hour; an English w...
-Stain And Varnish For Towel Rail
Towel rails are usually finished in imitation pine or mahogany. For pine, mix a small quantity of raw sienna with stale beer or vinegar; apply with a brush, rubbing well into all quirks, and wipe off ...
-Mitring A Cornice Moulding
The method of mitring the cornice moulding shown by Fig. 1, when the cornice is built up as shown by the section (Fig. 2), should present little difficulty in respect of the members A and B. To keep t...
-How To Make Indiarubber Tubing
There are two methods of making rubber tubing. The pure rubber is treated with carbon bisulphide or benzine to form a dough, which is rolled out into thin sheets and then cut into strips. A strip is i...
-How To Make Photographic Carbon Tissue
Carbon tissue may be purchased either sensitised or unsensi-tised. Sensitised carbon tissue will keep for a fortnight, under pressure; unsensitised tissue will keep indefinitely. To sensitise the tiss...
-How To Make Watch Hairsprings
The operation of making watch hairsprings requires special skill. In making by hand, flat wire is fastened at one end to the arbor of a winder not unlike a mainspring winding tool and wound up quite t...
-Fastening Tenon Saw To Lid Of Tool Chest
A simple method of fixing a tenon saw on the lid of a tool chest is to use a wooden clip, as shown at A (Fig. 1), which holds the end of the saw. The handle can be fastened by a button, as shown at B....
-Recipe For Dead Black Waterproof Ticket Ink
Take Ivory black or any dry colour and grind (on a slab with a muller) in japan gold size to the consistency of honey (the proportions cannot be given, as one colour will absorb more size than another...
-Preparing Scenery For A Diorama
The kind of cloth used for dioramas is called union j it is made in various sizes, and requires no preparation to receive the colours. The subject to be represented is first carefully drawn in outline...
-How To Make Cyanide Of Potassium
Prussian blue, ferro-cyanide or potassium (yellow prussiate), and cyanide of potash are now recovered by the Gas Light & Coke Co. from the purifying materials used. There are two methods of recovering...
-Sizing And Varnishing Wall-Paper
To size and varnish the paper of a hall and staircase, dissolve 7 lb. of size in 3 gal. of boiling water. When cold it will be of the consistency of a weak jelly. Apply this to the paper with a double...
-Preventing Oxidation Of Molten Lead
Strew powdered charcoal over the surface of the metal; or add borax, which will fuse and form a layer upon the lead, thus excluding the atmosphere. The brown powder is largely oxide of lead; it may be...
-Architects' Perspective Drawings
The perspective drawings prepared by architects sometimes have the principal lines put in by the rules of geometrical perspective as taught in the art schools, but usually they are found by a special ...
-Medicine Cupboard
Fig. 1 shows a front elevation and Fig. 2 a side elevation. It is 2ft. long and 17iu. wide, and is fastened to the wall by four mirror plates, one at each corner. The four shelves are let into the end...
-Waterproofing Van Sheets
A waterproof paint for van sheets may be made by boiling together, at a temperature of 500 F. for four or five hours, 1 1/2 gal. of linseed oil, 2oz. of litharge, 2 oz. of umber, and just suffici...
-Disinfecting Books
If the book to be disinfected is not of much value, burn it. A valuable book may have each page clipped in a solution of bichloride of mercury, blotted and dried, the covers removed and burnt, and the...
-Reviving Polish On Pianos
Take equal parts of lime water, traw linseed oil, and turps. Well shake the lime water and oil till a cream is formed, then add the turps. Apply liberally with wadding, and wipe off with rag. Clear ou...
-Bed-Rest For Invalid
A simple form of back-rest suitable for au invalid when sitting up in bed is shown in the accompanyiug'sketch. For its construction good red deal, birch, or mahogany may be used. Make three frames sim...
-How To Polish Teak To Resemble Rosewood
To stain and polish teak to represent rosewood, dissolve one pennyworth of Bismarck brown in lpt. of hot vinegar and water (equal parts). With this, brush over the article once or twice. When dry, wip...
-Erasing And Re-Ensraving Initials On Watch Case
To erase initials from a watch case is a delicate job. If the letters are in the centre of an otherwise plain case, take a fine flat tile (costing about 4d. at a jewellers' material dealer), and, with...
-Combined Jewel, Glove, And Handkerchief Case
A case made in the form of Fig. 1 will be suitable for holding jewels, gloves, and handkerchiefs. It is 14in. by 8 in. by 9 in. deep, and contains two drawers, one to receive handkerchiefs and one to ...
-Hints On Printing Blue Photographs
The details of the picture should be fully out, and the dark parts should have a bronzed appearance. Care is required to prevent the blue becoming less intense, and therefore the white lines not showi...
-Tinning Inside Copper Pipes And Brasswork
For tinning any metal it is first necessary to clean it from dirt and sand and remove the surface which is oxidised or tarnished. This surface is removed by pickling the metals for a few hours in clea...
-Contents Of Tapering Vessels
A gallon of water occupies 277'27cub. in., and the capacity of the frustum of a cone can be obtained by adding to the sum of the areas of the two ends the square root of their product and then multipl...
-Etching On Copper
A copper plate is polished, and fixed in a mixture of resin and beeswax by warming the wax and laying the copper plate on. All grease is removed with whiting, the surface of the copper coated with fin...
-Copyirg A Mounted Photograph
The print should be copied in contact with glass. Presuming the print is upon an ordinary mount (that is, not set hack in a cut out mount), place it in a frame containing a perfectly clear sheet of gl...
-Position Of Mast In Canoe
The centre of effort of a single lug-sail should be about 3 in. ahead of the centre of lateral resistance of the immersed portion of the canoes hull; the correct position of the mast will therefore de...
-Power From Waterfalls, Tides, Etc
The different methods by which water can be made to perform mechanical work are: First, by its weight; second, by shock, as when a stream of water impinges at right angles on a moving surface; third, ...
-Rubber Solution For Patching Mackintosh
Rubber solution must be made from indiarubber-which lias not been vulcanised; Para rubber is considered best for the purpose. The rubber should be cut. into thin shavings with a very sharp, wet knife....
-Electric Alarm Device For A Clock
The diagram below shows how to attach an electric bell to a clock, the bell to ring at any given time. A is an alarm device cemented to the face of the clock. The flexible wire at B is connected to th...
-How To Polish Tarnished Copper
The quickest and cheapest method of polishing tarnished copper is to buff up the article on a polishing machine; if this is impracticable, it may be polished by hand. To do this, mix some fine flour e...
-Painting Canvas Canoe
Both sides of the canvas material of the canoe should be painted. The object in painting the inside is to prevent any water getting between the framework and the skin and thus rotting the canvas. Part...
-How To Remove Brunswick Black
To remove Brunswick black from a stone mantelpiece previous to painting it, use American potash dissolved in water, and made into the consistency of paste by adding newly slaked lime. Apply this with ...
-Preventing Rust In Kitchen Boiler
A boiler can often be cured of rusting by giving it two or three coats of liraewash to which has been added a little size to act as a fixative; about the same proportions should be used as in making a...
-Meaning Of Term Kilowatt
This is a measure of electrical power or rate of doing work, and means 1,000 watts. It is usually applied to large electrical outputs, and can be determined by multiplying the electro-motive force in ...
-Sham Timber Building
The usual way to get an appearance of old-fashioned timber work on a house is by nailing boards on the brickwork to represent the framed timber and plastering the intervening spaces flush with the woo...
-Enamel For Coating Pills
Finely powdered French chalk forms the white enamel used as a coating for pills. The pills are first dipped in a sugar syrup containing white of egg, then placed in the chalk in an agitating machine, ...
-Far-Reaching Signal Sounds
An organ reed - that is, a reed with a vibrator larger than its aperture - produces a more powerful sound than any instrument of the flue-pipe variety. The wind pressure in each case being equal, a lo...
-Distinguishing Good And Bad Fur Skins
When appreciating the good and bad points of skins of mink, marten, and other fur-bearing animals, every skin has its own special points, and age, season, and even sex must be taken into consideration...
-Graining Walnut In Water-Colour
For the groundwork, give a coating of white lead 2 lb., Oxford ochre 2oz., Venetian red 2oz., burnt umber loz., thinned with equal parts of turps and boiled oil. Damp the work thirty-six hours afterwa...
-Oak Finish For Yellow Pine
Staining and French polishing will give the colour of oak, is generally considered the best finish, and is readily cleansed. Pine finish is easier to gain; generally the polish only will give it this ...
-How To Polish Flooring
First coat the floor with a solution of patent knotting, made by adding i gal. of methylated spirit to each gallon of knotting. Place near the fire for half an hour -, shake well before using. One hou...
-Perforated Metal Screen For Window
To make a perforated tin or zinc screen for a window frame 35 in. wide by 30in. high, cut from the metal sheet a rectangle 34 5/8in. by 29 5/8in. A tube frame round the edge makes a neat and strong fi...
-Simple Folding Table
Fig. 1 is an underneath plan of the folding table. A narrow frame A, about 2in. deep, is fixed by means of screws or wood buttons to the underside of the top. The legs are connected to end pieces B, a...
-Painting Compo Work On Building
To paint stone-colour newly compoed work on the front of a house, mix well together 71b. of dry red lead, 1/2 gal. of boiled oil, lqt. of turps, but no driers. Coat the compo with this, and let it sta...
-Asphalt Damp-Proof Course
An ordinary damp-proof building course may be made by mixing 12 gal. coal-tar, 1/2 cwt. pitch, and 2 gal. creosote oil. It will take nearly an hour to melt this quantity, and it should not boil more t...
-Composition For Making Cheap Combs
The combs sold at a penny each are usually made of celluloid, a composition produced by treating collodion cotton with camphor and methylated spirit. The camphorated spirit dissolves the collodion cot...
-Copying Manuscript By Photography
The cheapest plan of copying manuscript books is to use one of the ordinary methods of copying written matter. This, however, necessitates the first copy being written out with special ink. If the wri...
-How To Remove Iron Stains From White Marble
Surface iron stains may be removed by applying a solution of oxalic acid and then washing with water; but if the stains have penetrated through the marble, they cannot be removed. They may be covered ...
-How To Remove Damp Stains From Pictures
To remove damp stains from prints or engravings, they are immersed in a bath containing chloride of lime. Pastels, water-colours, and pencil sketches are more difficult to work upon; in fact, in the c...
-Double Seats For Shop
Figs. 1 and 2 show the ends of two seats different in design for the centre of a shop. Fig. 1 is a double seat, with a footboard 10 in. wide raised 6 in. from the ground. Fig. 2 is a double seat 1 ft....
-Strength Of Beam
The usual formula for finding the strength of a beam when simply supported at both ends is: W = c bd2/L. Where W = breaking weight in cwt. in centre, c = constant (3.6 spruce fir, 40 Northern pi...
-How To Clean A Plaster Bust
The best method of cleaning a plaster bust when it has got blinded by the finer markings getting dulled with dirt, is by careful scraping. If the whole figure is simply stained, or presents a dirty ap...
-How To Make A Scribing Block
The scribing block shown in the accompanying illustrations is made from a rod of mild steel 10 in. long and 1/2 in. in diameter. This is turned down to 7/16 in., finished smooth, and quite parallel th...
-Clarifying Dextrine
A solution of dextrine may be rendered clear by adding to each pint 1/2 drachm of alum dissolved in 3/4 oz. of water; shake thoroughly, and then add 1/4 drachm of washing soda dissolved in 1/2 oz. of ...
-Stiffening For Straw Hats
For stiffening straw hats, thin glue size applied warm is generally used. Ordinary glue size may be employed for coloured straws, and parchment size for white straws. Fur black straws, add a little an...
-Etching Brass Plates With Acid
First make a pencil drawing on paper of the lettering to be etched; plain block letters will be the best for the purpose. Then get a brass plate of the size required and about 1/8 in. thick, and coat ...
-Simple Curtain Rod
The accompanying sketches show at A an old gas bracket, large enough for a 7/8-in. rod as B fitted with curtain rings supporting the curtain. The bracket is screwed to the door-post C, and a brass eye...
-Re-Covering Cushion With Moquette Or Wilton Pile
For a seat 20 in. wide, allow 21 in. for the top, 1 in. for the joining seam at the back, 6 in. for the square front, and two piped seams, making a total width of 29 in., providing the seat cover is m...
-Aunt Sally Gallery
An Aunt Rally gallery should be from 15ft. to 20ft. long and from loft, to 12 It. wide, and the apex of the roof from 8ft. to 10ft. high, sloping from 5ft. to 6ft. at the side. The posts or uprights, ...
-Coke-Breeze Concrete Floor
In a large area of coke-breeze concrete flooring, the coke breeze should pass through a sieve of '-in. mesh, all larger pieces being broken smaller, and be retained on a sieve of 1/16in. mesh, all the...
-How To Fix Trellis Work
The best way to fix a fence of trellis work is to drive stumps (A, Fig. 1) into the ground, and to nail on them a top rail B and a bottom rail C. The trellis can then be nailed to the face of the stum...
-How To Fit A Mainspring To A Skeleton Clock
Take the clock to pieces and obtain a spring of the correct height and length for the barrel. This should be about 1/16,. in. less in height than the inside of the barrel, and when in, its wire should...
-Affixing Gold Leaf To Glass
The only reliable medium for affixing gold leal' to glass is weak isinglass diss lived in rain-water. The backing should be red lead ground in varnish and thinned with turps. Cracking and chipping at ...
-Cement For Repairing Marble
A simple and excellent cement is made by beating the white of an egg in flour till the mixture is of the consistency of thin paste. This cement will even withstand hot water, and, on account of its co...
-Method Of Working Mouldings On Arches
Arches of moderate span, say about 6 ft., can be worked as follows: - Two pieces of timbering should be bolted to the caps of the brickwork columns, on which another piece is fixed to take the bolt wh...
-Improving Furnace For Melting Lead Ashes
To improve a cube lead-melting furniture from which the slag comes out with the lead and blocks up the hole, the temperature of the furnace should be raised gradually and air allowed to enter the furn...
-How To Make Sausepans
When making round-bellied saucepans, first cut the pattern for a frustum of a right cone, using the length of the curve of the side as the slant for the cone, and the top and bottom diameters of the s...
-Warming Buildings By Hot Water
The customary method of calculating the amount of hot-water radiating surface required to warm a building is to allow so many superficial feet of radiating surface per thousand cubic feet of space in ...
-How To Remove Zinc From Solder
To remove the zinc, just melt the solder in a pot, then take it off the fire and stir in a good handful of powdered sulphur or brimstone until the whole is of the consistency of wet sand. Replace the ...
-Design For An Arbour
Fig. 1 is a plan with dimensions marked, Fig. 2 a front elevation, and Fig. 3 a side elevation; at Fig. i is shown a sect ion through a rail and boarding, as at DD (Fig. 3). Fig. 5 shows the construct...
-How To Make Moulds For Sugar Toys
First make a model of the toy in wax, and take a cast of this in plaster of Paris. To do this, procure a small wooden box which will hold the wax model comfortably. Mix some plaster of Paris with wate...
-White-Enamelling Furniture
For white-enamelling the surface of new wood, the foundation is built up with gilders' washed whiting and patent or parchment size; three coats at most should prove sufficient. This is smoothed down w...
-How To Fit A New Mainspring Barrel To A Watch
In an English lever with fusee and chain, the fitting of the barrel is a very simple job, the barrel being merely a brass box. Take the rough barrel and broach out the bottom hole to fit the bottom sh...
-Finishing Cement Cornices
A smooth finish is obtained by the use of fine Portland cement mixed neat. As this works short, it is left a little time till it begins to set; then fresh water is added, and it is beaten up again....
-Material For Sketching On Glass
To make the material used by sign-writers for outlining letters, etc., on glass, melt together 4 parts of stearic acid, 3 parts of mutton suet, and 2 parts of beeswax. Add 6 parts of red lead and 1 pa...
-How To Make A Finder For A Hand Camera
To make a finder for a hand camera, procure a plano-convex or bi-convex spectacle lens, unedged or centred, of about 1-in. focus (cost, 3d.); also a piece of zinc and a piece of silvered glass. Out th...
-Power Of Model Steam Engine
A steam engine has a steam pressure of 251b. per square inch, the bore of the cylinder being 1 in., the length of the stroke 13/4 in., and the speed 350 revolutions per minute. The maximum effective p...
-Light Oak Graining
To grain and varnish yellow deal a light oak, first kill all knots by applying a coat of shellac (knotting) over them; then prime with light colour. When the priming is dry, putty holes and make joint...
-Affixing Anaglypta
When attaching Anaglyptaand Lincrusta Walton to ceilings and walls, all but light quality should be trimmed with a metal-edged straightedge and a sharp knife, such as a shoemaker's knife. The material...
-Heating Chicken Rearer
The accompanying sketch shows a small heater 8 in. by 6 in.,with about 9 ft. of £-in. pipe attached. There is an air valve on top of the heater, and a small filling cistern is connected to the return ...
-How To Make Tube Chimes
A set of chimes may be made from tubing suspended from a frame. These metal tubes are open at each end, and composed of a special alloy. Their musical pitch varies according to their thickness, diamet...
-Cement Rendering On Rubble Wall
Portland cement and sharp sand should be used in the proportion of, say, 1 cement to 3 sand. The cost would vary with local circumstances, but might be about 2s. per yard super, for plain face finishe...
-How To Work Paper Pulp
To give the pulp tenacity, it is boiled in a solution of gum arabic or size. To make figures, the pulp is poured into the mould and a counter mould pressed over the mass so as to make the casting a me...
-Design For A Model Brickwork Clock-Stand
The accompanying design represents a gateway, over which is the opening for the clock. Two types of arches are shown - one camber or flat, the other semicircular. There is very little enrichment, and ...
-Darkening Mahogany
To darken mahogany, enclose the finished articles in an air-tight box, on the floor of which are placed a number of shallow dishes containing liquid ammonia .880 per cent. The fumes, which may play ar...
-Brickwork And Foundations For Tall Chimney
In constructing chimney shafts for Lancashire boilers, the area of the chimney at the top is based upon the size or capacity of the boilers. Thus, area in square inches = 180a/h = 100HP/...
-How To Make Crocus Powder
Crocus is an oxide of iron, and it is made by calcining copperas (sulphate of iron; the residue is divided into two portions, a bright red powder known as rouge, and a bluish-red powder known as crocu...
-How To Make Putty Powder
Putty powder is made by heating metallic tin in a furnace, and thoroughly stirring it so as to bring it in contact with the air; the tin is gradually oxidised, forming first a grey powder and finally ...
-Graining Mahogany In Water Colour
Mahogany graining should be worked on a ground made from white lead, Venetian red, and chrome. First damp the work to be grained with a sponge dipped in water to which has been aided a little fuller's...
-Weight, Measurement, And Strength Of Timber
Information on the weight, measurement, and strength of timber is scattered through various books, from which the following table is extracted: - Timber, Selected Quality. ...
-Deepening The Colour Of Electro-Gilding
When chains, etc., are electro-gilt their surfaces are coated with a film of pure gold, which assumes a pale yellow tint when deposited from a new solution, or from a slightly warm one, or by a very l...
-Varnishing Oil Paintings
The primary object of varnishing an oil painting is to protect it, much in the same way as glass is put over a water-colour drawing; in fact, valuable or delicately painted oil pictures are often prot...
-Comparison Of Beaume Hydrometer Degrees With Specific Gravities
The degrees in the Beaume hydrometer for both heavy and light liquids can be transposed to ordinary specific gravities by the following tables, from the German. The first is for liquids heavier than w...
-Phosphorescent Paint
Luminous paints require direct sunlight for some time, and the phosphorescence they display in the dark only lasts for a few hours. Luminous paints are usually made by heating oyster shells in the fir...
-Oxidising Steel And Silver
To oxidise silver chains to a good dark colour, dip them in a solution of potassium sulphide 24 grains, sal-ammoniac 40 grains, water lpt. For steel chains, dip them in sodium hyposulphate 200 grains ...
-Meaning Of Term "Ampere-Turn"
The term ampere-turn is applied to winding dynamos and electrical instruments. The magnetising effort of a coil carrying a steady electric current depends on the product of the number of the compl...
-Incandescent Burner For Oil
The accompanying sketch shows an ordinary central draught oil Lamp argand burner adapted for use with a mantle. It is so designed that the entire outside, including mantle and chimney, lifts off for l...
-Fastening Range Tap
To fasten a brass tap that has become loose in a kitchener, the nut on the tail of the tap inside the boiler must be loosened and removed and fresh packing material put around the tail before replacin...
-How To Make A Paraffin Blow-Lamp
The paraffin blowlamp here shown is used for removing paiut from doors, etc. The reservoir A is made of thick sheet brass strongly soldered. It has a hollow B in the top, in the centre of which the bu...
-How To Clean Floor Tiles
For cleaning glazed terracotta floor tiles, a rub with a dry or slightly damped flannel is all that is necessary. Unglazed floor tiles occasionally present a white scum on the surface, caused by the e...
-Preventing Knots Showing Through White Enamel
White-enamelled articles made of cheap wood show the knots and dark parts of the grain. To prevent this, dissolve 2 oz. of pale shellac in 1/2 pt. of methylated spirit, then mix in some finely crushed...
-How To Fix Cylinder Pivots In Watch
The cylinder of a horizontal watch is composed of a thin, polished steel tube open at each end. Into the open ends plugs are fitted, and the pivot is formed by turning the plug end smaller, and is the...
-Preparing A Signboard For Gilding Upon
The board should be well rubbed down with a flat piece of pumice-stone and plenty of water to efface any old writing and also to get a level surface. The rubbing should be done lightly with a circular...
-Hard-Soldering Gold Rings
For hard-soldering a gold ring without discolouring it, use solders containing gold, which is afterwards brought to the surface by a process of annealing and pickling. The solders are prepared to suit...
-Bleaching Bone Grease
Bone grease may be bleached by adding sulphuric acid and then thoroughly washing in water. Use two tanks, line 1 with lead, one above the other, and fitted with agitating gear; the lower tank should b...
-Boehm System Of Fingering For Oboe And Clario-Nette
The Boehm system of fingering, which was introduced about 1846, consists in making the keys (which formerly closed by springs) open automatically, the closing being effected by means of rings round th...
-Solution For Electro-Silvering
To make a good silvering solution, procure 2oz. of the best crysta!-lised silver nitrate and dissolve it in 1 qt. of distilled water. Also procure 2oz. of best potassium cyanide and dissolve it in 1 p...
-How To Make Portland Cement Wash
To make a Portland cement wash of a light stone colour, first spread the cement dry on the floor for five or six hour . then well mix with water in a large tub. The consistency must be .judged by the ...
-Constructing The Corner Of A Billiard Table
Fig. 1 shows the plan of the corner, the figured dimensions indicating now if is produced. Die outer Lines are at right angles, the inner lines are parallel with it. A being the intersecting point of ...
-Gas Fire Roaring
The roaring of a gas fire is generally due to some roughness in the interior of the burner, caused either by a burr in the tube or by an accumulation of deposit, the result of the burner firing back. ...
-Speculum Grinding
In rough grinding, use flour emery until all the pits left by theeoarse grains are worked out. The surface of the speculum will then appear quite uniform when examined with a magnifying lens of about ...
-Obscuring Glass With Acid
Glass maybe obscured by first laying it flat and then holding some thin strips of glass l in. wide on edge, and painting round with hot tallow-. When this sets it will form a wall all round the glass,...
-Bringing Watch To Time
To bring a watch to time means to make it keep correct time. To do so with a good watch, the curb pins must first be closed until the hairspring has no play between them. Then regulate by lengtheni...
-How To Polish And Cementing Alabaster
After washing, melt a little white beeswax, dip a clean cloth in it, and polish the ornaments with the cloth. The best cement for mending alabaster is white gelatine size, made by melting 1 part of ge...
-How To Make Eight-Day Movement For A Lantern Clock
The frame should be made of brass plates | in. thick, and should measure 4 1/2 in. by 6in. The pillars (four) must be 3/8 in. diameter and 1 3/4 in. long between the plates. The barrels should be 1 1/...
-Preparing Creosoted Timfcer Tor Painting
Painters' knotting is a good material for coating creosoted poles and other wood previous to painting, because it dries quickly and tends to prevent oil or grease oozing through. The best kind of knot...
-Solution For Electro-Gilding
For gilding small goods by the electro process, place a pint of distilled water in an enamelled iron saucepan and dissolve therein loz. of best potassium cyanide. Heat this to 160 F. on a gas sto...
-How To Make A Trousers Press
Figs. 1 and 2 show elevation and plan respectively of a simple trousers press, A A being two flat boards 14 in. wide and about 30 in. long. Three iron bars B are screwed on each board. The bars on the...
-Golden Brown Paint For Castings
To obtain a rich golden brown colour on castings, mix the colour with the best copal or carriage varnish, adding gold size. Paint the castings in the usual way, and then stove them. Or another method ...
-A Bucket As A Photographic Print Washer
To make a cheap syphon washer that will keep photographic prints in circular motion, to one side of a bucket solder a syphon of ordinary lead piping, the short leg inside being lin. above the bottom. ...
-Hard Woods And Soft Woods Classified
It is customary in England to speak of all timber obtained from coniferous trees as soft wood. Pitch pine is, of course, much harder than a number of the so-called hard woods, but it would nevert...
-Centering For Brick Arch
A figured design of a centre for a seven-ring brick arch of -15ft. span and 18 ft. 6in. rise, the length of the arch being 17 ft. 6in., is here given. It is assumed that the centering has only to carr...
-Refining Impure Tin
In refining impure tin, melt the metal, well stir it about while in a molten state, and allow it to settle down for a while. Skim the dross from the surface, and remove the top half of the molten meta...
-Tinning Copper Moulds
A bright, smooth, but very thin deposit of tin upon the interior of an ornamental mould may be obtained by first thoroughly cleaning the mould, then placing the open end upwards in boiling water and f...
-Petersburg Standard Of Timber
A Petersburg standard is 120/12 ft. 11 in. x 1 1/2in. = 165 ft. cube. To: i certain the number of feet run of any sized scantling required to make a standard, multiply 1,4410 by 16.5, and divide the p...
-Intensifying Photographic Negatives
Dulness in a photographic negative is generally due to fog, caused by over-exposure, incorrect development (i.e. using too much No. 2), or accidental exposure to light. If the negative is fairly trans...
-How To Clean Copper Utensils After Tinning
It is doubtful whether there is any solution that would cleanse both the copper and tin from the dirt left from the tinning process without injuring either metal. The usual method of cleansing tinned ...
-How To Make A Spill Cutter
To make the spill cutter here described and according to the dimensions given in Fig. I, a piece of wood some Sin. by 1! in. by 1 3/4in. must be obtained, and a groove about 1/2 in. wide and fin. deep...
-Clip For Engineers' Scribing Block
The accompanying illustrations show a form of scribing block clip greatly in favour a few years ago, simply because turning, rather than fitting, was principally required. Fig. 1 shows the clip comple...
-Cementing Amber Mouthpiece
When a broken amber mouthpiece of a tobacco pipe requires to be jointed, touch the broken parts with boiled linseed oil, and hold them for a few minutes in a gas flame; place them together, and bind w...
-Giving An Ivory Appearance To Plaster Casts
Over a slow fire melt Mb. of beeswax with 1 pt. of turpentine, and apply to the plaster by means of a soft brush. Several successive coats are necessary to cover the plaster well. If the mixture is to...
-How To Make A Fisherman's Landing Net
The illustrations show a simple frame tor a, landing net as used by anglers. The two side pieces A A are made of No. T B.W.G. steel wire, the outer ends being turned to form an eye. The ends that tit ...
-Pattern For A Ship's Ventilator
To cut the pattern for a ship's ventilator in four pieces, first draw a side elevation of the required size, then divide the throat curve into a number of equal parts, corresponding to the number of s...
-Amount Of Rainfall On Roofs
In estimating the size of gutters on internal roofs and behind parapet, the amount of rainfall should be provided for. An exceptional rainfall is about .05 in. per minute, and this gives about '026 ga...
-Quantities Of Cement And Slag In Concrete
The amount of cement and slag required for laying 100 super, yd. of floor, lin. thick, in the proportion of 1 to 1, is as follows: - The cubic contents of the concrete when laid will be 900 super, ft....
-Cylinder-Tank System Hot-Water Supply
In the sketch, A indicates the bath tap, B that for the lavatory, and C that for the scullery. The sketch shows a well designed and proportioned apparatus on the cylinder-tank system. The boiler (dome...
-Hints On Enamelling
To treat white enamel to prevent it setting too quickly, it should be thinned with the same varnish as is used in making it. To enamel successfully, get a good flat ground to work upon, and do not try...
-Fainting A Staircase Wall
In repainting a staircase wall, representing about 120 sq. yd., to a shade of green, if the colour, etc., is procured from a colour merchant (not an oil shop) the quantities and the cost will be as fo...
-How To Make Imitation Tortoiseshell
A very good imitation of tortoiseshell can be made by colouring a portion of the pasty celluloid with a, brown or yellowdye soluble in spirit (aniline colour), and then working the dough along with so...
-Running Return Bead Round An Arch
To work a return bead round the arch shown by Fig. 1, a mould is prepared to the required shape, and fixed to a radius rod, as shown in Fig. 2. The flat part of the wall is roughed in, and the bead is...
-How To Copy A Glass Positive
When copying a collodion positive mounted on glass and varnished at the back, the first proceeding is to remove the varnish. It may be possible to do this by placing for a short time in a dish of meth...
-Underglaze Colours For Biscuit Ware
Underglaze colours are applied direct to the biscuit ware, and are therefore under the glaze that is applied after colouring. The coloured ware should be heated to the same temperature as in burning f...
-How To Work A Ship's Log
The speed of a ship is ascertained by the patent log or by a log ship and sand glass, the latter still being preferred by most sailing ship masters. The log ship, two forms of which are give...
-Ingredients For Seltzogene Charges
The charges for a 3-pt. seltzogene are tartaric acid 1 oz., and bicarbonate of soda 11/16oz. Any difference observable in the taste of the ready-charged syphons and of the water from the seltzogene us...
-How To Make Billiard Chalks
To prepare green billiard chalks, mix together 5 parts of powdered magnesite and 1 part of china clay, and add 1 part of mineral green or terra verte; for a blue chalk, substitute 1 part of artificial...
-How To Renovate Old Oil Painting
To restore to its original colour an old oil painting that is black with age and smoke, wash it with a sponge or soft leather and clean water, and dry with a silk cloth. If the painting is very dirty,...
-Converting Fat Into Soap
In converting a few pounds of fat into a good hard soap, dissolve 1 lb. of caustic soda in 3 pt. of water-, then melt down 61b. of fat in an earthenware bowl. Bring the temperature of the fat to about...
-How To Clean White Marble
To clean white marble that is much discoloured, make a thin paste with fuller's-earth and water to which has been added 25 per cent, of Liquid ammonia. Spread this over the marble with a brush, allow ...
-How To Make A Bevel Set-Square
Fig. 1 shows a side elevation of a carpenter's bevel set-square of suitable dimensions for setting out diminished stile doors constructed of plank widths; but a much smaller tool would be more handy f...
-Particulars Of A 10-Ft. 6-In. Split-Cane Fishing-Rod
The handle of a split-cane fishing-rod, 10ft. 6in. long, which is to be made in three lengths, should be of cedar or walnut Hi in. long and 1 1/8 in. diameter at the largest part; butt, i in. diameter...
-How To Make An Enlarged Photographic Negative
Any of the methods employed for making a bromide enlargement may also be used for making an enlarged negative, that is, by replacing the small negative by a positive transparency and enlarging this on...
-Reproducing Photographs By The Half-Tone Process
Photographs are reproduced tor printing by what is known as the half-tone process. Line bloeks giving merely the outlines are produced in the same manner, except that no screen is used. Considerable p...
-Comparative Designs Of Girders
Assumingthe load is 10 tons distributed overa span of 18 ft.,the calculations will be as follows. (1) Flitch beam: W= d2/L(Cb + 30 t); where W= breaking weight in cwt. in centre; d = depth in inches; ...
-How To Remove Crystoleum Picture From Broken Glass
One means of removing an expensive crystoleum picture from cracked glass is to use hydrofluoric acid, but much depends on the process by which the picture was produced. Soak the broken glass and pictu...
-Reducing Flint To Fine Powder
Flint may be ground to a fine powder by first raising it to a red heat and quenching it in cold water, then grinding it either under edge runners or in a ball mill. The edge runners are two large gran...
-How To Make Harness Composition
A good harness composition may be made by mixing lib. of bees wax, 6oz. of soft soap. 1/4lb. of ivory black, and loz. of Prussian blue, with 2oz. of linseed oil and 1/2pt. of oil of turpentine; heat o...
-Distillation Of Resin
Resin is distilled by heating it in large iron retorts, when gases, water, acetic acid, resin spirit, resin oil, and resin pitch are left as a residue in the stills. The crude resin oil imported is to...
-Particulars Of Bates' Saccharometer
Bate saccharometer is used for determining the gravity of a wort or the percentage of sugar in a solution, in a similar manner to the Sikes' hydrometer. A weight must be placed on the stem of the hydr...
-Height And Width Of Internal Doors
The rule given by Vitruvius for determining the height of internal doors, and the ordinary rule when the width of the door is known, are the following. For Doric temples, the aperture of the door is d...
-Portrait Enlargements In Oil
Painters of cheap oil portraits generally trace the outline with a pantograph or other similar appliance. Better class artists make a bromide enlargement on thin paper, rub the hack with chalk, and tr...
-How To Make An American Breast Collar For A Horse
In making an American breast collar for a horse, assuming that the trace buckles are l 1/2. in. wide, the body of the collar cut straight should be 2 1/4 in. wide and 3ft. long, the lay 11 in. wide to...
-Strength Of Flitched Beam
Supposing a warehouse floor is to be supported by flitch beams, 10 ft. centre to centre, the span of the beam being 20 ft. and the load to be supported being 3 cwt. per superficial foot, the size of t...
-Painting Venetian Blinds
Venetian blinds, if new, may be painted in the following manner. Remove all dust from the laths with a brush, and give the knots two thin coats of patent knotting. Beat up stiff in a pot 21b. of genui...
-Dyeing Ostrich Feathers
To dye feathers black, soak them in nitrate of iron liquor at 70 B. for twelve hours, moving them well about; remove and wash, then boil in a decoction of 21b. of logwood and lib. of quercitron or sum...
-Walnut Stain For Light Wood
A good walnut stain may be made by mixing Vandyke brown into a thin paste with liquid ammonia, and thinning out with water till the desired tone is gained by at least two applications. The colour is e...
-How To Make A Smoker's Companion
If it is to be painted and enamelled, white pine is about the best wood and easiest to work; but if it is to be polished, good hard kauri pine or American basswood will suit. If care is taken to selec...
-Cementing Catches, Etc., On Brooches
Shellac is used for fixing the fastenings on brooches made of jet, shell, pearl, wood, or stone. A moderate heat only is required to unite them. In some cases Coaguline, a cement obtainable of chem...
-Hardening Axle Arms And Boxes
To harden the iron arms of cart axles, place them in an iron box about three times the size of the proper box, sealing up the front end quite close; pack up the space between the axle and box with cru...
-How To Remove Paint Or Varnish From Furniture
The following is a method of removing paint and varnish from furniture without using glasspaper or a burning lamp. To each bucketful of freshly slaked limewash add 21b. or 31b. of common washing soda ...
-Particulars Of Hydraulic Ram
The adjoining illustration gives a diagrammatic section of a hydraulic ram. A is an air vessel, B and C ball valves, D a delivery pipe, and E the supply pipe. Above the valve B is an opening, and the ...
-How To Remove Varnish From Old Oil Painting
In removing cracked varnish from an old oil painting, gently rub the surface of the painting with the dry fingers. By continual rubbing the varnish will come off in the form of fine dust. Experts some...
-Strengths Of Metals
From the following list, which gives the average breaking stresses in tons per square * inch, the relative strengths of cast iron, cast steel, gun-metal, and brass may be obtained. In tension: Cast cr...
-Methods Of Cleaning Garments
It must be first ascertained whether the garment to be cleaned is liable to shrink, and also whether its colour is fast. Small paint or grease spots may be removed by rubbing with a rag on which a lit...
-Rules For Window Area For Room
The rules for window area are as follows. Sir W. Chambers: depth of room + height/8 = width of window; hieght = 2 to 2 1/2 times width. Gwilt: 1 ft. super, of light in a vertical wall to every 100 ...
-Umbrella-Maker's Stock Knife
Fig. 1 shows a side view of an umbrella-maker's stock knife, A being the cutting edge of the blade, and B the handle. An ordinary-eye-bolt is put through the bench in a convenient position and secured...
-Black Fillings For Headstones
The following is a recipe for a bright non-staining black for monumental work. Dissolve in a bottle by the aid of heat black sealing wax in methylated spirit, and keep the bottle near a fire for one d...
-Recipes For Aluminium Solders
The difficulty in getting solder to adhere to aluminium is caused by a metallic film (probably an oxide) which forms on the surface of the metal while heated, and which prevents ordinary soft solders ...
-Inlaying Stringing In Cabinet Work
When inlaying stringing round drawer fronts or on taper table legs the mode of procedure is as follows. From a bit of broken bow-saw, or a bradawl filed to width, make a steel cutter to the width of t...
-Dyeing Leather For Gloves
Leather is sometimes dyed in the vat and sometimes by simply brushing over with the dye liquid. For instance, a leather may first be tanned and then transferred to a vat containing pine and elder bark...
-Black Stain For Wood
To obtain a dense black stain for wood, boil together in an old iron pot 1 gal. of strong vinegar, 2 lb. of extract of logwood, 1/2 lb. of green copperas, 2 oz. of China blue, and 2 oz. of crushed nut...
-How To Make Pressed Or German Yeast
Pressed or eo-called German yeast is made in a similar way to ordinary brewer's yeast, but it is the yeast derived from the fermentation of a mash which is afterwards distilled for whiskey. The yeast ...
-Taking Off Bevels For Rafters
Au explanation of how bevels for rafters are taken off the drawing and put on the stuff to be cut is here given. Set out for the bevels as shown at Fig. 1; the bevel at A being for the vertical cut, a...
-Brass-Plating Solutions
The following are brassing solutions. Water, 160 parts; copper cyanide, 2 parts; zinc cyanide, lpart; and potassium cyanide, 15 parts. Or water, 250 parts; copper sulphate, 1 part; zinc sulphate, 8par...
-How To Remove Ink Stains From Various Articles
Ink stains may be removed from a mahogany table by tiniching the part stained with a feather dipped in a mixture of a few drops of spirit of nitre and a teaspoou-ful of water. Immediately the ink stai...
-Engine For Pile Driving
The illustration shows the general arrangement of a small pile engine worked by hand power; larger ones are on the same principle. The boiler and winch will depend upon the money available, but a vert...
-How To Work Leaves In Wrought Iron
The process of cutting out and shaping leaves in wrought iron is briefly thus. The pattern of the leaf required is traced from the drawing gummed on to a suitable piece of sheet iron, which for hammer...
-Composition For Casting Ornaments In Relief
A composition in which to cast a panel (say) of birds, modelled in low relief, may consist of 71b. of glue, 31b. of resin, 1 1/2pt. of linseed oil, and about 2 1/2pt. of water. Steep the glue in water...
-Pressure On Retaining Wall
The following is the method employed in computing the pressure exerted by earth on a retaining wall of any thickness, with the earth at a given angle of repose. The earth above the line of repose adhe...
-Use For Broken Band-Saws
An advantageous method of disposing of broken band-saws is here suggested. Place the broken saws in a fire, and well heat them. When cold, the pieces will be very soft, and will be much better than h...
-Enamelling And Embossing Photographs
To produce the permanent enamel seen on photographs, thoroughly clean a sheet of plate-glass and dust over it a little French chalk, every trace of which should afterwards be removed by careful polish...
-Applying Bromide Solution To Paper
The method of applying the bromide solution suggested by Captain Abney is an excellent one, and consists of spraying it with a sort of wash bottle made as follows. Fit a cork to a 1-in. bore test tube...
-Chimney-Cleaning Materials
The recipes for the compositions which, wheu placed on the fire, cause the soot to be removed from the chimney, are trade secrets. By one plan the fire is got into a bright condition, then a very thin...
-How To Remove Silver Stains From A Negative
Rusty brown stains on photographic negatives are caused by damp, and are known as silver stains. If the stains are old. it is, as a rule, impossible to remove them, hut either of the following methods...
-Artificially Seasoning Small Lumber
A very effective and simple apparatus for artificially seasoning small and short lumber can be put up wherever a small quantity of steam - from the boiler or exhaust of a steam engine, say - is availa...
-Pneumatic Key Actions For Pipe Organs
In small organs the closer the connection between the player's fingers and the pipe valves the better, because the staccato and legato touch can be more easily made to respond exactly to the player's ...
-How To Determine The Sizes Of Gauge Boxes For Compo
The following instructions are for determining the areas of square gauge boxes of four different sizes. No. 1, to measure 1yd. of sand, being given as 3 ft. square and 3ft. deep; No. 2, to measure 1/2...
-Diameter Of Rivets For Boilers
A list of diameters of rivets to be used with boiler plates of given thickness is here presented. The diameter of the rivet may equal 1.2 times the square root of the thickness of the riveted plate. O...
-Relaxing Bird Skins
For relaxing bird skins, line the inside of a wooden box with a 1 in. layer of plaster-of-Paris, well mixed. When dry, the box is ready for use. Pour water inside sufficient to saturate the plaster, a...
-Scratch Plane For Working Beads And Mouldings
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a scratch plane for working beads and small mouldings, and Fig. 2 is a view of it upside down. For the stock, a piece of birch or beech about 10 in. long is used, and a...
-How To Make A Platinum Toning Bath
When using a chloro-platinite of potassium toning bath with Ilford P.O.P., print scarcely so far as for treatment with ordinary gold and sulphocyanide bath. Dissolve 15gr. of potassium chloro-platinit...
-Sail Plan For Model Yacht
Accompanying this sail plan is a scale in feet and inches for a 10-ton model yacht 59 in. long over all, water-line 40 in., beam 7 1/2 in.. depth 12in., with a 26-lb. lead keel, and from the plan all ...
-How To Remove Dents From Brass Musical Instruments
To remove dents, with a blowpipe or soldering bit carefully solder in the hollow a suitable brass plug. When cold, take hold of the plug and pull the dent carefully out. Then unsolder the plug, and wi...
-Asphalt For Damp-Proof Course
Asphalt for a damp-proof course may be prepared by boiling, for a few minutes only, coal-tar (about 21 gal.) and pitch (1 cwt.) in an iron boiler, thinning with 2 gal. of creosote oil. Brush the footi...
-Particulars Of Vulcanite
Vulcanite is made by heating indiarubber with about half its weight of sulphur, and is coloured by incorporating with it mineral pigments - lampblack for black, antimony sulphide or vermilion for red,...
-Converting Boat's Sail Into Waterproof Cover For Boat
Presuming that a canvas sail is to be turned into a boat cover, a wooden ridge should be fttted to support the cover, fore and aft resting on the breast hook forward, and the stern aft. The cover must...
-How To Stain Kid Gloves And Shoes Brown
For a light brown stain, use Bismarck brown or annatto; for a dark brown, use acid brown. Make a strong solution of these in water, add a small quantity of ox gall to make them penetrate the leather b...
-Cage For Starling Or Song Thrush
The cage should be 2 ft. long, 18 in. high, and 11 in. wide, and provided with a false bottom covered with zinc; water and the scrubbing brush can then be used at cleaning time. There should always be...
-Brewing Ale
If it is required to brew about 9 gal. of ale, take 401b. of malt and 10 gal. of water and raise nearly to the boil in a copper; after about an hour, run through a fine sieve into a large bowl. At the...
-Dyeing Sheepskins
The following are instructions on dyeing sheepskins black, grey, and brown. After the skins are dressed and softened they should be placed in the hot dye, wool downwards, and allowed to remain for an ...
-Distilling Lavender Water
In distilling lavender water, a copper or glass still and a condenser will be required. The lavender flowers should be placed in the still, covered with water, and then heated; the water distilling ov...
-A Cheap Photographic Shutter
The following instructions are on making a cheap photographic shutter for a quarter-plate stand camera. In a piece of wood (A, Fig. 2) cut a hole B to fit the lens. This may be made to fit directly on...
-Softening A Goat's Skin
An Hungarian goat's skin which has been cleaned, but has dried very stiff, may be softened by the following method. Well damp the skin on the flesh side and, when thoroughly soft, stretch it in all di...
-How To Make Liquid Gum
Liquid gum is often put up for selling in penny bottles. For this purpose gum arabic, costing sixpence and upwards per pound, is suitable. Gum dextrine may be used, but a large quantity is required to...
-How To Make Flat-Bottomed Punt
To bend the sides to make them meet the stem- and stern-posts of a flat-bottomed punt, 17 ft. long, and supposing the sides to be 18 in. deep, boards of that width will suffice, as the desired sheer a...
-Shed For Storing Cycles
Fig. 1 shows the plan of a shed for storing about tweuty cycles, Fig. 2 is a cross section, and Fig. 3 is a portion of the front. A simple arrangement for keeping the cycles in position by means of tw...
-Printing Qualities Of Photographic Negative
Rapidity of printing is governed first by the density of deposit on the plate; secondly, by the colour of the deposit. This difference in the printing rapidity of negatives exercises a great influence...
-Particulars Of Potash
There is, properly speaking, only one kind of potash, and this is the oxide of ths metal potassium. The name potash was first applied to the ashes formed by burning plants, this being done in pots; af...
-Calculating Strength Of Struts
Gordon's formula is the best in a general way for calculating the area of struts or pillars in iron or wood: - f - intensity of pressure to crush short column of the material in tons per square inch; ...
-Mixing Oxide Paint For Brickwork
Red oxide for painting on outside brick walls should be mixed with raw linseed oil and a little patent driers; see that the walls are thoroughly dry before painting them. Boiled linseed oil should uot...
-Preventing Lamp Wicks From Charring
Stemp's patent wick is said to be practically fireproof, and not to char. To produce this wick, to every gallon of water add 2.14oz. of boric acid and 3.22 oz. of strong liquor ammonia. Dip the new wi...
-Centre For Circle-On-Circle Arch
A circle-on-circle arch is false construction, and should only be adopted in exceptional cases. When it is a case of necessity, a semicircular arch of 3 ft. span may be turned in a 7 1/2n. stone wall ...
-Keeping Qualities Of Photographic Developer
Pyrogallic acid and soda carbonate solutions will not keep many minutes; decomposition sets in directly the two are brought together. The pyro solution (No. 1) prepared with nitric acid and a small qu...
-An Easily Made Kitchen Table
The kitchen table here illustrated is made without mortising. It has detachable legs and a solid top, the latter being made from a yellow deal board 16ft. long and 11 in. wide, cut into 4-ft. lengths,...
-Marbling A Stone Mantelpiece
Wash the mantel With a mixture of lime water and common washing soda, to remove any trace of grease or smoke. Swill off with clean water. For white marble, apply one or two coats of quick-drying white...
-How To Make A Portable Book-Rest
The book-rest here illustrated can be set at any angle desired; when closed, it resembles a bottomless box, except for the ledge E. The following pieces of wood will be required. Two pieces (B,B), 12 ...
-Weight And Covering Capacity Of Granite Macadam
The weight will depend upon the specific gravity of the granite, and the closeness with which the material is packed together; as ordinarily thrown together after breaking, the voids will be from 25 p...
-Soldering Astragals And Tacks On Lead Soil Pipes
For the astragals, a pattern of the design is first made in wood, and from this a print is made in damp, loamy sand, in which molten lead is poured to form a casting. If many are required, the wood pa...
-How To Remove Old Paint From Venetian Blind Laths
This is a cheap method of removing old paint from Venetian blind laths. Place 1 stone of well-burnt lime in a large bucket and slake with hot water; add 71b. of common soda, and stir the whole togethe...
-How To Determine Centre Of Circular Arc
The accompanying illustration shows one method of finding the centre of a circular arc where it is possible to strike arcs for intersections on one side only. A, B, and C are any points on the curve. ...
-How To Remove Oil Stains From Stone Step
If the stains are but surface ones, make a paste of fuller's earth and paraffin oil, and lay this in a thick coating upon them; allow it to remain a short time, then wash off. Should this treatment no...
-Shading Marqueterie Inlays
To produce the shading seen in Sheraton inlays, very fine sand is heated in an iron pan placed upon the top of a stove, the heat being slightly greater than can be borne by the fingers, but not so hot...
-Depthing Watch Lever Escapement
Escapements are pitched by putting the escape wheel and the pallets in a depth tool and adjusting them until correct, then transferring the depth to the watch plates by means of the compass points...
-Heating A Small Greenhouse
In heating a 10-ft. by 7-ft. span-roofed greenhouse, if an oil stove will not do, recourse must be had to a small boiler and hot-water pipes. Such an apparatus is made by nearly every boiler maker. It...
-How To Make A Papier-Mache Mask
In making a papier-m;lche mask, tear into pieces about 3 in. square some good porous brown paper and soak the pieces in cold water. then make sufficient good flour paste, mixing with it a little hot g...
-How To Determine Contents Of Egg-Ended Boiler
When determining the contents of a boiler egg-ended as shown, it must be remembered that the boiler being circular in cross-section, the contents consist of a central cylindrical portion 26 ft. long, ...
-Distance Of Stop From Lens
The correct distance at which a stop should be placed from a lens is that which would give the maximum of covering power with a minimum of distortion. If a cardboard stop is placed close against the l...
-Imitation Earth For Cases Of Stuffed Birds
Blocks of peat roughly cut to shape are fastened in the case with glue and nails. The whole is then covered with whiting made with thin glue instead of water. It. is coloured with oil colours, and gra...
-A Method Of Soldering Aluminium
First procure a small piece of thin sheet aluminium, say about 1 in. square, and roll it into a little coil; next procure a wooden penholder and place the roll of aluminium in the hollow end of the pe...
-Re-Seating Chairs With Rush Or Cord Bottoms
First carefully remove the four thin battens which are nailed on the edges of the seat, and pull off the old rush, dust, etc. 'lhe sides of the seat frame are slightly sunk below the coiners, so that ...
-How To Work Up Bromide Enlargements
For working up bromide enlargements the following articles are required. A No. 2 or No. 3 sable brush, blue and ivory black moist water-colours, a tuft of cotton wool, a few paper stumps, some powdere...
-Boiler System For Steam Cooking
The sketch herewith shows a boot boiler, such as would go at the back of a range fire. All the fittings are on it, namely, safety valve (set to blow off at 5 1b. to 71b.), automatic water inlet valve ...
-Galvanising Iron And Steel
In the earlier processes of galvanising iron and steel the zinc was deposited upon the metal by electrolysis, but the hot-bath process in most galvanising establishments has entirely superseded the el...
-Simple Hot-Water Apparatus
The dimensioned sketch shows a simple hot-water apparatus, with cylinder, to meet only a moderate demand for hot water to supply bath, lavatory, and two sinks, such as exist in a moderately small hous...
-How To Build A Small Brick Kiln
A brick oven about 5ft. by 4ft. by 4ft., conforming to the sketches below, may be built of fire-bricks, with walls Gin. to 9 in. thick, puddled with fireclay and covered either with stone slabs or wit...
-Pneumatic Test For Drains
The pneumatic test for drains was introduced in the early 'eighties, and consists of plugging all the drain openings and filling them, as well as the manholes and soil pipes, with air under a slight p...
-How To Change Plates In A Hand Camera
One of the most convenient methods of changing plates in a hand camera is to have a double chamber, in the top chamber B a magazine A moves backwards and forwards by rack C and pinion D over an openin...
-Lettering In Relief With Gold On Wire Blinds
The raised effect is obtained by gesso treatment, generally with the aid of stencil plates cut from millboards. Alabastine is probably the safest material to use, although the relief may be produced b...
-Powdering Brass Spelter
To powder brass spelter, either granulate by pouring the metal into a stream of water running at high pressure, or pound in a mortar g.uickly while the spelter is just under its melting point. ...
-Preparing Lavender Water
In making lavender water, the lavender flowers are placed in a still with water, and heated. The water which distils over carries with it the essential oil, which is then separated from the water. To ...
-How To Make A Small Wheelbarrow
The barrow here described is shown complete by Fig. 1, Fig. 2 being a plan of the bottom frame. The ash hales II (Fig. 2) are 3ft. 1in. long and 1 5/8 in. deep by 1 1/2 in. thick. The handles rise 3 3...
-Ridding A House Of Ants
In ridding a house of ants, discover the nests, and on the mouths of these drop some quicklime and wash it in with boiling water. Or camphor may be dissolved in spirit of wine, then mixed with water a...
-How To Make Sailor's Canvas Bag
In commencing to make a canvas bag as used by sailors, a double seam is sewn down the side of the bag, and it is then a canvas cylinder. To get the radius of the circle for the canvas bottom, measure ...
-Painting And Varnishing A Pony Cart
The gloss on a pony cart is obtained by applying one or more coats of varnish after the colour and lines are put on, according to the quality of the work. For ordinary work, the body is prepared by le...
-Balanced Or Dancing Steps Of Staircase
The term balanced or dancing steps is applied to a geometrical staircase, where the nosings of the winders are so placed as not to converge on the same point, but each directed to a different point, s...
-Finding Circular Curve When Centre Is Inaccessible
Three points on the circumference of a circle being known, and the centre being inaccessible, the curve is drawn by the following method. If it is for workshop vise only that the curve is wanted, cut ...
-Tell-Tale Mirror
Instructions on making a telltale mirror are here given. Get a piece of 3/4-in. by 3/4-in. angle zinc for the frame, mitre together to size, 8 in. by 6in. or 10 in. by 7 in., and solder the angles. ...
-How To Repair Cheap Brooches
For soldering catches and joints to cheap metal brooches that have been silver-plated or gilt, ordinary tinman's solder is used. Both catches and joints can be cheaply purchased, hard-soldered on to s...
-How To Make A Cheap Drilling Machine
Fig. 1 is an elevation of a drilling machine complete. The two wrought-iron uprights A should be l 1/4 in. wide, like the rest of the framework. Bend them first, care being taken to get the feet at ri...
-How To Determine The Lengths Of Pendulum Rods
When it is required to ascertain the length of pendulum for a clock, first calculate the number of beats per minute that the pendulum is required to make. To do this, multiply together the number of ...
-Setting Out Heavy Waggon Wheels
In setting out the hind wheels of a heavy waggon to run in line with the front ones, the height and dish of the wheels must be known. To enable these to be worked out, a sectional elevation is given o...
-How To Remove Dent From Brass Kettle
To remove a dent from a brass kettle, insert the head of a small round-faced hammer through the cover hole, and knock the dent outwards; then hold the face of the hammer up against the bruised part, a...
-Folding Leaf And Supports For A Kitchen Table
The sketch explains how to fix a folding leaf 9 in. wide to an ordinary kitchen table and how to hinge the supports to the table top. Use the best white deal or pine both for the flap and supports. Th...
-How To Make Enamel Paints
Enamel paints are made by grinding the colours either with copal varnish or with hard spirit varnish; copal varnish yields the finest and most durable paints, but for a brittle film use spirit varnish...
-Folding Gaff For Salmon Fishing
A pocket telescopic gaff for salmon fishing is shown by the accompanying sketches, in which A is the gaff extended for use, B folded up, and C one of the spring joints. The joints are made similarly t...
-How To Make Oiled Fabrics
Lay the material - silk or cambric - upon a board, and coat it on both sides with boiled linseed oil, then hang up to dry. Large balloons are made of oiled cambric or cotton; the joints are made gas-p...
-How To Repair Cut In Canvas Roof
On a close-boarded roof, if the slit is horizontal, cu1 a piece of canvas;1/8 in. wider than the slit (say 3 1/8 in. square), then push the point of a trowel or something similar into the slit and upw...
-Hot-Water Towel Airer
The accompanying sketch shows a hot-water towel airer with three rails, taut of course the number of rails, the dimensions, and the design of the airer can he varied as desired. The airer is made of 1...
-Refining Scrap Gold
One method is to dissolve the scrap gold in a mixture of 1 part pure nitric acid, 3 parts hydrochloric acid, and 1 part pure water made warm in a porcelain basin and placed in a good draught to carry ...
-Design For Iron Roof
The accompanying design for a steel roof truss of:i5-ft. span, with lantern lights, shows elevation of one truss in the cross-section through roof, and the plan shows the arrangement of the hipped end...
-How To Make And Using Graphs For Copying Written Matter
The ingredients (i parts of whiting to 1 part of pure glycerine) must be thoroughly mixed. Reduce the whiting to a fine powder; mix half the required quantity with all the glycerine, and beat up thoro...
-Preparing Fulminate Of Mercury
The following directions for preparing fulminate of mercury are taken from Bloxam's Chemistry, Inorganic and Organic. Dissolve 25gr. of mercury in half a measured ounce of ordinary concentrated nit...
-Ventilation Of Photographer's Dark Room
So much depends on the situation and surroundings that it is difficult to give particulars of a method of ventilating a photographer's dark room without seeing a sketch of the room. The following plan...
-How To Fix Fringe On Mantelboards, Etc
So that deep fringes may be made to hang straight on mantelboards, etc., before fixing the fringe, tack strips of cardboard or buckram, about 2 in. narrower than the fringe, on the edge of the mantel....
-How To Work Pressure Of Model Locomotive Boiler
A small locomotive boiler with a barrel of in. long by 2 1/2 in. diameter has its iron plate 1 /16 in. thick. If the tensile strength of the material is 20 tons per square inch, and the joints are sin...
-How To Polish Stalactites, Etc
In polishing stalactites and similar stones no false gloss is put on, the surface of the stalactite merely being made smooth. Having decided which part of the stone to polish (it should be the one whi...
-Shop-Door Electric Alarm
The shop-door alarm for electric bells here described rings the bell during the whole time the door is open. There are two separate portions - the contact springs and the separator or insulator....
-Toughening Potters' And Modellers' Clay
Newly dug clay is generally wanting in tenacity, and ware made from it is much more liable to crack than if the clay had been weathered. Weathering, or exposure to the weather, will toughen the clay...
-Dry Process Of Cleaning Skins
The skins may be soaked in petroleum ether in a closed tank or pan for two or three days, removed, wrung out, dried, brushed, and combed; or they may be well brushed all over with a mixture of bran an...
-Hardening And Softening Copper
The difference between hard-rolled and special soft copper is caused by the methods of annealing. Hard-rolled copper can be rendered soft and ductile simply by placing it over a fire or stove until we...
-Building A Dutch Barn
Fig. 1 is an end elevation, and Fig. 2 a little more than one-fourth of the side elevation, of a Dutch barn that is 40 ft. long, 18ft. wide, and 16 ft. to eaves. Fig. 3 shows the form and construction...
-How To Stain In Marqueterie
Red and blue lines as seen on old Sheraton inlaid work are gained by inlaying narrow stringing, stained before insertion. It is not worth the expense to stain them with acids if only a small quantity ...
-Distillation Of Tar
When coal-tar is heated in the still, there is a large amount of frothing due to the distillation of the ammoniacal liquor; it is therefore necessary to slake the fire to prevent this; if any tar boil...
-How To Clean Mosaic Floors
For cleaning tile mosaic floors, use muriatic acid (spirit of salts) diluted with water (the requisite strength may be found by trial), well scrubbing the floor with an old brush, and washing off with...
-How To Make Cheap Paste
For a cheap paste that will not turn sour or go had, mix together l lb. of common flour, 1/4 lb. of alum, and 1 qt. of water to make a smooth cream; boil 3 qt. of water in a pan, and while boiling add...
-How To Make A Mailcart
Figs. 1 and 2 show a useful mailcart. To make this, first get out the shafts from a piece of stuff, 4ft. 4 in. by 8 in. by l 1/4 in., preferably of ash (Fig. 3). Saw with the grain of the wood, follow...
-Black Polish For Shop Fittings, Etc
The method of producing the glossy black polish generally seen on jewellers' shop cases and on the frames of mirrors is as follows. The parts to be polished must be cleaned up with fine glasspaper, al...
-Flat Colours Flashing Or Patchy
The cause of an interior wall surface finished in flat colours drying bright in patches may be that the under colour was not quite dry in places; or perhaps the flatting was not evenly distributed ove...
-Wax And Varnish For Fish Hook Bindings
To make a material for whipping fish hooks, melt over a slow fire in an earthenware pot for ten minutes 1/4 lb. of best white resin and 1/2 oz. of white wax; add 1/2oz. of tallow or fresh lard, and si...
-Liquid Gold For Gilding Without Battery
Gold is converted from a solid to a liquid by dissolving the metal in a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids. This liquid will deposit metallic gold on baser metals, and it forms the basis of near...
-How To Repair Pewter Articles
Pewter vessels, etc., are repaired by soldering. Pewterers' solder is composed of 2 parts of bismuth, 1 part of lead, and 1 part of tin. When making the alloy, melt the lead first, then add the tin an...
-Drawing A Pivot Hole In A Watch
A pivot hole is drawn in a Geneva or other kind of watch by pressing a pivot broach against one side of the pivot hole only and revolving it; this is continued until the original round pivot hole is d...
-How To Renovate Old Oak Furniture
The following instructions are on renovating an old oak bureau or similar piece of furniture. Place; pt. each of methylated spirit and turps in a stone jar, and heat in a saucepan of water to blood he...
-Painting Stone Mantelpiece To Represent Marble
These instructions are on painting two stone mantelpieces - one in imitation black marble, with gold lines, the other to represent white marble. If the mantelpieces are porous, coat with whiting and s...
-Foundation For Chimney-Stack
The concrete for the base of an 80ft. chimney-stack should be formed of good Portland cement and ballast, or stone chippings, in proportion by measure of 1 cement to 2 sand or fine chippings, and 5 la...
-Crab And Lobster Pot
Herewith is an illustration of a crab and lobster pot, which consists of an openwork wicker basket, about 30 in. in diameter by 20in. high, with a strong bottom. At the top is a funnel 6 in. deep by 8...
-How To Make Rugs From Raw Hides
The treatment of skins with alum and salt, or tawing, as it is called, is more often resorted to than tanning for the dressing of skins for making rugs. The skin should be thrown across a bench, and...
-Castings For Lead Toys
For casting toys in lend, the moulds are made of cast iron. The metal used for these toys is an alloy composed of bismuth 8 parts, lead 5 parts, and tin 3 parts: this melts at a low temperature (2020 ...
-Potters' Clay For China And Porcelain
If the objects to be thrown on the wheel are of ordinary earthenware, the clay may be ball clay. This clay is found in Dorsetshire, and is used in its natural state without further preparation. If t...
-Setting A Lever Watch In Beat
The easiest way to tell whether a lever watch is in beat is to wedge the fourth wheel to take off the power, and allow the balance to come to rest in its natural position. The lever should then be exa...
-Bending Copper Pipes
The following is one of the best methods of bending copper pipes of 1-in. and 1/2-in. diameter. First carefully anneal the pipe by heating it to a cherry-red. When the pipe is cold, tie brown paper ro...
-Plotting A Survey
In explaining the method of plotting a survey by the use of co-ordinates, it may be stated that in the survey of a piece of Land a system of triangulation must be laid out, the junctions of the lines ...
-Particulars Of Diamond Drill
In a diamond drill a small diamond is used as the cutting agent. The drill may be made of a bit of steel or a thin brass tube, into the end of which a sharp splinter of diamond is fixed by embedding i...
-Sharpening Bandsaws
When sharpening a band-saw, each alternate tooth should be sharpened from its own side. A screeching noise is sometimes caused when working the saw by the teeth not being uniform in length, by uneven ...
-Relaxing Birds'And Squirrels' Skins
The following is a method of relaxing birds' and squirrels' skins. Half fill an earthen vessel with sand that is damp but not actually wet. Wrap each skin in a clean rag and place It on the damp sand;...
-How To Make A Prawn Trap
The prawn trap shown by Figs. 1 and 2 consists of an iron hoop from 13in. to 24 in. diameter with a shallow net attached. Across the net two strings are stretched (see Fig. 2) to which the bait of ...
-How To Clean Heads Of Stuffed White Birds
The following instructions are on restoring the heads of two stuffed albatrosses to their natural white colour. The heads should first be well dusted with feathers. The after treatment depends on the ...
-A Bath Or Lavatory Mirror
The frame for the bathroom or lavatory glass here illustrated may be of birch or some hard wood. The moulding can be worked in two lengths of 6 ft., 1 1/4 in. by 3/4 in., which will allow for jointing...
-Aperture Of Stops In Photographic Lens
The figures of the following lens stops, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11.3, f/16, f/22, f/32, f/45, and //64, represent fractions of the focal length, or, roughly, the proportion which the diameter of the stop ...
-Injurious Gases From Gas Works
In the manufacture of sulphate of ammonia, the gas liquor, containing sulphide, hyposulphite, cyanide, and other compounds of ammonia, is heated first alone and then with slaked lime in an automatic s...
-Use Of Zinc Dishes In Photography
Enamelled zinc dishes may be used for fixing, developing, or hardening, but as the enamel coating is always liable to have minute holes in it, the dishes should not be used for any solutions that may ...
-Development Of Staircase Well
When developing a well tor a half-space landing, first draw the plan of the well, as shown at Fig. 1; then through c draw the tangent A B, of course parallel to D E. Then set off lines FA and GB at 60...
-Particulars Of Corundum
Corundum is a simple mineral, also called adamantine spar. Its specific gravity varies from 3.975 to 4.161. It contains about 90 per cent, of alumina, a little silica, lime, magnesia, and water. It is...
-How To Cut A Cracked Glass Shade
Suppose a glass shade to be cracked at the bottom for about 1/2 in. up, and that it is desired to cut off the cracked portion without breaking the top part of the shade. First make an ink mark round t...
-How To Make A Cheap Time And Instantaneous Shutter
An inexpensive time and instantaneous shutter suitable for a magazine hand camera may be made of cardboard as follows. Cut a piece of stout pliable card - a good photographic mount answers well - to t...
-How To Make Malt
Malt might be made in small quantities from barley, but care is required. The barley is soaked in water for from forty-eight to seventy-six hours, according to the time of the year. It is placed in he...
-How To Fit The Head Of A Landau
The accompanying sketches show how the framework of a landau head is fitted up, and also a plan of the position of the hoop-sticks when fixed in place. First get out the top pillars A, A (Fig. 1), whi...
-Preparation Of Mercury Chlorides
The two chlorides of mercury are mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and mercurous chloride (HgCl or Hg2Cl2). The first is often called corrosive sublimate, and the second calomel. To prepare mercurous chloride...
-Lamp For Photographic Dark Room
To make the lamp here illustrated, cut two rectangular pieces of cardboard 8in. by 4 in. and four pieces Sin. by 1 3/4 in. In one of the wider pieces cut out a piece for the window about 5in. by 2 1/2...
-Preparing Gelatine For Casting Trusses
Gelatine suitable for casting trusses should be of good quality, costing Is. to Is. 6d. per lb. Soak the sheets in a bucket of cold water till soft, and then melt in, a vessel surrounded with water li...
-Injurious Gases From Manure Works
The gases evolved in the manufacture of artificial manure are carbonic acid, sulphurous acid, sulphuretted hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, and, according to some, arseniuretted hydrogen and silicon fluor...
-How To Clean Gold Braid
Gold braid only slightly discoloured may be cleaned by beating it with a soft brush dipped in fine whiting, calcined magnesia, or fuller's-earth. If badly spotted and blotched, the stains may be remov...
-Safety Valve On Hot-Water Apparatus
The position in which the safety valve is on the primary return is generally considered as good as any. There is no doubt, however, that theoretically the ideal place for a safety valve is directly in...
-Size Of Girder To Support A Floor
Suppose a girder is required to support a floor 38 ft. by 30 ft., the girder to run the 38-ft. way. A single girder of 38ft. span down the centre of the room would require to be of steel, composed of ...
-How To Clean And Polishing Brown Boots
In cleaning all boots and shoes it is best first to put them upon trees; if unprovided with these, to fill them - or the forepart of them - with soft paper so that they can be the better rubbed. For b...
-How To Make Emulsion Of Cod Liver Oil
Suppose that one is making up an 8-oz. bottle of emulsion of cod liver oil; clean and dry the bottle, and weigh into it 20 gr. of gum tragacanth, moisten the gum with a very little spirit of wine, and...
-Box For Oil Colours
Herewith is a sketch of a colom box suitable for either studio or sketching purposes. The box, which is about 13 in. by 9 in. by l 1/2in., is divided into compartments to hold twenty-three colours,...
-Mountant For Glazed Prints
There is always a danger of losing the glaze when a water mountant is used, but an alcoholic solution of gelatine does not so affect them; it is, however, difficult to apply a thoroughly even coating....
-How To Make Stone Playing Marbles
Ordinary stone marbles are mostly made in Germany. The stone is broken into pieces of the required size and thrown into a mill, where, beneath a kind of horizontal millstone, the angles are ground off...
-How To Renovate Crimson Velvet Of Chair-Seat
The following is a method of raising the pile of a crimson velvet chair-seat cover. First take off the velvet covering, as probably there will be an under-cover of calico or hessian, and the stuffing ...
-Estimating Load On Floors
Floors should be estimated for according to the nature of the building and the probable load. A crowd of persons is variously estimated to weigh from 411b. to 147'41b. per square foot of the surface c...
-Railway Carriage Mouldings
The accompanying figures show a few of the sections of mouldings commonly used in railway carriages, but very many others are employed, especially on saloon interiors. Fig. 1 shows a coach round, Fig....
-Cement Joints To Drain-Pipes
For jointing drainpipes, cement mixed with a little sand is used. When the sand is clean and sharp, 1 part of sand to 4 parts of cement may be safely used, without detracting too much from the strengt...
-Body-Horse For Coach-Painters' Use
The kind of body-hoi'se most generally used in painting the bodies of carriages consists of a pair of good stout secondhand wheels, placed back to back and on top of each other, and four cross-bearers...
-A Tool-Holder For A Slide Rest
Figs. 1 and 2 show a very handy American tool-holder for slide-rests, with a tongue to fit into the T-slot in place of the regular tool post. It can very easily be constructed to fit an English slide-...
-Tempering Gun-Loch Springs
In tempering small V-shaped springs for gun-locks, the springs must be made red hot over a clear forge fire, and then plunged into cold water and allowed to cool. They are warmed and rubbed all over w...
-Detecting Adulteration Of Milk
A hydrometer graduated for specific gravity (a urinoineter is suitable), also a 6-iu. by 1-in. tube with a graduation at 5in. and other marks, will be required in testing milk. Pour some milk into the...
-Bluing Rifle Barrels
Charcoal, crushed to dust, is employed for bluing steel gun-barrels. Iron can be blued as well as steel. The barrels must be very highly polished, and previous to being immersed in the charcoal dust, ...
-Overhead Arrangement For Lathe
The illustrations show a simple and efficient way of setting up an overhead shaft and fittings for driving revolving cutters as A in Figs. 1, 2, and 3. The uprights B (Figs. 1 and 2) may be of gas pip...
-Engraving Designs On Gems
Seal engraving is the art of sinking designs in intaglio on gems and hard stones. When the subjects are of an artistic kind the art is termed gem engraving, and when a design is carved in relief it ...
-Bevels Lor Hips To Semi-Octagonal Lantern Light
Figs 1 and 2 show the plan and elevation. The bevel for the bottom ends of the rafters will be the same as their rake, as shown atE (Fig. 2). The bevel to apply to the sides of the rafters at the top ...
-Use Of Supplementary Lenses In Photography
A convex lens added to another lens shortens its focus, and a concave lens lengthens its focus. To find the result of such a combination, multiply the two foci and divide the answer by their sum minus...
-Sketch For 100-Ft. Chimney, With Price?, Etc
The accompanying sketches show a 100-ft. chimney designed in accordance with the principles laid down on p. 119. Assuming that it is for five boilers, each 30ft. by 7ft., and of about 50 horse-powe...
-Particulars Of Pigments Used In Sign-Painting
The following notes may be regarded as supplying a summing up of the characteristics aud properties of the pigments used in sign-painting. Burnt sienna is a rich transparent red-brown earth used for g...
-Combined Ebony Stain And Varnish
A recipe for a combined ebony stain and varnish is the following. Take 4oz. of shellac, 1/2 oz. of mastic, 1/2 oz. of oil of turpentine. 4oz. of gum sandarach, loz. of Venice turpentine, 10 gr. of cam...
-Setting Out An Elliptic Gothic Arch
Figs. 1 and 2 show one method of setting out an elliptic Gothic arch. Referring to Fig. 1, bisect the span AP by the perpendicular line D C E, and make CD and CE each equal to the given rise of the ar...
-Fumigating Oak Picture Frames
When fumigating oak picture frames, first remove the pictures, glass, and gilt slips, then glasspaper the frames to free them from glue, grease, etc., and so arrange them in a box that the fumes will ...
-Oblique Mortise-And-Tenon Joints
The accompanying; drawings show three ordinary forms of oblique mortise-and-tenon joints. In each case they are first set out ready for sawing and mortising, and then prepared for fixing together. The...
-How To Remove Tar Paint From Gravestone
To remove paint containing tar from letters cut in a gravestone, dissolve American potash, mix with sawdust, and lay it on the paint for twelve hours. Should this fail to allow the bitumen to be washe...
-How To Make Wax Moulds For Plaster Castings
A simple way of making wax moulds for plaster castings is the following. Mix together 3 parts of resin and 1 of beeswax by the aid of heat. Stir occasionally, to prevent the resin settling at the bott...
-Mahogany Stain And Varnish
A common plan of making the stain and varnish as sold at paint stores for imitation mahogany is strongly to impregnate burnt sienna with Bismarck brown - an aniline dye. The dye readily dissolves in w...
-How To Remove Sucker-Valve Of Lead Pump
For removing the sucker-valve of a lead pump a suckei-rod is necessary. This has a tapering threaded point which is passed down the barrel and screwed into the lead clack, which is then pulled off the...
-Staining And Polishing Millboard In Imitation Of Walnut
Millboard may be given the natural appearance of walnut by the following procedure. Mix dry yellow ochre in 1 part polish and 3 parts spirit; apply several coats till a solid groundwork is gained. If ...
-Intersection Of Mouldings
The following is a method of getting the section of mouldings meeting in an obtuse angle when the mitre is square to one of them. First set out the obtuse angle CAD, and mitre line A B; then draw the ...
-Lubricant For Cycle Chains
A good, inexpensive, aud easily prepared lubricant for cycle chains is a mixture of plumbago and vaseline. Any good make of blacklead will do, but specially prepared plumbago is better. Crush the blac...
-How To Make A Parisian Phaeton
The accompanying sketch shows an outline elevation of a double seat Parisian phaeton. In making the body the following parts will be required. For the rockers A six pieces of birch, 3in. wide by-Jin. ...
-How To Repair Single-Tube Cycle Tyre
The method of repairing punctures is very similar for all single-tube tyres. First slightly enlarge the hole, inject solution, and then force a rubber plug (previously solutioned) into the hole. In so...
-How To Fix Wood Tester Head To Bedstead
The sketches show how to convert an ordinary iron bedstead intoa half-test sr. Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a tester head, which might stand out from the wall, say, 20in. or '22!in., giving room for ...
-How To Make Copper Pan For Frying Fish
Copper weighing 31b. to the square foot should be used in making a pan, say, 12m. by 12in. and 4in. deep, for frying fish. The corners are usually brazed, but a dog-eared corner properly finished, w...
-Roach And Trout Fishing Pastes
For egg paste for trout fishing, beat up an egg and add sufficient flour to form a stiff dough; then add a little cotton-wool worked well in if for running water. To make a good roach fishing paste, t...
-How To Clean Brown Kid Gloves
To clean brown kid gloves, cut 4oz. of white curd soap into small pieces, and boil with an equal weight of water till a smooth paste is formed, adding water to make up loss by evaporation; add 1 drach...
-Scribing And Fitting Sash Bars And Rails
The sketches show how the several parts of a top sash are formed with the mouldings scribed so as to fit together. At A in the above drawings is shown the tenon and mortise of top rail and stile, C is...
-Hardening And Tempering Bicycle Cones
If the bicycle bearings are of cast steel, they are hardened by heating to a cherry-red and instantly plunging into cold water or oil. They are then brightened with emery cloth and, to temper them, ar...
-Waterproofing Waggon Covers, Hatch Covers, And Coal Bags
Willesden waterproof canvas is often used for waggon covers. Or No. 8 canvas may be dressed with a coat of raw oil 8parts,and turps 1 parti when dry, paint with ochre or one of the earth pigments mixe...
-A Combined Jewel Box And Scent Cabinet
Fig. 1 shows a cabinet constructed to contain jewellery in the front and at the back scent bottles which are fixed by contact with the lid. To lock the bottles, they must fit their sockets. The doors ...
-Re-Polishing Birch Chairs
Commence by dissolving 1/4 lb. of common washing soda in lgal. of warm water, and cleanse the chairs with this; swill off with clean water, and wipe quite dry. Then apply with a camel-hair brush sever...
-How To Make Cup Leathers For Pumps
Proper moulding appliances are necessary for making the cup leathers of ordinary force and lift pumps. The iron or gun-metal moulds are the shape and size of the outside, and the stamp or core is of t...
-How To Fix Slop Sinks
A good slop sink should be made to hold rather more than a pailful of slops, for preventing an overflow if a house-flannel should get over the outlet. It should be made of impervious strong material, ...
-Boiling Water In A 5-Gal. Tank
Herewith is a sketch of an apparatus that will boil 5 gal. of water in a tank fixed 12ft. from the fire. The tank should be made with an open top and be covered with a loose lid. If the tank is tightl...
-Mixing And Applying Floor Stains
The practice of staining the margin left on the stairs at the side of the carpet and round the outer edge of a room carpeted with an art square has, from a sanitary point of view, much to commend it. ...
-Solder For Brazing Musical Instruments
An easily fusible and smooth-flowing solder for brazing musical instruments consists of 6 parts of copper, 5 of zinc, and 3 of silver. The usual practice is to make the solder at the firms where it is...
-Testing Correctness Of Watch Depth
To test the correctness of a watch depth, wedge the driven wheel tightly so that it cannot turn, then try the shake of the wheel teeth between the pinion leaves. If there is no shake, or if this is sc...
-Refrigerating With Chemicals
Chemicals may be employed for refrigerating purposes, but the really effective ones give a much lower temperature than freezing, and they are therefore not nearly so good as ice for the purpose. Equal...
-Heating Warehouse By Steam
It is assumed that it is desired to heat by steam to (30 F. five workrooms, each 90ft. by 33ft. by 10 ft. Two 2-in. pipes each side of room would be equivalent to about 200 sup. ft. of heating su...
-How To Make Patterns For Small Columns
In making a pattern for a small column, turn it to the required section, allowing iin. per foot of length for contraction, all flanges having good drawing qualities to ensure clean castings. If the pl...
-Disinfecting A Water-Butt
If soft water in a butt smells, the latter should be emptied, turned on its open end. supported on one side so as to leave an opening, and some sulphur should be placed on an old saucei, tired with a...
-Method Of Setting Out An Elliptic Arch
In commencing to set out and turn an elliptic arch, the ellipse must first be set out by drawing a line A B(see Fig. l) equal to span of arch. Through centre of line raise a perpendicular C D equal to...
-Straightening A Warped Oak Panel
To straighten a thin oak panel that lias much twisted since the polish was applied, place it face downwards, under pressure, with several thicknesses of paper intervening to protect the polish. If cra...
-Producing Blue Photographs
Blue prints may be made by brushing over any fairly pure paper with equal quantities of (a) citrate of iron and ammonia 1 part, water 4 parts; and (b) potassium ferricyauide 1 part, water i parts; the...
-Defective Striking Gear Of Grandfather Clock
The incessant striking of a grandfather clock until the motive power is exhausted may be due to one of these causes. The rack hook B (see sketch) may stick; or the rack tail being bent may come in fro...
-Powdering Soap
The only means of powdering a pure soap is to dry it as much as possible and then to put it through a machine that will act like a rasp. For small quantities, a sugar grater would serve the purpose. D...
-Effect Of Form Of Orifice On Velocity Of Efflux From A Pipe
It is required to know the effect of the form of the orifice from which a liquid is flowing on the velocity of the efflux. With an orifice of the same diameter as the pipe, the liquid escapes at the s...
-How To Make Ammonia Soap
A recipe for making ammonia soap is the following. Take 100 parts of oil and fat, 10 parts of caustic potash, 8 parts of 1c soda, and 5 parts of strong ammonia. The amount of water and the strength of...
-Effect Of Bends In Pipes
Liquids flow in straight lines through straight pipes, those in the centre travelling a1 a higher speed than those in contact with and rubbing against the insides of the pipes. On turning a bend, the ...
-Badly Fixed Cast-Iron Gutter
Cast-iron gutters sometimes droop forward so much that water splashes over. The cause has to be ascertained and remedied. If the gutter is of half-round pattern, it is probably fixed with brackets, sc...
-Old Method Of Casting Lead Water-Pipes
At one time all small lead pipes up to 2 in. diameter were cast in an appliance known as a staffing and burning machine. This consisted of an iron core, or mandril, of the same size as the bore of ...
-Kitchen Boiler Tap And Joint Leaking
To remedy a leak at a boiler joint, take out the tap and put a new grummet or washer between the back nut and the boiler. To move the nut, it must be held by a large screw-hammer or spanner inside the...
-Preserving Butter
To preserve fresh butter, well press it and incorporate with it some salt; work out most of the water by kneading, then press into clean jars, fasten parchment paper over them, and keep in a cold cell...
-Warming Bird-Room
A number of canaries are kept in an upper room, and it is assumed that a method of heating it during the winter months is required. The accompanying illustration shows a method of heating it by a coil...
-How To Polish Limestone Fossils
If the fossils are in section or have a flat surface, rub them down with line sand and water on a smooth stone until the face is level. Wash away the sand and rub them on a wet stone until the scratch...
-How To Stain Matchboarding To Imitate Pine
To stain matchboardiug to imitate pine, procure some raw and burnt sienna, ground in water; the former gives the yellow tone of pine. Mix as much of this as is required in equal parts of stale beer an...
-How To Make A Half-Plate Printing Frame
To make a half-plate printing- frame, first mitre four pieces of 1/2 in. stulf (any well-seasoned wood will do), two pieces 8 5/8-in. by 1 1/4 in , and two pieces 6 7/8 in. by 1 1/4 in., and join with...
-Automatic Sewage Filter
Automatic arrangements for opening and shutting the valves of a sewage filter are only to be trusted where a small quantity of sewage is to be dealt with. Fig. 1 illustrates a mode of filling and empt...
-Painting Photographic Backgrounds
Mis with water to the consistency of ordinary paint, lampblack, whiting, and a little ultramarine with size to bind the ingredients. Endeavour to produce a good neutral tint. To obtain a shaded effect...
-Measuring Liquid From Tank
There are several ways of measuring Liquids from a tank. If the amount of Liquid is Large, a wood, brass, or iron ride may be placed either at the centre or at the side of the tank. If the quantity...
-How To Remove Ink Stains
To remove from parchment or paper stains made with ordinary writing ink, apply spirit of salts (hydrochloric acid) diluted with five or six times its bulk of water. Solutions of either oxalic, citric,...
-Upholstering A Chair Seat
The following are instructions on upholstering the seat of a crown-back parlour chair. These chairs are usually made with a loose seat frame, fastened together with dowels and upholstered on the top; ...
-Distilling Whisky
The process of distilling whisky is very briefly as follows. A mash, made from malt and barley or other material, is fermented with yeast, and after skimming is run into stills to separate it from the...
-Particulars Of Copper Ores
Native copper - that is, pure copper - is found in veins disseminated in granite in Cornwall and North Wales; but the most abundant English ore of copper is copper pyrites or yellow copper ore, which ...
-Retaining Wall For Sunk Roadway
Probably the best form of retaining wall in brick for a sunk roadway 40 ft. wide and about 40 ft. below the level of the land at each side would be a series of relieving arches on piers in four tiers ...
-Colouring Bottom Of Swimming Bath
It is required to colour the concrete bottom of a sea-water swimming bath so that the bottom can be plainly seen by the swimmer. A Portland cement known as white cement might be light enough in co...
-Paste For Attaching Cloth To Carriage Frames
This is a recipe for a paste for fastening cloth on the frames of carriages. It is known as coach trimmers' paste. Mix rye flour with cold water to a creamy thickness, and add a good proportion of pow...
-How To Make And Hang A Baby's Swing
The sketch of a baby's swing here given is almost self-explanatory. The seat of the given is made from beech, say 1 in. thick and I5in. by 15in., with a hole? in. through each corner. Four ropes arc p...
-Facework On Granite
Granite is dressed, states Builders' Work and the Building Trades, by means of heavy picks and axes, after having been roughly shaped with'thescabblinghammer. Mouldings.rebates,etc.,are cut by...
-How To Make Birdlime
Proper birdlime is made from the inner bark of the holly, wflich is taken in the summer. This is boiled with water for several hours until quite soft; the water is then drained off and the pulp place ...
-Stickiness Of Oilskins
The stickiness of an oilskin coat which has been dressed with a mixture of boiled oil, terebine, and oil Tarnish may be due to the use of inferior materials, though it must be remembered that mixtures...
-How To Make A Brush Rack
In making the brush rack shown in Fig. 1, a piece of oak, walnut, or mahogany about Jin. thick and a little larger than the dimensions shown may be used. In setting out, commence with the middle line;...
-How To Remove Stains From Engravings
Mere age stains can he removed from engravings by placing the latter in a shallow tray (a tea-tray, for instance) containing water, and exposing them to the rays of the sun till bleached, when they sh...
-How To Make A Wooden Washing Tray
The pitch of the sides of a wooden washing tray can be obtained as in Fig. 1, a centre line being squared across the sides and ends, and half the required length or width set off from it at both top a...
-Converting Dry Plate Negative Into Positive
A negative may be converted into a positive by bleaching in the ordinary mercuric chloride intensifying solution, consisting of bichloride of mercury (or corrosive sublimate, a dangerous poison) 100gr...
-How To Make And Bending Flash Glass
Sheet glass up to the thickness of window glass is made by blowing a mass of pasty glass into a large hollow cylinder; the ends of the cylinder are then cut off, a dividing line is marked across its s...
-Blind-Stitching Hair Mattress
In blind-stitching Fig. 1 shows the first operation of putting in the needle, which must not be drawn out on the top, but backed out about 3 in. farther on the front; note that the needle is double-po...
-Recipes For Furniture Polish Revivers
Below are given twelve recipes for furniture polish revivers. (1) Besides thoroughly cleansing the furniture this reviver leaves a good polish, which is not easily soiled by finger-marks. Mix toget...
-Choosing And Fixing Spirit-Level Tubes
Spirit-level tubes are drawn out in a blowpipe flame; the tube, with care, does not cease to be a tube, though, when twisted hot, or broken cold and placed for a moment in the flame, it is quickly sea...
-How To Renovate Upholstered Furniture
The following are instructions on renovating leather-covered furniture. Cut the strings that hold the buttons from underneath the seats; these strings can be drawn out on the top. The stuffing will no...
-Steam Heating Laundry Drying Room
Below are brief particulars of the method of heating a laundry drying room 20ft. by 16 ft. by exhaust steam. A room 20ft. by 16ft. should have at least two 2 1/2 in. pipes all round, and three pipes w...
-Ascertaining Strength Of Timber
The machines used for testing the tensional, compressional, and other strengths of timber and other materials are very elaborate and very expensive, as the experiments must be efficiently carried out....
-Underground Rain-Water Tank
Rain-water tanks should be designed to suit their positions, and only a general description of their positions and construction can be given. The tank should be only a short distance from a house or b...
-Levelling Thin Metal Plates
A good method of levelling thin metal plates, such as No. 20 wire gauge, is the following. In the illustration the plate to be set is loose at A B C D; to make it flat, the parts of the sheet oppo...
-Estimating The Value Of Standing Timber
In some localities the value of standing timber is made out by a surveyor who has specialised in this class of work. His calculations are based on the apparent cubical coutents of the trees growing ov...
-Gilding Liquid For Dipping Metals
Fur a liquid solution for gilding brass and bronze, dissolve 1/4oz. of gold chloride in 5 qt. of distilled water: then add 2) 11). of caustic potash, ooz. of pearlash, and 2oz. of cyanide of potassium...
-How To Fix Valley And Jack Rafters
The accompanying conventional sketch shows the best method of fixing valley rafters and jack rafters on a roof. The valley rafters are notched over the wall-plate, and cut between the ridges. The jack...
-How To Make An Effervescing Saline
The simplest kind of saline is made by mixing together 1 oz. of tartaric acid and 1 oz. of bicarbonate of soda. If required sweetened, mix with 2 oz. of finely powdered sugar. All the powders should b...
-How To Repair Worn Stone Steps
1. In many instances the worn parts of stone steps can be made good with silicon treads. In executing such a job, the first thing is to centre the step: if economy has to be practised, make the centre...
-Setting Out Semi-Elliptic Arch
The semi-elliptic arch, sxiitable for masonry construction, shown in the accompanying illustration is set out in the following manner. First draw the span AB and the rise CD, and draw AX and D X paral...
-Measuring Buildings
In measuring up a newly built house so as to enable complete drawings to be made, commence with the ground plan and measure carefully, as everything else must fit this plan. Take the outside dimension...
-Hand Shears For Cutting Sheet-Iron
Fig. 1 is:ni elevation of a pair of shears suitable for cutting stout sheet metal. The top bar is of iron 3iu. by 1 in. thick, on which the top knife, of best cast steel2in. wide by 1/2 in.thick, is f...
-How To Determine Contents Of Heaped Material
The contents of a heap of material, shaped as illustrated, can be found approximately by multiplying the length of the base by the width and by the perpendicular height H of the mass, and then dividin...
-Cause Of Blue Colour In Nickel
When a thin coat of nickel is deposited on iron and steel, the underlying metal gives its tint to the deposited nickel when polished. A similar bluish tint is observable in nickel deposited from an ol...
-Producing Skeletons Of Animals
For such animals as horses and dogs, first take away the skin and the internal organs, and then with the knife remove the greater part of the flesh. Next place the bones in frequently changed water un...
-Close-Studding The Edges Of Upholstered Chairs
For close-studding the edges of upholstered chairs, procure a gauge to the shape of the accompanying sketch. For ordinary fin. brass studs the points of the gauge should be Jin. apart. In marking for ...
-Mahogany Stain
Dragon's blood, used in making mahogany stain, is generally sold as a red powder; it readily dissolves in methylated spirit, yielding a bright red stain generally considered, if used alone, too fiery ...
-Pneumatic Pedals For Piano
In applying pneumatic action to the pedals of a piano, a bellows about -tin. long by l 1/4in. wide, and opening about 1 in., will be needed for each pedal. The bellows is closed by a spring underneath...
-Hints On Photographic Backgrounds
Generally a medium tone background is best for light dresses. If it is too dark, the tones in the dress will probably be lost; if too light, the figure may be lost in the background, but better gradat...
-How Vaseline Is Made
Vaseline cannot he made on a small scale; it is one of the products of the distillate in of natural American petroleum, and is a perfectly homogeneous body, remaining as a jelly for an unlimited perio...
-Striking Out An Elliptic Arch
The accompanying diagram represents an easy way of striking out an elliptic arch. First draw the span A 13 and the rise C D, then the parallel line AE the same length as the rise. Divide the rise CD i...
-Preventing Moths Attacking Clothes
Try one of the following remedies for preventing moths attacking clothes, (a) Keep the clothes in a trunk made of cedar wood, (b) Sprinkle some oil of birch on a piece of cloth or flannel and place it...
-How To Make Blue-Black Writing Inks
One method of making blue-black ink is to digest together 7 oz. of bruised galls and 1/2oz. of bruised cloves for about a fortnight in 5 pt. of water. Filter and add ooz. of sulphate of iron and 1 flu...
-Pinhole Photography
The principles of pinhole photography - or photographing without lenses - arc extremely simple. The discs of light thrown on the ground when the sun's rays filter through intervening foliage are natur...
-How To Make A Shutter For Taking Photographic Doubles
The accompanying sketch shows an arrangement for doubling the same figure on one quarterplate. Construct a framework A in 3-in. wood, having holes B1, B2, B3, B4. Into these fit the rods C, C. The hol...
-Recipes For Black Inks
The following recipes are for black writing inks. (1) The common ink sold at oil shops at Id. per gill can be made very cheaply. Boil in a copper 8 gal. of soft water, throw in 7 oz. of logwood ext...
-How To Make A Sheet Brass Table Lamp
Fig. 1 shows the table lamp complete. For it, cut two circles of sheet brass (No. 22 gauge), each 7 1/2in. in diameter. Hollow both together on a block until quite smooth, so that each resembles a bow...
-Recipes For Blue Writing Inks
These are recipes for blue inks. (1) Place in a tumbler a teaspoonful of soluble Prussian blue pigment, and add sufficient pure water to dissolve all the blue and make it of the proper consistency ...
-Stephenson's Reversing Gear For Locomotives
The adjoining illustration shows the Stephenson reversing gear. V is the slide valve, and C the crankshaft carrying two eccentrics E and E', with centres as shown. A link L carries a die D connected t...
-Case-Hardening Large Wrought-Iron Work
The ordinary methods of case-hardening are quite inadequate when large wrought-iron forgings of perhaps irregular shape require to be treated. These are box-hardened in the following manner. For the h...
-Cause Of Thin Photographic Negative
Thinness or want of density in a negative may lie accounted for in two ways - by weak development owing to insufficient proportion of the actual image maker, pyro and metol, and by too early removal f...
-How To Make A Portable Photographic Dark Room
Here are instructions on making a portable triangular dark room. Make three uprights 6 ft. long of l 1/2-in. stuff, and six cross battens 3ft. 2in. long. The top of the dark room consists of a triangu...
-Blacking Letters On Headstones
Black japan, which can be obtained from most oil and colour stores, will be found most suitable for lettering headstones. Use a small sable-hair brush for the purpose. Drop black, ground in turps and ...
-A Setting Board For Butterflies
To make a setting board for butterflies and moths, choose a piece of wood about 1 in. thick; groove it down the centre, and bevel it off towards the sides, so that at the edges the wood is only 3 in. ...
-Bleaching Pulp Cane
If it is required to bleach pulp cane, either soak the material in a solution or chloride of lime, then dip in dilute hydrochloric acid, and afterwards thoroughly steep in running water; or soak it in...
-Straightening: And Repolishing A Mahogany Table
To straighten a round mahogany table that is warped across the centre, first remove the top from the pillar, turn it face downwards, and sponge several times with clean water. Then apply heavy weights...
-Design For A Divan Chair
The framing for stuff-overwork such as divan chairs needs no elaborate finish, the value and comfort of this class of work being in the upholstering. The back legs are 3ft. 4in. long, made trom 2-in. ...
-Painting Wire Blinds
In painting wire blinds, use very thin colour, made with turps and a little gold size; stipple the blind all over directly it is coated, so as to remove the superfluous colour. The space to be ...
-Hardening Clock Pallets
Harden each end of the pallet separately; leave the middle soft and, if necessary, bend it. There will then be no necessity for tempering. When tempering steel, it can be either dipped or allowed to c...
-Repousse Work
In executing repousse work, first cut out the brass, copper, or other material rather larger than the pattern to be produced. The metal must then be hammered flat, and ground and glazed on the face si...
-How To Re-Hair A Violin Bow
In commencing to re-hair a violin bow, cut off the old hair and remove the mountings which held it in position, taking note as to how they are fixed. The wedge H (Pigs. 1 and 2) is picked out with the...
-"Cuir-Bouilli" Leather Work
For cuir-bouilli work untanued hide, not leather, is employed. The former is boiled with water, when it softeus and may easily be moulded; tanned leather would not soften sufficiently, nor would it ...
-Filter Beds For Municipal Water Supply
There is no mere satisfactory method of filtering what is already practically pure water than by constructing two or mo'e filters of sand and using them for alternate periods. Each filter (if two be t...
-Treatment Of Hard Oilstone
If a Washita stone has got very hard on the surface and will not sharpen, first face down the stone well by sprinkling sharp sand and water on a thick piece of glass, a smooth flagstone or slab of sl...
-Recipes For Marking Inks
Here is a recipe for a,jet-black marking ink. Dissolve 1 dr. of silver nitrate in a little water, slowly add ammonia until the oxide which first precipitates is redissolved, mix with a little indigo e...
-How To Remove A Figure From A Group Photograph
One of the figures in a group of two in a photograph is sometimes required to be removed. It is clone as follows. Mix up a neutral tint with ivorylblack, ultramarine, crimson lake, and sepia, and add ...
-How To Remove Vaseline Spots From Brown Boots
To remove a spot of vaseline from a light brown boot, apply a thick solution of white guttapercha, or pure rubber, in bisulphide of carbon. It is the same thing as patching cement, only that it needs ...
-Fretting A Banjo
In fretting n banjo, first the position of the bridge must be marked off it in. below the base of the handle. Measure the distance between that point and the piece of ebony or ivory glued in at the to...
-Child's Wheelbarrow
Figs. 1, 2, and 3 show the construction and dimensions of a child's wheelbarrow. The sizes can be enlarged or diminished to suit individual taste. Deal boards Jin. thick will be most suitable for the ...
-Simple Collotype Process
In the process of collotype printing on parchment, as employed in the photo autocopyist process, a sheet of parchment, coated with gelatine and sensitised with bichromate of potash, is exposed behind ...
-How To Clean A Tiger's Skin
The following are methods of cleaning a tiger's skin. (1) Moisten bran with hot water and well rub it into the fur with a piece of clean flannel; then with fresh dry bran, well rubbed in with a cle...
-Machine For Grinding Moulding Cutters
The illustration represents a simple and inexpensive machine for grinding moulding cutters. The frame F is of wood, and fastened to the floor. At B, B are two small bearings, in which a small spindle ...
-How To Remove Mulberry Stains From Boat Sail
To remove mulberry stains from a boat sail, make a strong solution of chloride of lime (bleaching powder), dip the stained parts of the sail in it, and allow to remain for a few minutes. If the stains...
-Cooling Shed Having Corrugated Iron Roof
To cool a shed having a corrugated iron span roof, line the under side of the latter with a material which resists the passage of heat through it. Hair felt in sheets A in. thick is commonly used. Sil...
-Manufacture Of Sodium
Sodium is made by the Castner process. The materials used are caustic soda and a specially prepared carbide of iron, which is formed by reducing oxide of iron by producer gas, mixing the finely divide...
-Size Of Rolled Joists For An Assembly-Room Floor
It is assumed that an assembly-room is to be built over three small shops and that it is proposed to put in rolled steel joists and fill in with concrete. For a clear span of 17ft. Tin. the least poss...
-Dressing For Fishing Lines
This is a recipe for a dressing for silk fishing lines. Melt in an iron pot over a slow fire 5 parts of solid paraffin and 1 part of best resin, stirring well together. When partially cooled, dip the ...
-How To Make Printers' Rollers
When a printer's roller is unfit for further use, all the composition is stripped from the iron or wooden core and is carefully washed in hot water, cut into small pieces, and soaked in cold water for...
-Burnishing And Mounting Bromide Print
When burnishing bromide prints, thoroughly clean a sheet of patent plate glass and dust over it finely powdered French chalk, rubbing it well in all directions; then polish off all the chalk. Some wor...
-Setting Out Curved Walls And Kerbing
For setting out curved walls and kerbing a good eye is required in addition to mechanical aid. Small curves on the ground may be struck of required radius with a scriber and reel of brass wire, or mor...
-Stuffing And Mounting Fish
In stuffing and mounting a fresh-water fish, first cover with muslin the best side of the fish, and place it, with the other side up, on a table. Cut along from the head to the tail, and through this ...
-Steaming A Baker's Oven
For steaming a bakers oven for say half an hour each day, a No. 3 or No. 4 dome-top boiler, as used for hot-water work, but with the inner dome made lower so as to provide a steam chamber, would do; f...
-Machinery For Rolling Sheet Lead
The machinery for rolling lead has to be very powerful. The appliance eonsistsof alougfrarne, near the centre portion of which are two steel rollers turned by steam or other power. The lead is first c...
-How To Make Trammel Heads From Dunlop Tyre Valves
A serviceable pair of trammel heads for drawing-office work may be made from old or disused Dunlop valves. Remove the cap and nnts, cut off the flange shown at A (Fig. 2) with a file or a hack saw, an...
-Recipes For Stencil Inks
The following is the recipe for a perfectly dead black stencil ink which is insoluble in water. Dissolve 1 oz. of shellac in 1/2 pt. of methylated spirit of wine, filter it through a layer of chalk, a...
-Imitation Sandstone
For artificial rock, Portland cement may be made to look like grey sandstone by mixing 3 parts of crushed grey sandstone with 1 part of cement; for red, use the same quantity of red sandstone. If the ...
-Furnace For Casting Aluminium
A furnace for melting aluminium may be built like a brassfounder's furnace; the interior should be square with loose firebars, an ashpit having a grating in front, and a chimney. It must be built of f...
-Damp Walls In Basement
It is desired to overcome dampness in the walls of a rather old house which has no damp course and whose basement floor; 5 ft. below the level of the street, is paved with slate 2 in. thick. A damp-pr...
-Scoring Granite Pavement
The work of scoring a granite pavement should be done with a heavy short-handled hammer and a mason's chisel made from steel of about l 1/4in. diameter drawn down to a flat point tin. broad. This is k...
-Cement For Aquarium
To make a cement for fixing the glass of an aquarium melt together 2 parts of pitch and 1 part of guttapercha; apply to the joints hot, and slightly warm the glasses before pressing them in position. ...
-Composition Rollers Tor Branding Sacks
To make composition rollers for branding sacks, soak until soft in sufficient water to cover it l1b. of nine-, then melt down by a gentle heat and stir in 4 lb. of treacle. The rollers are cast in cyl...
-How To Make A Pigeon Cote
Fig. 1 is a front view, and Fig. 2 a section, of a pigeon cote. Three nests may lie placed in each of the three openings. A piece of iron about 1/4in. thick bent to the shape of the hole over the drop...
-Hints On Repolishing Furniture
Repolishing, though practically the same as French polishing, calls for more tact if the article is dirt-begrimed, broken, or bruised, and entirely different in colour from what it was when first fini...
-Construction Of Folding Hand Camera
Instructions on making a quarterplate folding hand camera are here given. From 1/4-in. mahogany cut a piece 11 in. by Sin. (A, Fig. 1). The rails BB (Fig. 1), shown in section in Fig. 4, should be fit...
-Washing Photographic Printing - Out - Paper
Ordinary tap water, which is generally more or less hard, is used for the preliminary washing of P.O.P. The chlorides, etc., combine with the free silver, which is thus removed. Trouble may arise with...
-How To Remove Porcelain Letters From Glass
To remove porcelain letters from glass, well clean the edges of the letters with the point of the blade of a pocket-knife. Then insert a very thin dinner-knife between the letter and the glass and wor...
-How To Make Copying Inks
Copying inks may be made by adding a small quantity of alum to an extract of logwood. To this is added table salt or sugar and glycerine. The inks so obtained are purple when first used, and darken gr...
-Value Of White Mica
White mica or muscovite is valuable, especially if in large pieces, which cleave easily into thin plates. It is used for chimneys for incandescent gas lights and Davy lamps, for smoke preventers or ho...
-Running An Oval Frame In Cement
The best method of running an oval frame, 18 in. by 14in., in Keene's cement, would be to use trammels and zinc templates, as shown in the figure, which is drawn proportionate to the required size; or...
-Galvanising Wire Articles
When galvanising small wire articles, keep the surface of the molten zinc well covered with sal-ammoniac, and heat the metal well above its fusing point. Then immerse the articles and move them in the...
-French Polishing In Self Colours
Brackets, tables for bric-a-brac, picture frames, etc., are often more attractive when fiuished in self colours with either a bright or dull finish, and a judicious addition of gold and flower decorat...
-Artificial Stone Cement
The following cement, which does not require to be kiln-dried, may be used with pedestals, etc., out of doors. The materials required are silicate of soda, or water-glass: carbonate of lime; chloride ...
-How To Make Glass-Fronted Hanging Cupboard
Fig. 1 is an elevation of a small glass-fronted cupboard suitable for hanging on a wall. The top is 1 1/4in thick, the bottom 1 in. thick, and the sides and back 3/4 in. thick. The sash forming the do...
-Arrangement Of Small Turret Clock
The following specification is for a small turret clock which will strike on a l 1/4-cwt. bell. Going barrel, G in. in diameter and 16 in. long; main wheel, 10in. in diameter, one hundred and twenty t...
-Stockholm Tar And Swedish Pitch
Stockholm tai is obtained during the manufacture of charcoal from pine wood. It is a good preservative for woodwork, being better than coal tar for the purpose. It can be thinned with creosote oil or ...
-Black Enamel For Ferrotype Plates
To make the black enamel for ferrotype plates, mix together amber 90 parts, black resin 69parts, spirit of turpentine 45 parts, and painter's varnish 45 parts, and add sufficient lampblack to give the...
-Breeding Cage For Small Birds
The illustration shows a breeding and flight cage, which may have a mahogany front and zinc drawers. The cage may be 33in. long, l4in. deep by 11 in. wide, or it may be 28 in. long, 15 in. deep by lli...
-Recipes For Red Inks
(1) To make bright red ink, over 8oz. of bruised cochineal pour 1 gal. of boiling water, and let it stand. Now boil 8 oz. of Brazil wood in 4 gal. of soft water for half an hour, and in two days' time...
-How To Make Table Framework
The accompanying sketch illustrates an easy method of making the framework of a table. The front and back are cut out with the ends shown, in one piece. The ends are mortised into the back and front, ...
-Crystoleum Painting
Instructions on making crystoleum paintings are here given. Procure a pair of convex cabinet-size crystoleum glasses, costing about 9d., from any artists' colourman, together with sable brushes and th...
-Strength Of Concrete
It has been found that the -strength of concrete regularly diminishes as the proportion of cement becomes less. Approximately the results follow the formula F = 150 - 10 B, where F = crushing force in...
-Particulars Of Wainscot Oak
Oak boards and planks that show prominently a good silver-grain figure are spoken of as wainscot stuff. The term is not now, as was formerly the case, restricted to the oak brought from any particular...
-How To Clean White Buckskin Boots
To clean a pair of sham buckskin cricket boots that have turned brown in places, first tree and then well wash them; let them get quite dry, then remove them from the trees and soften all parts, but m...
-Particulars Of Watchmakers' Eye-Glasses
Watchmakers' eyeglasses are numbered according to their focal length in inches. A glass of short focus is stronger than one of long focus, and has to be used closer to the work. Thus with a 2-in. glas...
-Recipes For Rubber Stamp Inks
One method of making rubber stamp ink is to dissolve aniline in hot glycerine, straining while hot. A rubber stamp ink that will not smear or blur burnished surfaces is made by dissolving 180gr. of vi...
-Roof Of Corrugated Iron And Felt
Roofing felt is usually laid on close boards, but as it is proposed to also lay corrugated iron sheets, the boarding can be dispensed with. In order to arrive at the proper distance apart of the batte...
-How To Fix Transfers On Cycles Or Wood
Transfers afford an easy method of decorating wood or iron; for wood they are generally printed in colours, often in imitation of inlays, though flowers, foliage, etc., maybe shown if they give a plea...
-How To Read And Regulate A Mercurial Barometer
The following notes are on reading and regulating a mercurial barometer (Fitzroy pattern). The dial on the face is divided into set fair, fair, change, wet, very wet; these require no explaining. The...
-Marking Out Involute Curves
In marking out involute curves, first strike a circle as shown by the sketch; divide this into a number of equal parts, as A, B, C, etc., the more the better; from each of the points draw a tangent to...
-How To Set Beetles
To set a beetle, pin it through the right elytron (wing case) with an entomological pin, raising the body high enough to give sufficient space for the proper arrangement of the legs. The beetle is the...
-How To Make Sympathetic Inks
Writing done with sympathetic or secret inks is not perceived till the paper has undergone some preparation to render the characters visible. A great number of suitable preparations are known. The fol...
-Girders And Columns For Carrying Roof
To carry a slate roof 30 It. wide, with a clear headway of 16 ft. and with a span of 50 ft., there will be required four cast-iron E stanchions about 8 in. by 6 in. by 3/4 in., with nroper cap and bas...
-Filling Engraved Ivory
Engraved work that is to be subsequently filled is executed in the usual way, the cuts being kept as clean as possible. Then take a stick of the best black sealing-wax, break it into small pieces, and...
-Ridding A House Of Bugs
When bugs are breeding in plaster, it is a very difficult matter to get rid of them. The bugs are easily killed, but the eggs remain and constantly produce a fresh supply. Treat the walls with good ca...
-Falls For Drains
The falls for drains arc governed by circumstances, such as when laid in flat and when in hilly districts. When not sufficient the drains will silt up, and when too great the inverts are worn by the s...
-Developing Length Of Arc
The length of an arc cannot be developed accurately by geometrical means, but for all practical purposes the two following methods will be found adequate. In Fig. 1, let A a 1? be the arc whose length...
-Preparing Iron Wire For Tinning
One process of preparing iron wire for tinning is as follows. The wire, after it is taken from the annealing pan or oven, goes into the cleaning room, an outbuilding well ventilated so that dangerous ...
-How To Polish Chisel Handles
The better class chisel handles are finished in the lathe, the polish being applied with a pad of wadding that has previously been used on flat work, so that loose fluff may not be given off. After ap...
-How To Renovate Veneered Furniture
Unless the veneer is very badly damaged it would be better to replace the defective portions with new veneer; small places can be filled in with a mixture of equal parts of beeswax and resin; melt in ...
-Recipe For Boot Size For Kip Work
To make a boot size that will give a brilliant polish as seen in factory made split kip uppers, boil some cheap glue, broken up very line (or it may be dissolved in a glue pot), to prevent it burning;...
-System Of Steam Heating
The diagram shows radiators in Ave rooms of a three-storey house. This apparatus is on the one-pipe system. The boiler is in the basement. The main steam circulation can be 1\ in., with single radiato...
-Dyeing Stockings Black
For a fast black dye for stockings that have become green by exposure to the sun, dissolve l1b. of copperas and 2oz. of blue vitriol in 1 gal. of water; place the stockings in this, raise gradually to...
-How To Make Collapsible Boat
In the Berthon collapsible boat the stem, the stern-post, and the keel are permanently joined together. The fore and aft stringers are hinged at their ends to the stem and stern-post on each side, t...
-How To Make Alcoholic Solution Of Gelatine
To make an alcoholic solution of gelatine to be used as a mountant for glazed prints, cover with water 1 oz. of gelatine, and allow to stand till quite soft; then melt down in a steam bath. While hot,...
-Design For Garden Vase
The accompanying sketch shows a garden vase of the most common pattern. It rests on a slab supported by three pillars, and the height of the whole might be about 5 ft. By making the slab as shown, suf...
-Loosening Slide Of Cornet
To loosen the slide of a cornet without damaging the instrument, pour a little paraffin oil on the slide and let it stand for a few hours; then wipe off, and gently warm. ...
-Re-Painting A Locomotive
If the old paint is in a very had condition, chip it off with a chipping hammer and scrape as level as possible; then tiive the engine two coats of lead colour (white-lead and patent driers in linseed...
-Recipes For White Ink
The following are recipes for white inks. White egg-shells are powdered in a mortar with clean water, and the powder is dried. Dissolve 1 part of white gum ammoniac in3 parts of acetic acid; a gentle ...
-Lead Flashings "Burnt-In 'To Stone
The method of burning-in lead flashings abutting against stonework is illustrated by the accompanying figure. A groove, about 1/2 in. to 5/8 in. wide by 1 in. to li in. deep, is cut into the stone, th...
-How To Make Nickel Solution
To make 1 gal. of nickel solution, dissolve 1 lb. of double sulphate of nickel and ammonia in as much hot rain-water as will completely dissolve the crystals. Let this get cold, then filter it through...
-A Book Rack With Sixteen Divisions
The book rack here illustrated will hold sixteen books. All the wood is i in. thick, except the divisions, which are; in., and the centre division carrying the numbers, which is 1 in. thick. In front ...
-How To Cut Plates For A Corrugated Roof
Corrugated iron sheets are usually cut across the coiTiigation with a pair of bent-nosed snips; by using these, a good edge will be left after cutting, and the corrugation will be uninjured. Holes up ...
-Composition For Repairing Ebonised Frame
To make a suitable composition for repairing an ebonised picture-frame, crush a small quantity of gilder's whiting and mix it in a pipkin with sufficient dry lampblack to make a slate-coloured powder....
-Sterilising And Peptonising Milk
The best method of sterilisation is to place the milk In bottles provided with screw or plug stoppers, put the bottles in a steam steriliser, and gradually raise them to 100 O, keeping them at th...
-Temporary Water Supply During Relaying Of Main
The simplest method of maintaining a water supply whilst a defective street main is being relaid is to cut off the ends of the defective main at the points between which renewal is necessary, to cap t...
-How To Make And Applying Blackboard Dressings
The characteristics of a good blackboard surface are intense black and absence of gloss; the former is desirable, inasmuch as the greater the contrast between the chalk marks and the colour of the boa...
-How To Remove Gold From Gilded Silver
Gold may be removed from gilded silver by the following method. Mix together, in an earthenware, porcelain, or enamelled iron cup, 4 parts hydrochloric acid (spirit of salts), I part of nitric acid (a...
-Under-Carriage For Bus
An under-carriage for a'bus is illustrated by Figs. 1 to 3. Fig. 1 is a front elevation of the bed, as finished, and Fig. 2 is a plan of a pair-horse, close-futchell carriage (bottom part only). First...
-How To Clean Interior Stonework
To clean interior stonework, wash it with dry soap and water, using a painter's ordinary brush. Now make a strong solution of American potash, thicken it with whiting to the consistency of cream, and ...
-Colouring Spirit Varnishes
Spirit varnishes are coloured with coal-tar dyes soluble in spirit, and usually known as spirit soluble dyes. As a rule, very little dye is required. Perhaps the best way to apply it is to make a ...
-Scantlings For Timber Roofs
The accompanying table shows at a glance the respective scantlings for collar, king-post, and queen-post roofs. As to the various adaptabilities of these roofs, it may be stated that collar roofs ai'e...
-Cements For China And Glass
There are many cements for repairing china and porcelain. For large articles, plaster-of-Paris worked up with alum solution may be used; or plaster-of-Paris may be stirred into a clear solution of gum...
-Brush French Polish
Brush polish Is another name for spirit varnish. In a general way, 4 oz. of best shellac to lpt. of methylated spirit will answer for applying by means of polish rubbers. If the polish is to be applie...
-How To Make Cardboard Pulp
To make a small quantity of fine cardboard pulp, cut a suitable piece of cardboard into small pieces, soak in water for an hour or two, and then beat it, in small quantities at a time, in a mortar unt...
-Photographic Paper That Does Not Require Toning
Printing-out paper that would give a rich brown tone with simply washing and fixing and no toning can easily be prepared. The prints may he made on paper, linen, silk, wood, etc. Procure some pure Kiv...
-Deterioration Of Silver-Plating Solutions
If a silver-plating bath is exposed to strong sunlight, a small portion of the free cyanide will absorb carbonic dioxide from the air and part with its cyanogen, and thus become converted into potassi...
-How To Cut A Glass Bottle
For cutting a glass bottle, a small jet made by drawing out a glass tube, or the mouthpiece end of a clay tobacco pipe should be connected to the gas supply by means of a rubber tube. Stand the bottle...
-Recipe For Black Harness Polish
A good harness polish consists of beeswax llb., soft soap 6 oz., ivory black -J lb., and Prussian blue loz., ground in linseed oil 2oz., and oil of turpentine 1/2pt. Mix well together and put in a pot...
-How To Clean White Canvas Shoes
In cleaning white canvas shoes having white leather facings, first tree the shoes, or fill them with soft paper. Well wash and scrub them, then give them one or two coats of Blanco, made up in wate...
-How To Remove Old Paint From Iron
One method of removing old paint from wrought-iron plates is to steep the latter for about twelve hours in a solution of common caustic soda (1 lb. to the gallon of water), and scrape off the softened...
-Photographic Dark-Room Lamp
Accompanying this is a sketch of a serviceable ruby lamp to burn either gas or oil. The lamp should have three illuminated sides, the front one to take ruby, orange, or opal glasses. The most convenie...
-How To Remove Red Ink Stains From White Marble
To remove red ink stains from white marble, cover them with a little chloride of lime mixed with water, and wash off in about half an hour. ...
-Brittle Gold
The following are some of the causes of brittle gold, (a) Oxidation of copper and absorption of the copper oxide by the molten metal, (b) A pasty condition of the molten metal at the moment it is pour...
-How To Stain Wooden Playing Bowls
In re-staining bowling green bowls, any grease, dirt, oil, or varnish must be removed by re-turning in a lathe or by well scouring with strong soda water and pumice powder, or powdered Bath brick. Wh...
-How To Make Up A Fishing Line
The requisite materials for making up a fishing line are a good length of tanned water cord, some short lengths of pointed sticks, and some hooks. The latter will vary according to the kind of fishing...
-Recipes For Various Pastes
The following information on making adhesive pastes for office and other use may be relied on. (1) Dissolve a teaspoon-ful of powdered alum in 1 qt. of water, and stir in enough flour to make a thi...
-Measuring And Charging For Gauged Arch
Gauged arches are usually measured at per foot superficial as extra on facings only on the cost of the general brickwork. Measure the whole surface of the face and soffit; for the face the mean leng...
-Distinguishing Hydraulic Lime Mortar
So as to ascertain whether lime is hydraulic or not, after the mortar has been mixed, take a small quantity of the mortar, sufficient to make a ball about 2 in. in diameter, and also a pat (on a piece...
-How to Heat Two Rooms From One Fireplace
Below are some suggestions as to a suitable hot-water scheme of heating two rooms from one fireplace. The sketch shows a single line of pipe, which is all that can be shown on a plan drawing. There ar...
-Paving Material For Stables And Cowhouses
The floor of a cowhouse or stable should be formed of hard, impervious material, but should not be so smooth as to be slippery when either in a dry state or wet or coated with cowdung. Blue bricks or ...
-Black Line Method Of Copying Drawings
The following process will produce black lines on a white ground from an ordinary drawing. Soak 150 gr. of gelatine in 5 oz. of water, then place the containing vessel in a saucepan of hot water until...
-How To Make An Opal Printing Frame
A quarter-plate photographic printing frame in which the whole of the picture can be examined at once can be made thus: Substitute for the usual hinged back of a half-plate frame a piece of |-in. boar...
-Cements For Celluloid, Xylonite, Etc
The following is a good cement for celluloid. Shellac 1 part, dissolved in 1 part of spirit of camphor and 3 to 4 parts of 90-percent, alcohol. This should be applied warm, the broken parts being held...
-Brazing Steel Articles
A suitable solder for use in brazing small steel articles may be made in the proportions of silver 18, brass wire 2, copper 1. Melt in a crucible; when cold, hammer into a thin sheet, or granulate whi...
-How To Work A Circular Moulded Stone Cap
When working a circular moulded stone cap, work the stone first to the parallel thickness required, and draw on centre lines at right angles to each other, their point of intersection being the centre...
-Stretching Paper On Drawing Board
To stretch drawing paper on a board cut the paper 1/2 in. less than the board all round; then turn it over and sprinkle the back with water, spreading it over the whole sheet and leaving the 1/2-in. m...
-Drilling Hard Steel Watch Pinions
When drilling hard steel watch pinions, commence with a hard and sharp drill, and drill a little way only; then, before it ceases cutting, withdraw the drill and resharpen it, and so on until the hole...
-Bamboo Rocking Chair
A working sketch of a base rocking chair with beech rockers and bamboo frame is here given. The rockers are made in two parts from l 1/4in. stuff. The two pieces A for the base can be joined together ...
-How To Clean Watch Plates
In cleaning watch plates, immerse them in benzine and brush them with a clean and soft watch brush and a very little dry chalk. The appearance when finished depends greatly on the original quality of ...
-How To Remove Paint From Old Wood
To remove paint from old wood, apply freshly slaked, hot limewash, to each bucketful of which from 2 lb. to 4 lb. of common washing soda has been added; use a common fibre - not bristle - brush. As th...
-How To Make A Fishing Reel
Fig. 1 is a back view, and Fig. 2 a section, of a 4 1/2-in. reel for a fishing-rod. It would be cheaper to make the fittings, as to buy a single set would cost nearly as much as a reel. A pattern may ...
-Executing Designs On Sheet Copper
Raised images, etc., are produced by stamping the copper. The art of engraving these steel dies is named die-sinking. Raised designs in copper are also produced by punches or similar tools. This is...
-Tools For Dressing Granite
Fig. 1 represents the punch that is nsed with the hammer for removing superfluous waste and for pointing the face to almost any degree of fineness. Its cutting edge is sharpened to a stumpy pyramidica...
-How To Make Indelible Inks
Many attempts have been made to pioduce an ink which cannot be removed by chemical means, and the most satisfactory ink has been found to be a solution of Chinese (or so-called Indian) ink in acidulat...
-How To Make Hair Wash
To make a hair wash to remove scurf, use tincture of cantharides, 1 dr.; rum or rectified spirit, 1 1/2pt.; carbonate of ammonia. 1 dr.; and carbonate of potash, 1 dr.; a small quantity of eau-de-colo...
-Setting Out Mitre Lines
When setting out a mitre block for mouldings meeting at right angles as shown at A (Fig. 4), it is only necessary to draw a square on the top block as shown at A B C D (Fig. 1), and then the diagonal ...
-Principles Of Ventilation
The following short summary of the principles of ventilation is taken from Messrs. Notter and Firth's Practical Domestic Hygiene. The composition of pure dry air may be taken to be as follows. Nitro...
-Safety Valves Of Range Boot-Boilers
The number of weights, which really means the weight of metal with which the valve is loaded, is controlled hy the pressure of water in the boiler, and not by the size of the range. The customary meth...
-A Workman's Tea And Sugar Case
Figs. 1 and 2 illustrate a convenient little case in which workmen can carry tea or coffee and sugar to work. It is made of scrap pieces of tin, such as come from an old corned beef tin. The side piec...
-How To Work In Real And Imitation Alabaster
Alabaster is a soft, semi-translucent white sulphate or carbonate of lime; sometimes it has veins of yellow, red, or brown. A common material generally known as alabaster is made of gypsum (plaster-o...
-How To Make Hydraulic Cements
Hydraulic cements, such as Portland cement, are made either by grinding and burning natural cement stones - that is, stone containing carbonate of lime or chalk and silicate of alumina or clay - or by...
-Colouring Venetian Blinds
Pine laths are generally finished with size and varnish, the latter alone imparting a sufficient hue. For a more pronounced tone, yellow ochre or lemon chrome may lie mixed with the size: for walnut, ...
-How To Make An Extension Ladder
The extension Ladder illustrated in Figs. 1 to 3 will be found useful for light work. Three to four 8-ft. to 12-ft. lengths of straight-grained red deal, about 3 in. by 2 in., can be punted together, ...
-Recipes For Waterproof Cements
Below are some reliable recipes for waterproof cements. (1) Rub magnesia with a little concentrated solution of magnesium chloride; apply this cement at once. It is soluble in acids, but not apprec...
-Mortar For Pointing
In making mortar for flat pointing, 1 of lime or cement to 2 of sand may be used. A struck joint with the upper edge pressed in, and done as the work proceeds, is generally more durable than flat poin...
-Preparing Chlorides Of Lead
There are two chlorides of lead - the diehloride and the perchloride. The first is prepared by precipitating a solution of lead nitrate with hydrochloric acid. Or in place of the lead nitrate, acetate...
-Stove For Heating Six Laundry Irons
The accompanying sketch shows a stove that is suitable for heating six laundry irons by gas. The body is made in one piece of at least No. 16 gauge sheet-iron, the pattern being a rectangle 21 in. by ...
-Notes Oh Granite And Other Igneous Rocks
Under the name of granite are included many rocks differing largely in appearance, properties, and mode of origin, but agreeing in their general petrological character. The granites are all distinctly...
-How To Fix Indian Ink
There is no method of absolutely fixing indian ink rubbed in water from the stick; alum or liquid ammonia is, however, commonly added for the purpose. Before waterproof ink was invented, it was custom...
-Testing Clock Pallets
To ascertain whether the pallets of a thirty-hour American clock are correct, place the pallets against the scape-wheel teeth, with the-poiut of one pallet against the point of a tooth. The point of t...
-Bright Silver Plating
Silver is deposited in a dull or matt condition, which needs brushing and polishing to become bright. For a solution to give bright deposit s in special parts, place 3 fluid oz. of carbon bisulphide i...
-Distinguishing Boiled From Raw Linseed Oil
In distinguishing boiled linseed oil from raw oil, it must be remembered that the raw oil is usually of a pale yellow colour, a sweet nutty odour, and a mild taste, whilst boiled linseed oil is usuall...
-Recording The Opening Of A Door
A little appliance devised for recording the opening of doors, etc., is shown in front elevation in the accompanying illustration. The device cousistsof a small clock-movement (preferably of the twent...
-Pattern For Cast-Iron Roller
In making, say, a roller about 0 in. in diameter by 50 in. long, threaded with sixteen threads in 9 in. half-way round the roller, its other half having a straight thread, proceed as follows. First ma...
-Boxing Out Panels Of Carts
For boxing out the pillars and bottom sides to take the panels on vans, carts, etc., a right- aud left-hand router, as Fig. 1, and two or three of various sizes for boxing or cleaning out, as Fig. 2, ...
-Glass Embossing By The " Brushing-Out" Method
The brushing-out method of embossing glass is executed as follows. First coat the glass with asphalt um (Brunswick black). Now lay on the stencil, which is made of tinfoil. With a soft brush go over t...
-Setting Beetles
The following shows how beetles should be set. Place a card upon a board or cork and pin the beetle through the right wing to the cork. The legs are next extended and the card is brought up to form a ...
-How To Make A Removable Tile Hearth
In the under consideration it is not necessary to take out the stove before the tile hearth can be laid, and another advantage is that the hearth is easily removed when occasion requires. The tiles sh...
-Tufting Chair Backs
If it is required to button and tuft some upholstered chair backs the folio wing materials will be necessary. A packet of buttons to match the covers, a ball of twine, a straight needle about 6 in. lo...
-How To Clean Badger Skin
To clean the skin of a badger, place the latter hair upwards upon the table and procure a basin of warm water, soap, sponge, and towel. Now proceed to wash the head, using no more water than necessary...
-Toilet Cream For Chapped Hands
Several materials, such as white petroleum jelly or benzoated lard, could be used for making a cheap toilet cream for chapped hands. Cocoanut oil, scented with a little oil of lavender, is a good crea...
-Dyeing Canvas Or Cloth A Blue Colour
By the indigo process of dyeing canvas, a reduced bath is made as follows. Take 10 gal. of water and add 5 oz. of finely powdered indigo, 144 oz. of dry slaked lime, and 9 1/2 oz. of copperas; stir th...
-How To Fix Pictures On Canvas
The following is a method of mounting to produce the appearance of oil paintings. Make a stout deal frame, and stretch over tlie front unbleached calico, fastening it with tin-tacks, and taking care t...
-Mastic Asphalt For Laying Wood-Block Floors
The mastic asphalt used for laying wood-block floors is suplied in blocks weighing 1/2cwt. each. A concrete foundation for the floor should be provided, and this should be brought to a true surface wi...
-Putting Facework On Granite
The usual faces put on in the trade (the fineness of face varying as to the price paid) are rockwork (sometimes called rustic face), punched, picked, single-axed, patent-axed, and polished faces. Rock...
-How To Make Blue Mottled Soap
The manufacture of blue mottled soap is a difficult operation. In making soap by the cold-process melt 6(3 lb. palm kernel oil and 33 lb. cottonseed stearin or tallow by a very gentle heat and bring t...
-Dyeing Green Cloth Black
The following is a description of how to dye green cloth to a black colour. Two baths are required. For the first, 5 lb. of logwood chips and 1 lb. of sumach are boiled in 2 gal. of water and strained...
-Design For Flower Stand
Fig. 1 shows a metal stand complete with the flower pots in position. Fig.2 is a plan of the top, which should be of hard wood, turned circular in form, with a bead round the lower . as shown in secti...
-Hints On Oilstones
The oilstones in most general use are four in number - the Turkey, Washita, Charnley Forest, and Arkansas. The Turkey stone is known as white, grey, or black, but generally its colour is a mixture of ...
-Details On Working Marble
British marbles are quarried in blocks and roughly scabbled to shape on the ground; they are then taken to the sawmills and sawn to the required sizes, either as slabs or scantlings. The saws generall...
-How To Make Night Lights
Night lights are usually made of cerasin, or of a mixture of cerasin or paraffin with stearic acid, the latter being in the proportion of from 5 to 10 per cent. These lights are moulded, the wick bein...
-Preparing Litmus And Turmeric Papers
To prepare ordinary litmus paper, powder 1 oz. of litmus and boil it with 4 oz. of water, filter, and wash the residue with a little hot water, adding this to the filtrate. If blue litmus paper is req...
-Bronzing Zinc
To make zinc resemble brass, mix 1 pt. of best oak varnish with 1/2pt. of turpentine; well stir, and then add gradually 1 lb. of best gold bronze. When these materials are thoroughly mixed, apply with...
-How To Make Walking Sticks From Rhinoceros Hide
To make walking sticks from rhinoceros strips, they must first be straightened by damping and suspending from a nail with a weight at the lower end. When thoroughly dry they should be trimmed by knife...
-Potash Lye For Soapmaking
The amount of water required in making a potash lye for soapmaking depends upon the process; in the cold process very strong lyes of about 70 Twaddell are used (that is, containing 35 per cent, potas...
-Softening Leather Machine Belt
A new belt may he softened by sponging it with warm water, then well rubbing it with dubbin. On the side next the pulleys give it a little castor oil now and again, and cleanse occasionally as above. ...
-Sharpening A Boot Clicker's Knife
The point of a clicker's knife wears away, and many workers sharpen this part only; therefore the knife gets stumpy. Sharpen the knife for a length of about 3 in., bearing most on the part near the ha...
-How To Make Black Harness Oil
This is a recipe for a black harness oil. Melt 3 lb. of pure tallow without letting it boil, and pour in gradually 1 lb. of neat's-foot oil. Stir continually till cold, so that it will be thoroughly a...
-How To Cut Moulds For Stone
In cutting moulds for stone from a full-size drawing, the latter or a tracing is placed over a sheet of thin zinc (No. 9 is a useful gauge), and the profile pricked through with a fine-pointed steel s...
-Particulars Of Red Sandal-Wood
Bed sandalwood is frequently confounded with red sanders-wood - a much better-known and commoner material. Red sandal-wood is brought to England from somewhere on or near the Malay Islands. The wood i...
-Embrocation For Sprains, Etc
This is a recipe for an embrocation for sprains and bruises. Dissolve camphor 2; gr., in methylated spirit 6 dr., and thoroughly mix with dilute acetic acid 21 oz., one-fourth part of the yolk of an e...
-Black Drawing Ink
The best black ink to use for drawings is China ink rubbed down by working with a circular motion aud light pressure on the slab. Heating the slab or leaning heavily upon the stick makes the ink muddy...
-Design For Oxford Picture Frame
Fig. 1 illustrates a design for the corners of Oxford picture frames. The lozenges are level and form the top surface, the interior being carved 1/8 in. deep and scored. A section of the lozenge is se...
-Plumbers' Astragal, Slip, And Expansion Joints
An astragal joint consists of a soldered joint with ornamental mouldings, or astragals, round the pipe. A slip joint is simply one end of a pipe slipped into the end of another, which is enlarged to r...
-Flat Grounds For Plate Glass
One of the best backings for plain or blended grounds on glass is made by grinding the colour in nut oil; bind with sugar of lead; thin with benzoline. This will stand the heat or frost without cracki...
-How To Make A Saw-Sharpening Machine
The saw-sharpening machine shown in the accompanying illustrations may be made as follows. Cut from a piece of good hardwood the main standard A (Fig. 1), 12 in. square at the base and 9 in. or 10 in....
-How To Make Celluloid Varnish
To make a so-called celluloid varnish the material to use is no1 celluloid, but trinitrocellulose, sold under the name of collodion cotton. This is soluble in amyl acetate. Acetone is also a solvent l...
-How To Make Mechanical Dental Plates
This is an outline ot the processes and methods adopted in making a plate in mechanical dentistry. From an impression in composition make the plaster model not less than 3in. deep from the edge of the...
-Straightening Ivory Walking-Stick
To straighten a bent ivory walking-stick, procure a length of dry deal or pine 30in. (or less) by 3 in. by 2in., and along it run a straight groove with a round-nose plane the sizeof the diameter of t...
-Preparation Of Collotype Plates
The proress of collotype is based upon the peculiar property of gelatine, when sensitised with bichromate of potash and dried at a high temperature, of absorbing water and refusing greasy ink in some ...
-How To Remove Grain Marks From Ivory
To remove black grain marks from ivory, scrape the latter, being careful to keep to the original contour. A plan adopted with valuable pieces is to engrave a design on the surface, and to till with se...
-Notes On Gesso Ornamentation
Gesso work, to a small extent, lias b:en employed in the decorative arts for a very long time; but it is only of late years that gesso has been recognised as a material with which effects can be obtai...
-The Preparation Of Lampblack
In producing the various grades of lampblack, soot oil, which is the last oil obtained in the distillation of coal tar freed from naphthaline as far as possible, is burned in a special furnace. In thi...
-Notes On Working Tortoiseshell
Tortoiseshell is supplied almost entirely by the carapace or shell of the hawksbill tortoise, which frequents the warm waters of the East and West Indies. The shell always consists of thirteen plat...
-Cements For Mica
Mica may be cemented by moistening the edges with a solution of gelatine in strong acetic acid. Another cement for mica is made by soaking gelatine in cold water and pressing out excess of moisture in...
-How To Remove Dents From Brass Musicnl Instruments
There are many methods of removing the bruises from brass instruments, the position of the bruise de-terminingthe method to be employed. In some cases, to avoid taking the instrument to pieces, the to...
-How To Repair Lead Gutters
When stopping a crack in a lead gutter, the crack should be opened, the woodwork beneath dished, the edges of the lead dressed into the dishing, and then shaved to present a bright surface for solderi...
-How To Make Soluble Oil
Soluble oil as used in finishing cotton goods may be made by mixing 2 parts by weight of castor oil with 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The pan in which the mixing is done should be placed in a tank...
-How To Polish Ivory
Ivory may be polished by hard, medinm, and soft revolving brushes with wet whiting and water, finishing with a soft polishing bob charged with dry whiting or with putty powder. To polish ivory by hand...
-How To Clean Windows
Windows that are dull and smoked through being near a brickcroft are cleaned in the following manner. Slake 1/2oz. of qucklime in sufficient water to make a paste, and add 1 lb. of washing soda dissol...
-How To Burnish Photographs
A cheap burnisher to put a glassy surface on photographs consists of a steel bar and a ribbed roller rotated by a handle; the lubricator is made by dissolving about 20 gr. of Castile soap in 6oz. of m...
-Writing On Opal Glass
Asphaltum in an equal weight of methylated spirit is useful for writing on opal glass, as it will not peel. Break the asphaltum small, put it in the spirit, and set it near a fireplace for two or thre...
-Quickening Combustion Of Charcoal
A method of impregnating charcoal so as to make it light up very quickly is to make a strong solution of nitre in boiling water; dip the charcoal in this, and then dry. If the treated charcoal burns t...
-How To Renovate A Celestial Globe
A celestial globe, the varnish of which has become chipped, is renovated as follows. Cleanse by gently rubbing with soft flannel and white curd soap, and wipe perfectly dry with clean chamois or windo...
-Setting Jewel Hole In Geneva Watch
Below is a description of the method of cutting a new setting for a jewel hole in a Geneva watch. The watch plate is cemented with shellac to a brass face-plate about 1/2in. or 3/4in. in diameter, run...
-Hints On Working The Howe Sewing Machine
The following hints are on the working of a Howe sewing machine. First, get the machine to run backwards, or from you, quite easily; if at all stiff use paraffin oil. Thread the shuttle, first through...
-How To Renovate Brass And Copper Articles
It is supposed that an article composed of lacquered brass and copper requires to be cleaned, burnished, and re-lacquered. First remove the lacquer by brushing with an ordinary scrubbing-brush and str...
-Flatting Colours
To make up flatting for calico to stand two or three coats, dry dead, and roll without cracking, take, say, 51b. white lead, 1 gill raw linseed oil, 1/2gill '-old size, 1/2 lb. patent driers, and as m...
-Pasteboard Tube Umbrella Stand
The illustrations show an umbrella stand made from three pasteboard tuhes. They have wood blocks fitted into the bottom, and can he screwed to the base, which is of 1-in. hoard. If a moulding could be...
-Ferrotype Photography
The ferrotype plate is a sheet of iron covered with an insoluble black varnish and coated first with a bromo-iodised collodion. Pour a pool in the centre, flow round the edges, and pour off at the bot...
-How To Make Bevelled Stock Hoops
Below are given instructions on obtaining the correct bevel for making 3 in. stock hoops for heavy wheels. Fig. 1 is a side view of a stock hoop, 3 in, wide, 1 ft. in diameter at the back, and 10 in. ...
-Double Image From Field Glasses
A pair of field glasses when looked through will sometimes show a double object. This double image is due to the directions of the two optic axes not being in correct relation. This prevents the rays ...
-How To Make Liquid Glue
For strong liquid glues. (1)' heat together on a water bath for six hours clear gelatine, 100 parts; best Scotch glue, 100 parts; alcohol, 2o parts; alum, 2 parts; and 200 parts of 20 per cent, acetic...
-Burning Lead Seams With Hydrogen Gas
Flat seams that are to be burnt can be either butted or lapped. In the former case a strip of clean-shaved lead is fed into the seam, and in the latter case the edge of the face lead is melted down in...
-Particulars Of Hydro-Extractor
A hydro-extra tor, such as is tised in drying or oxidising oils on tow, consists of a circular cage or frame made of perforated zinc, copper gauze, etc., fixed on a vertical belt-driven spindle. The c...
-How To Make Bronze Powders
As substitutes for thin films of the genuine metal, paints resembling gold, silver, bronze, etc., have long been widely employed. These paints are formed by mixing what is known as metallic bronze wit...
-Recipes For Various Cements
The following are reliable recipes for miscellaneous cements. A cement for repairing an amber mouthpiece, broken in two, may be made by dissolving sufficient gum copal in ether to form a syrupy fluid....
-Cements For Machine Belt Joints
The following are cements for machine belt joints. (1) Stir 1/2 pt. of good hot glue with a tablespoonful of glycerine and half a teaspoonful of turpentine. (2) Melt together in an old iron saucepan \...
-How To Determine Thickness Of Copper Tubing
To determine the thickness in inches of copper tubing to stand a given pressure, multiply the diameter of the pipe in inch,-- by the working pressure in pounds per square inch, and divide by 5,600. Th...
-Projection Of Curved Wing Wall
The accompanying illustration shows the method of finding the tion ot a curved wing wall for a bridge. It is a helical or screw surface. Draw the plan, and divide the wing wall coping into any number ...
-Particulars Of Coal-Mine Gases
There are three mechanical mixtures of gases found in mines, and these are (a) air, a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen gases; (b) firedamp, a valuable mixture of marsh gas and air: and (c) afterdamp, a ...
-Device For Supporting Large Eggs
A device for supporting a large egg can be made as follows. Take six fine silk cords and knot them together in the centre; then form a few large meshes by knotting the cords together two and two at eq...
-How To Make Plasterers' Gauged Stuff
The fine white wall plaster known as plasterers' gauged stuff is made as follows. A pure, fat lime is slaked with water and afterwards thinned down to the consistency of cream. It is then left to se...
-Electro-Coppsring A Plaster Statue
In depositing a copper coating on a plaster statue by the electrotype process, coat the statue several times with linseed oil or saturate with melted stearin to render the plaster non-absorbent to the...
-How To Make White Soft Soap
A white soft soap could be made from cocoanut oil and lard, but it would be very expensive. The palest soft soaps are made from refilled cottonseed arid linseed oils. The pan for making the soap shoul...
-Building A Dog Kennel
A dog kennel is illustrated by Fig. 1. The entrance hole should he about 13 in. wide by 17in. high, theother leading dimensions being shown. Appropriate material will be 3/4-in. matchboards for the si...
-How To Remove Mildew Stains From Leather
To remove mildew stains from leather, well rub the leather all over with spirit of ammonia; this no doubt will remove the stain and revive the colour. To stiffen the leather, apply on the grain side p...
-The Manufacture Of Washing Soda
In the manufacture of washing soda, sulphate of soda, prepared as described in the fifth paragraph of p. 260, is mixed with coal slack and limestone and fed into a reverberatory furnace with a revolvi...
-Re-Dyeing Black Canvas Shoes
In re-dyeing black canvas shoes that have worn white, well wash them, allow to dry, and then apply one or two coats of a solution made as follows. Put a quarter of a pint of methylated spirit into a b...
-Photographing Pencil Drawings
Slow plates giving extreme contrasts such as are used for photomechanical work are the only ones suitable for use in photo-copying pencil drawings. Many workers prefer to use the wet collodion process...
-Holding Stick Mounts While Engraving
Engravers of stick mounts use a short length of wood, turned taper, on which the mounts are pushed tightly. Stick knobs are mounted on cement sticks about 4 in. long. When the gold or silver is very t...
-Dyeing Ostrich Feathers Black
The following are instructions on dyeing ostrich feathers black. First soften the feathers by soaking them in a warm bath consisting of lib. of carbonate of soda in 10gal. of water, then rinse in clea...
-Testing Water For Impurities
The following are simple tests for impurities in water. Add Nessler's reagent; if ammonia is present, the water will in a few moments become distinctly yellow. Add to another portion dilute sulphuric ...
-Principles Of Air-Gun Construction
These are some hints on the mechanism and principles of construction of an air gun. Pigs. 1 and 2 explain the mechanism of two kinds of air-guns. In Fig. 1, A is a wrought-iron tube closed a tone end,...
-Particulars Of Basalt
Basalt is a volcanic rock probably formed by the fluid magma escaping through some line of fracture in the earth's crust, overflowing at the surface, and then cooling slowly. Being a volcanic rock, it...
-Constructing A Small Saw Mill
Instructions on building p. shed to be used as a small saw mill are here given. The shed may be constructed of old railway timbers and sheet iron. The dimensions are 55ft. long by 30 It. wide, with a ...
-How To Make Snow-Shoes
Snow-shoes, in Northern Europe, are made of birch bark, bound to a tough rim 6 ft. long and 6 in. wide, the front being pointed and turned up. There are straps in the middle to bind the shoe to the fo...
-Bleaching Ostrich Feathers
Ostrich feathers may be bleached either by exposure to the vapour of sulphurous acid, or by immersion in a solution of hydrogen peroxide; the latter method is the better one, but more expensive; the s...
-How To Remove Fur From Kettle
The only method of removing the fur from the inside of a kettle is to chip it out with a chisel or other sharp-ended tool. An efficient method of preventing the deposition of the fur has yet to be dis...
-Particulars Of Olein Oil
Olein oil is a product of the decomposition of fats by steam or by lime, being separated from the harder product, stearin, by pressure. it consists almost entirely of fatty acids, principally oleic ad...
-How To Repair Watch Balance-Staff
A new pivot can sometimes be put in a watch balance-staff by drilling a hole in the end perfectly central and straight, and inserting a piece of tempered steel, upon which a new pivot is afterwards tu...
-Cylinder System With Secondary Circulation
A hot-water apparatus on the cylinder system, with secondary flow and return, to supply bath, lavatory, and two sinks, is shown by the accompanying figure. It will be noticed that the secondary return...
-Gold Lacquer For Brass And Tin
A bright (cold) gold lacquer for brass and tin that will cover solder marks may be made by dissolving 1 lb. of ground turmeric, 1 1/2 oz. of gamboge, '3k lb. of powdered gum sandarach, and 3/4 lb. of ...
-Tonnage Of Vessels
Under deck tonnage is the cubic contents of the vessel below the tonnage deck divided by 100. The tonnage deck is taken to the upper deck in ships that have less than three decks, and to the second de...
-How To Polish Shells
Generally, shells to be preserved and polished may be divided into (a) those having a natural polish and requiring very little preparation (b) those which have no natural polish, but which may be poli...
-Recipes For Universal Cements
Under the name of universal cements are known many useful preparations that strongly adhere to almost any substance-wood, metal, leather, glass, etc. This is a recipe for such a cement, and it is espe...
-How To Clean Gravestones
The method of cleaning gravestones by scraping and rubbing with sand and water is one of the most thorough that can be adopted. Chloride of lime may often be used with advantage; a Ipaste made of Amer...
-Testing Drying Quality Of Paint
To test the drying qualities of paint make some streaks of paint on glass slips and keep them at, say, 212 P. for about half an hour j the quickest drying will be the most tacky to the touch. In ...
-Varnish For Kitchen Chairs
Before re-varnishing, the chairs should be washed with soda water - a teacup-ful of soda dissolved in 1 gal. of warm water. I se a good quality spirit varnish. The more shellac the harder the varnish;...
-Notes On Damp-Proof Courses
Damp-courses, or damp-proof courses, as they are correctly termed, are inserted in buildings to prevent the damp from entering the upper portion of the walls. The wet can get into walls in three ways,...
-Machine For Grooving Sashes
Below are instructions on making a small machine for grooving, rebating, and moulding sashes and similar woodwork. Fix together a strong frame aw for a small hand circular-saw bench. Two bearings secu...
-Manufacture Of Acetate Of Cellulose
Acetate of cellulose is made by a process patented by Cross & Bevan and described in patent No. 9676, 1891. The method is as follows. Dehydrated cellulose is mixed with a concentrated solution of zinc...
-Dulling Varnished Surfaces
To dull a varnished surface proceed as follows. With a sash tool apply raw linseed oil over all the varnished surface. Then take up a quantity of medinm grade pumice powder on a fairly stiff bristle s...
-Rifle And Belt Racks For Tent Pole
Figs. 1 and 2 show an elevation and plan of a rifle rack for a tent pole. The rack is made of birch or beech wood lin. thick by 2 1/2 in. wide, jointed in the centre by a hinge Aon the front edge. A s...
-Roofing With Felt
A small building may be roofed with felt alone in the following manner. The felt is placed upon horizontal battens which are sawn from the round trees, the edges being left rough, and the battens bein...
-How To Fix Topmast Of Flagstaff
In fixing the topmast of a flagstaff to a mainmast it must be remembered that the masthead, that is, the portion between the two caps, or brackets, is square and slightly tapered, and the caps fit tig...
-How To Make Glauber's Salt
The Leblanc method of making Glauber's salt (sulphate of soda) is as follows. Common salt in fine crystals is fed into a large iron still connected with several tall towers made from drain pipes, down...
-Underpinning A Chimney Breast
In removing a chimney breast (on ground floor) and in fixing cantilever brackets to support three floor breasts above, a steel joist, lin. in depth for each foot of span, should be fixed parallel to t...
-Mending A Watch Fusee Chain
Here are instructions on mending the fusee chain of a lever watch. Lay the chain on a piece of wood. Place the nail of the first finger of the left hand on the last link, and insert the edge of the sm...
-Concrete Construction Under Water
To form concrete walls under tide level, the most practical way will probably be to work inside a timber cofferdam, if the depth is not too great. The wall would be dealt with in short lengths. If it ...
-French Polishing Turned Teak
Teak-wood blocks, turned at high speed in a lathe, are generally left with a smooth finish; they are oiled and polished whilst revolving. If the blocks are rough or coarse grained, a filling of tinted...
-Thinning Stockholm Tar
Stockholm tar that has been kept for a long time and has thickened may be melted down by a gentle heat, and thinned either with creosote oil or with coal-tar naphtha; this will require very great care...
-How To Make Leather Purses
To make the purse illustrated by Fig. 1, first cut a cardboard pattern, and mark and cut out the leather for the back piece A (Fig. 2), which is on a smaller scale to Fig. 1. B (Fig. 2) is the front p...
-Executing Designs In Gesso
Those attempting gesso work for the first time should, to get familiar with the work, colour a panel of wood green with metallic colours. Brush the gesso upon the green ground and model the design; le...
-Red Facing Bricks
Red facing bricks should be made from a clay or marl containing sufficient iron to give the colour on burning. To make a red brick from blue clay, mix with it very carefully 5 to 15 per cent, of ochre...
-Slopes, Batters, And Gradients
In speaking of the slop: of a bank, the expression 1 in 14 means that the slope is in the proportion of a rise of 1 vertical for a distance of 1 1/2 horizontal; thus, if the bank is 10ft. high with a ...
-Damp-Proofing Walls
Various methods have been recommended at different times for preventing damp showing on the inside of a defective wall, one of the most effective being covering the wall with lead foil before papering...
-Hints On Retouching Negatives
Shadows may be deeped in a photographic negative, and opaque (or light) lines removed by scraping with a sharp knife as shown in the accompanying sketch. Its edge is turned over slightly so as to scra...
-Particulars Of Ivory
Ivory differs from bone in its finer structure and greater elasticity, and in the absence of those larger canals which carry bloodvessels through the substance of bone and appear upon it as specks or ...
-Particulars Of Ammoninm Tartrate And Potassinm Phosphate
Ammoninm tartrate is made by neutralising a solution of tartaric acid with ammonia and then evaporating to dryness. Potassinm phosphate may he obtained by adding carbonate of potash to a solutiou of a...
-Use Of Watchmakers' Turns
In using a pair of watchmakers' turns when putting a new cylinder in a watch, the cylinder must have a brass ferrule affixed to it by shellac. It is rotated by means of a light whalebone bow about 9 i...
-Affixing Leather To Band-Saw Wheel
The leather should be stretched previous to being secured to the wheel. Leather bands are not made endless and sprung on, as are rubber bands. The ends of the leather should be cut aslant, as shown at...
-Substitutes For Ivory
Substitutes for ivory are bone, xylonite, and a French celluloid. The two latter pro (ructions may be obtained in sheets from 1/16 in. to 2 in. in thickness, and in blocks to order. They are subject t...
-Packing For Plunger Of Pump Piston
A simple and good packing for a piston can be obtained by using three leathers. One, at the centre, is a simple disc, and on each side of it is a cup leather that tits the bore of the pump barrel. One...
-How To Fix Water-Colours
To prepare water-colours so that they will not run when washed over a second time, rub the colours up in a solution of gum dammar in alcohol, instead of in water; they should not then run when used fo...
-Filling In Joints In Bamboo Work
Badly made joints in bamboo work can be tilled in with a mixture of sawdust and hot glue made to the consistency of thin paste, all surplus filling- being cleaned off before it dries. Cracks in bamboo...
-How To Make Cyanide Of Gold For Electro-Plating
To make cyanide of gold for electro-plating, disso've 1 oz. of oure gold in aqua regia (a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids), evaporate to dryness, dissolve the residue in 15 pt. of water, and ...
-Mixing Pyro Developer
In mixing up pyro solution, some prefer to dissolve the pyro immediately before use, as, owing to its affinity for oxygen, it rapidly decomposes in water. This is, however, a somewhat tedious method o...
-Recipes For Luminous Paints
In the manufacture of luminous paints commercial varnish containing lead or manganese must not be used, as it would destroy the luminosity of the paint. A suitable varnish is made by a process patente...
-Hydraulic Gradient And Sewage Irrigation
The hydraulic mean gradient of a sewer or water pipe is the line which would be assumed by the surface of an open stream when the discharge at the bottom was equal to that of the sewer or pipe,the cro...
-Extracting Zinc From Tin
The following have been given as methods of extracting zinc from tin. (a) Raise the mixture to the vaporisation point of zinc; this involves great waste of tin. (6) Granulate the mixture, and immerse ...
-Electro-Silvering Tin Teapots
These are instructions on silvering the inside of a tin teapot. Well scour the inside with powdered Bath brick or Trent sand until quite bright; tiien well rinse in potash water, and fill, whilst stil...
-Rendering Tracing Paper More Transparent
To render tracing paper more transparent dissolve 1/4oz. of gum mastic in 6 oz. of best turpentine, and apply this to the paper with a brush and hang up to dry. Or take 2 parts of Canada balsam and 3 ...
-How To Make And Upholstering Fender Stool
Fig. 1 shows a portion of an upholstered fender stool. In its construction maybe used any thoroughly dry, seasoned wood, preferably mahogany, walnut, oak, or beech. The stool may be 4 ft. 3in. long by...
-Restoring Colour Of Gold Chain
To restore the colour of a 9-carat gold chain that has been burnt black and blue swill it in a warm solution consisting of 1 part of sulphuric acid to 20 parts of water; then rinse in clean warm water...
-How To Make Carbons For Electric Lamps And Batteries
Coke, the material from, which the ordinary lighting and battery carbons are made, is usually a by-product of the process of petroleum oil refining, being the solid that remains in the stills after th...
-Composition For Blackening Face
To make a composition as used by minstrel troupes for blackening the face and hands, place some good corks, champagne for preference, on an iron plate over a bright fire. W hen they are thoroughly bur...
-Taking Cross Sections Of Large River
It is supposed that a method is required of taking cross sections of a tidal river. Soundings must be taken from a boat, with a lead plummet having a round plate above to rest on the mud. The position...
-How To Make Vinegar
To make vinegar proceed as follows. To 3 bushels of malt add 20 gal. of water at a temperature of about 17o P.; alter stirring well for about half an hour, strain off the clear liquid and pour on anot...
-Methods Of Testing Drains
To tell whether a drain is properly or improperly laid, exposing it only at two points, the following tests maybe employed, (a) Put a measured quantity of water in at the top end and see if the same q...
-Hydrometer For Soap-Making Lye
The strength of a soap-making lye is often given in degrees Tw.; this refers to the density of the lye as indicated by a Twaddel hydrometer, the instrument generally used for the purpose in soap-makin...
-Oval Top Wooden Box
The accompanying drawings show a method of constructing a strong oval top wooden box. The sides, ends, and bottom should be of wood about |in. thick, jointed together as at Figs. 1, 4, and 5. The top ...
-Recipes For Ink Powders
Recipes for ink powders are as follow. (1) Add 1 qt. of water to a mixture of 1 oz. of powdered galls, 1 oz. of powdered sulphate of iron, 1 oz. of powdered gum arabic, 1/2oz. of powdered white sug...
-How To Cut Fur Skin
A large fur that is to be reduced to half its original size may be cut in the following manner. First prepare the pattern to which the skin is to be cut. Place the skin, fur side down, upon the table,...
-The Terms Man-Power And Horse-Power
A man can do from one-filth to one-ninth the work of an average horse, the proportion depending on the nature of the work one mechanical horse-power (33,000 ft.-lb. of work per minute) equals the powe...
-How To Make A Studio Camera
A studio camera to take 12-in. by 10-in. plates may be made of 3/8-in. mahogany. First construct the baseboard (Fig. 1) of the size shown in the illustration, by tongueingtogether. Then make two scrip...
-Rusty Nickel-Plated Surfaces
All electro deposits of metal are slightly porous, and so when a thin deposit of nickel on steel or iron is exposed to moisture the tiny drops penetrate these pores to the metal beneath and cause rust...
-Needles Breaking In Sewing Machine
The needles in a Singer or other sewing machine break either because the needle-bar is bent, causing the needle to strike on the inside edge of the hole in the needle-plate; or the shuttle, or shuttle...
-Gilding Figured Oak
In gilding figured oak with gold leaf, having planed up the surface of the wood, well glasspaper it if a smooth finish is desired: for a rough finish, glasspapering is not necessary. Evenly apply with...
-Black Inlay For Mandolines
Common glue strongly impregnated with lampblack or vegetable black, or even tine ebony sawdust, is sometimes used for inlaying cheap mandolines. I Slack sealing-wax is also effective. A harder substan...
-How To Make Firelighters
Figs. 1 to 8 show a few simple forms of firelighters. If firelighters are to be made for the purpose of sale, care must be taken not to infringe existing patents. The pattern shown by Fig. 2 is the su...
-The Use Of Frenca-Polish Revivers
The secret of success in the use of French-polish revivers lies in the ability to clear off any trace of oil that may be used, and in making the polished surface free from grease and dirt. Some revive...
-Recipes For Stoving Enamels
The home raanufac. ture of stoving enamel to be applied to metal is not advised. The utensils employed must be free from all dirt, and the ingredients must not contain traces of impurities, or a good-...
-How To Stain Poplar To Walnut Colour
Below is explained how to stain poplar a walnut colour. In a jar place one pennyworth of vandyke brown and two pieces of common washing soda the size of large walnuts. Pour in gradually, stirring the ...
-Constructing A Covered Midden Stead
The accompanying illustration shows a midden stead 10 ft. long and 7 ft. wide, with 9-in. brick walls, 2 ft. 6 in. high round three sides. The end is left open, so that a cart can be backed in, and th...
-Painting And Varnishing A Dog-Cart
The body of a dog-cart, to be painted blue-black, should be well faced down with pumice-stone and water (it cracked, rub down to the tilling-up coats) and the under parts, to he painted red, cut well ...
-Action Of Self-Lighting Incandescent Burners
The active material in most of the self-lighting incandescent inirners is the metal platinum in some form or other and the reason for its employment depends on the fact that it is capable of condensin...
-Softening Snake Skins
To soften snake skins soak them in water for a night; they should then be soft enough to unroll. Soaking should he carried far enough to enable the skins to be opened without force, but must not be pr...
-How To Clean Rust From Iron
In cleaning iron that has gone very rusty, coat it with paraffin and then scour while wet with coarse sand. A wire scratch-brush, if at hand, will help to remove the rust more readily. When all the ru...
-How To Renovate Leather-Covered Furniture
In renovating faded leather - covered furniture that is slightly worn in parts, first wash the surface of the leather with warm water in which a little washing soda has been dissolved; this will remov...
-How To Make Ammonia
Ammonia may be made by heating an intimate mixture of sal-ammoniac and slaked lime and passing the gas evolved into water until the latter is saturated, but the method would be very expensive. Ammonia...
-White Paint For Plant Labels
To make a white paint as used by gardeners for plant labels, grind equal weights of zinc oxide and barytes with the smallest possible quantity of pale gold size and thin with turpentine. A cheaper met...
-Apparatus For Bevelling Frames
A vertical ispindle moulding machine, with a cutter block similar to that shown by the sketches below, is the simplest thing to use for bevelling the frames, and for cutting out the curved part B (Fig...
-Preserving Bait For Fishing
The only way to keep the true colour of roach that are to be used as bait for jack fishing is to preserve them alive. Make a wooden box 2 ft. (3in. long by 1 ft. 4in. wide by about 9in. deep. This wil...
-How To Make Carbon Tissue And Supports
The following formula for stock jelly for carbon printing can be highly recommended. Nelson's opaque gelatine 4oz., Coignet's gold label gelatine 1 oz., loaf sugar 1 1/2oz., water 1 pt. Heinriclr s em...
-Setting Up A Surveyor's Level
In setting a surveyor's three-set screw level first see that the parallel plates are about parallel, and the screws just up to their work; set the legs open a convenient distance, and stand between tw...
-Ethereal Solution Of Gold
An ethereal solution of gold is made thus: Dissolve 1 dwt. of pure gold in 1 fluid oz. of warm aqua regia (3 parts hydrochloric acid, 1 part nitric acid, and 1 part water), evaporate the liquid until ...
-Glaze For Finishing Furniture
To make a glaze for finishing furniture dissolve 8oz. of best gum benzoin in 1pt. of methylated spirit: keep it warm and frequently shake till dissolved. Carefully strain and store- away, tightly cork...
-Instrument For Locating Leakage Of Water
Herewith is a sketch of a stopcock key and sounding tube combined, which can be made easily and at a small outlay. An instrument similar to sketch has been in use for more than thirteen years at a lar...
-How To Work And Polishing Alabaster
Alabaster, although considerably harder than Bath or Cain stone, is worked, like those stones, with toothed saws and steel drags of varying degrees of fineness, first the coarse and then the fine bein...
-How To Fit Up A Set Of Specimen Woods
The following is a suggestion for fitting up about forty specimens of different wools. The specimens might be arranged as shown by the accompanying illustration. The fronts of all the pieces are in li...
-Winding-In Watch Mainsprings
In using a mainspring winder for watches, place the eye of the spring on the hook of the winder. With the left hand take the barrel and hold it to the centre of the spring, guiding the spring in the b...
-Moulds For Brass Casting
Sand, with an almost equal composition, only varying in the size of grain, should be used for moulds for making clean brass castings. It should be composed of about 94 parts of silica, 5 parts of clay...
-How To Braze Band-Saws
By one method of brazing band-saws it is necessary to provide an iron, shaped as in Fig. 1, the two arms of the fork being at least 1 1/2 in. long by | in. wide, and welded and attached to a handle of...
-How To Make And Enamelling Copper Watch-Dials
Briefly, the processes involved in making and enamelling the copper dial of a watch are as follow. The blank, from which the dial is to be made, is prepared by placing a small sheet of copper on a ste...
-How To Determine Diameter Of Pulleys
To obtain a close approximation to the diameter of pulley required, multiply the diameter of the driver in inches (say) by its speed in revolutions per minute, and divide by the speed in revolutions p...
-Paint For Marking Glass
For ordinary purposes glass may be stencilled with an ink made by grinding Lampblack to a paste with gold size or boiled oil. It' i he paint is to stand heat, grind to a paste red oxide of iron with f...
-Stripping Gilding From A Silver Chain
Sometimes the gold wears off in patches from gilded silver and other chains, and it is desirable to remove the rest of the gold, though regilding the chain is generally preferable. To remove the gold,...
-Design For Woodeu Bedstead
A wooden bedstead, as illustrated, may be made from sound ash or birch, and, for a full-sized bed, should measure 6 ft. 6 in. by 4 ft. 6in. over all. The post and rails should be about 2 1/4 in. squar...
-Electro-Plating With Copper
The metals on which a coat of copper is deposited by electricity are lead and its alloys; tin and its alloys; iron, tinned iron; zinc; and steel. When articles made of these metals are to be silver-p...
-How To Make Small Silk Tassels
The following particulars are on making silk tassels for banners, etc. On a table lay a large and rather heavy book A (Fig. 1). Place the reel of silk B at oneendof the book, and keep the silk C strai...
-Fireproofing Fabrics
To render fabrics fireproof steep them (a) in a solution of sal-ammoniac and plaster-of-Paris. Other preparations are: (b) Borax 12 parts, Epsom salts 9 parts, dissolved in 80 parts of warm water, (c)...
-Particulars Of Fitzroy' Barometer
The barometer known as the Fitzroy has one limb about 33in. to 30 in. long, the other limb being 2in. to 6 in. long. This tube is inclined and filled with boiled mercury, and on inverting it the mercu...
-Electro-Bronzing
Electro-bronzing can be done with an alkaline coppering solution made as follows. Dissolve 2 oz. of copper sulphate in 1 quart of hot water; add this to A gal. of rain-water containing 4oz. of potassi...
-Construction Of Photographic Studio
The accompanying illustration shows a photographic studio and the manner of fitting it with blinds A and B and a head screen C. The blinds A are frames covered with muslin, and run in grooves. Two row...
-How To Fix A Loose Endstone In A Geneva Watch
When the bottom endstone of a Geneva cylinder watch is fixed, it is set in a small plate of brass and held by a screw to the chariot. To replace the fixed endstone by a loose one, push out the f...
-How To Make Electro-Gilding Solutions
Electro-gilding solutions are made with cyanide of gold dissolved in a solution of cyanide of potassinm. Use 3 dwt. of gold cyanide in each quart of distilled water, and add just enough potassinm cyan...
-Distinguishing Pebble Lens From Glass
Pebble lenses may be distinguished from common glass spectacle lenses in the following manner. If the tip of the tongue be placed on a piece of glass it will feel rather warm and smooth, or woolly; bu...
-Permanence Of Toned And Untoned Prints
An untoned print is not so permanent as one that has been toned; indeed, the object of toning is to protect the easily affected silver in the print by coating it with a metal that is better able to re...
-Solution For Whitening Electro-Plate
For whitening letters engraved on electro-plate, dissolve 5 dr. of silver nitrate in 1/2 pt. of distilled water, and add enough potassinm cyanide solution to throw down the silver in white curds, and ...
-How To Determine Contents Of Cylindrical Vessels
To find the contents of cylindrical vessels in cubic inches, square the diameter of the vessel in inches (that is, multiply it by itself), and then multiply by 7851 and by the height in inches. To fi...
-Encaustic Paste For Photographs
Encaustic paste, used for polishing photographs, has the following composition. Pure wax, 500 parts; gum elemi, 10 parts; benzole, 200 parts-, essence of lavender, Ij00 parts; oil of spike, 15 parts; ...
-A Simple Oil Filter
A simple oil filter may be made from two clean meat tins pla.ced one above the other; in the upper tin, with a bradawl, punch a number of small holes, and over these spread a piece of flannel. ...
-Hard Soldering With Silver Solder
In hard soldering with silver solder, first file or scrape the parts brighl, and cover them and the solder with a paste of borax and water. Heat gently at first so as to harden the borax; then continu...
-An Enlarging Camera
These are brief instructions on fitting up a camera for enlarging to whole-plate, using a 1/4-plate Instantograph lens. The camera consists ot a light-tight box E with rails II, along which runs a who...
-American Clock Striking Wrong
When an American clock, after being wound up, continues to strike until it runs down, the remedy is this. Take off the hands and dial and watch the clock strike. It will be seen that at each blow of t...
-Re-Soling Rubber Shoes
A fresh layer of rubber may be attached to the soles of a pair of rubber sandshoes in the following manner. Put the shoe on a last, and rasp the old sole all over till it is quite clean and rough. The...
-Soldering Britannia Metal
Britannia metal may be soldered with pewterers' solder, which may be made of 2 pares of bismuth, 1 part of lead, and 1 part of tin. Such a solder is usually obtainable of any dealer in metal-workers' ...
-How To Make Conical Bellows For Camera
Imitation leather and black twill joined with thin glue and flour paste are suitable materials for the conical bellows for a camera. The paste should consist of i parts of thin glue to 1 part of flour...
-Keeping Fish In Tanks
In a fish tank, its size, the number of the inhabitants, the presence or absence, of snails and vegetables, and the source and nature of the water supply, are important factors. Several gold fish and ...
-How To Make A Postage Stamp Damper
To make the damper, lit in a small jam jar a sponge. Now from a cigar box make a box (Fig. 1), which can be polished or varnished, the bottom being in two pieces; the extreme bottom E (Fig. 2) has a k...
-Bending Brass Tube
A piece of 1 1/2-in. brass tube may be bent in the following manner. First carefully anneal the tube, and when it is cold, tie brown paper over one end, and insert this end in sand. Now melt enough le...
-Pitch Of Heavy Cart Wheels
The pitch is governed by the dish of the wheels-, thus, a wheel having 1 1/4-in. dish would lay out more than a wheel having only , in. The general rule when setting out the wheels is that the face sp...
-How To Repair Flushing Cisterns
To remedy the constant flow of a small stream of water down the side of a water-closet basin, first empty the cistern by pulling the chain. If, while the cistern is being refilled, the flow of water c...
-Lacquering Brass
1. Lacquer for brasswork is made by dissolving best pale shellac in cold spirit of wina, and colouring it with gamboge, saffron, or dragon's blood, according to the tint required. The articles to he l...
-Bronzing Lead
Lead can be bronzed by coating it with spirit varnish or with lacquer, and then rubbing over with bronze powder before the varnish dries hard. Or the lead can be painted any desired colour and then br...
-Sharpening Circular Saws
When sharpening a saw with an emery wheel, apply the wheel to the face of the tooth whose set points from the operator. If the saw is ground against the set, that is to say, with the set pointing towa...
-Casting Brass
To judge when melted brass is at the proper temperature for pouring is a matter of experience. If the metal he too hot, porous castingswill result; if too cold, the mould will not be perfectly filled....
-Lantern For Enlarging Photographs
An ordinary lantern for 3 1/4-in. slides could be used for enlarging negatives of that size or smaller, hut the condenser should always equal in diameter the diagonal of the plate. For vignettes, wher...
-Printing In Gold And Silver
The printing is done in the ordinary way, gold size or varnish being used instead of ink, and then, whilst the impression is still tacky, it is brushed over with a soft brush dipped either in silver o...
-Rosewood Graining On Glass Signs
Skeleton letters, corresponding in shape and position, etc., with the carved or gilded letters of the sign, are written in gold (burnished) on a piece of glass that has been cut to the exact size of t...
-How To Clean Old Pewter Teapot
An old pewter teapot may be cleaned by boiling in strong soda-water, well brushing to remove dirt. Mix to a thick paste in good sweet oil '4 parts of Hour emery powder and 1 part of crocus powder; wit...
-How To Make An Ornamental Bracket
Tbe bracket illustrated, when constructed, should be painted white and then enamelled white or cream. The over-all dimensions are 3 ft. 9 in. by about 1 ft. G in. The back is in one piece. I'llt- outl...
-Protecting Corks From Chemical Action
It is doubtful whether any treatment would prevent corks used as stoppers for bottles or flasks being acted upon by chemicals. It is usual to treat corks with melced paraffin wax, the corks being kept...
-Strength Of Brick Arch
Here are hints on finding the strength of a brick arch by calculation, and also by construction. An example in which the span is 40 ft. and the rise 10 ft. is worked thus :- Span 40 ft. and rise 10 ft...
-How To Make A Head For A Waggonette
Below are given instructions on making a waggonette head. Fig. 1 snows a side view and Fig. 2 a back view of the head as finished, worked out to desirable sizes. Birch seats, as shown at A in the sect...
-Pearl Inlaying On Metal
Pearl inlaying is the name given to a process by which pieces of pearl are attached to the surfaces of metal and sometimes of papier-machn. Mother-of-pearl, known also as pearl oyster and white pear...
-Covering An Octagon Dome With Sheet-Lead
If the roof is already constructed, horizontal lines should be drawn between the hip rolls at equal distances (say 6 in.) apart, measured on the surface of the roof as shown in the elevation half of F...
-Glazing Photographic Prints
A good polish can be applied to P.O.P. prints in the following manner. A thoroughly clean piece of plate glass, which may be large enough to take one or several prints, should be dusted over with Fren...
-Various Methods Of Bleaching Ivory
Many methods of whitening yellowed ivory have been proposed from time to time, and the more reliable of them are given below in the order of their simplicity as near as possible. In a few cases the iv...
-Lens For Photographic Portraiture
A portrait lens is a leus so constructed as to give fair definition with a large aperture. Rapidity of working is the most important quality of a portrait lens, and to obtain this certain sacrifices h...
-Design For A Round Footstool
Fig. 1 shows an elevation and Fig. 2 a plan looking from below of a footstool that is strong and has a good appearance. Any hard wood about 3/4 in. thick is suitable for its construction. The quarter-...
-How To Make Fly-Papers
Here is a recipe for making fly-papers. Add 4 oz. of syrup or treacle to 1 pt. of water, and boil with 1 dr. of white arsenic. Steep squares of moderately thick blotting-paper in the liquid and allow ...
-How To Polish Black Marble
To polish black marble, the wrought surface is rubbed with fine sharp sand and water until all the marks of the chisel or saw are removed and an even face is produced, it is then grounded - that is, r...
-Replacing Broken Roof Slates
To replace a broken slate, the nails that fix it to the batten must be broken or drawn by means of the slate ripper. The old pieces of slate will then easily slip out. A strip of lead about Sin. long ...
-How To Remove Cores From Antelope Horns
To remove the cores from a pair of antelope's horns, place the horns in a warm, moist place, say inside a hot manure heap, until the connecting tissues between the horns and the bony cores become suff...
-Acetylene Gas Generator
The various patented apparatus for making acetylene gas from carbide of calcinm have generally had the idea of working automatically, so that as the gas is consumed a fresh supply is made, and the pla...
-Granite-Working Tools
The granite-working tools used in Cornwall and in Devonshire are as under. Fig. 1 shows a hand hammer; its shape varies, but it should be stiff near the eye, as there is then less risk of its splittin...
-" Rutted " Brass
Brass in course of time undergoes a molecular change which renders the alloy very brittle, and this action sometimes causes cracks to open in the metal, particularly if it is subject to variations of ...
-Flash-Flue Washing Copper
Compared with the flash-flue copper, the wheel-flue is a primitive and costly arrangement. It is much less easily heated, and therefore requires more coal than a flash-flue copper, and, moreover, it c...
-Renewing Washers In Cold-Water Taps
The first thing to do when renewing the washers of water taps is to shut off the service pipe leading to the tap. If the pipe is from a house cistern, then the stop-cock must be closed. If there is no...
-Constructing Magazine Back For Camera
The bag changing box is the most satisfactory form of a magazine back to hold twelve quarter-plates in sheaths. This changing box consists of a box A with grooves at the front B to take a sliding shut...
-Straightening Watch Hairsprings
The straightening of a hairspring is a difficult and tedious job. First unpin the spring from its stud and place it on a watch glass upon a sheet of white paper. Then with two pairs of fine-pointed tw...
-Joining Rubber To Canvas
In joining strips of rubber to new canvas the latter is liable to soak up much of the rubber solution. The only satisfactory way of preventing this is to treat the rubber with the solution (made as on...
-Patterns For Tuyere Bend
The tuyere bend, of which Fig. 1 is a plan, is to be made in live segments, joined together with angle iron, each segment being made with four plates 1/4 in. thick. To obtain the pattern, first draw a...
-Design For A Marble Clock Case
The accompanying illustrations show a design for a clock case. The upper is a front elevation showing the clock itself in position, whilst the lower is a section. If the design is not wide enough, an ...
-Hollowing Iron Cones
Sheet metal cones are usually hollowed before the seams are formed, by working along the curves forming the top and bottom parts of the pattern, and then in to the centre, with a block hammer used on ...
-Ring Weights On Safety Valve
The recognised method of deciding on the number of ring weights re-enired to balance a certain pressure in a dead-weight safety valve, the latter being fixed, is to put all the rings on and, when the ...
-Construction Of Small Panelled Doors
Joiners and cabinet makers have different methods of constructing small doors. Fig. 1 shows part of the elevation of a plain one-panel door, as made usually by the joiner. Fig. 2 shows the ends with t...
-Curing A Rabbit Skin
To cure a rabbit skin, it must be fresh flayed and cleaned of all fat and particles of flesh by scraping it with a blunt knife whilst stretched, fur inwards, upon a rounded surface such as a baluster ...
-Circular Saw Bench
The accompanying illustrations show a bench with a small circular saw driven by means of two toothed wheels turned with a hook-handle. In addition to the toothed wheels, a shaft carrying a flywheel F ...
-Re-Pointing The Pivots Of A Drum Clock Balance
In sharpening the pivots of a drum clock balance, hold the axis of the balance by one end in a pin-vice and sharpen the centre of the other end on an oilstone, at the same time revolving the pin-vice ...
-Felt Hat Reviver
The best material for cleaning felt hats of any colour is re-:listilled benzine. After well rubbing this into the hat, give it a good brushing to remove the dirt; grease-spots should be well rubbed wi...
-Applying Asbestos Paste
In applying asbestos paste to a boiler shell, hot-water pipes, steam pipes, etc., first rub some of the paste on the surfaces with the hand or with a piece of cloth or canvas, leaving it quite rough s...
-Machine For Bending Brass Tubes
A bending machine for brass tubes consists of three small rollers, which work simultaneously and are adjustable; they are in the form of a triangle, as shown in the illustration. The tube is passed be...
-The Manufacture Of Kid Gloves
Ladies' kid gloves are made from skins taken from a five-weeks-old kid, whilst gentlemen's gloves are made from a stronger skin coming from a two-months-old animal. Among the glove leathers in general...
-How To Make A French Whip-Top
To make the simple wooden top here illustrated, all that is required is a piece of round wood about 2 1/2in. long and about 1 1/4 in. in diameter; a piece of a stout broomstick will answer the purpose...
-How To Clean Animal's Skull
The simplest method of skeletonising an animal's skull is to boil the skull until all the flesh can be easily removed with pieces of blunt wood; but steaming the skull would be better if it could be a...
-Design For A Small Tracery Window
Figs. 1 and 2 are the plan and elevation of a small two-light window in the Decorated style (1300-1400), with a tracery head. The size of the sill is 12 in. by 9 in.; it is weathered and stooled, and ...
-Double Sashes For Deadening Noise
A window sash frame with a double pair of sashes is employed often for deadening outside noise. The accompanying illustrations show such sashes and frames, Fig. 1 being a vertical section and Fig. 2 p...
-How To Blacken Nickel
The best methods of blackening nickel are the first and third given on p. 55 for blackening brass. Nickel may be blackened by placing tor a sufficiently long time in sulphuretted hydrogen gas. ...
-Beading Spindle For Lathe
The accompanying illustrations show the construction of a beading spindle for a woodworking lathe. The table standard with bearings can be one casting as shown, and made to fix to the lathe bed in the...
-Wax Filling For Engraved Plates
The following are methods of filling engraved plates. (1) Fill up the cuts with finely powdsred sealing-wax of the colour required, press down, and see that but little of the wax is left on the surfac...
-Preparing Watch Plates For Gilding
Watch plates are prepared for gilding in the following manner. After being rubbed smooth with water-of-Ayr stone, the plates are immersed for a second or two in a mixture of i parts of hydrochloric ac...
-Trestles For Tea-Tables
Figs. 1, 2, and 3 show a tea-table trestle with four legs, and Figs. 4, 5, and 6 one with three legs. Fig. 7 shows the joint most suitable for connecting the legs to the top beam. These joints may be ...
-Fresco Painting
There are two kinds of fresco painting - that done when the plaster is wet is called fresco buono; that done after the plaster is dry is called fresco secco. Dampness in the basis is fatal to fresco w...
-How To Make Logwood Extract
Extract of logwood is made by grinding logwood under corrugated rolls to reduce it to a coarse powder; the hitter is then boiled with water under pressure to extract the whole of the soluble ingredien...
-Hood For Invalid Carriage
The method of fixing a hood on an invalid carriage will depend on the shape and size of the body of the latter. Fig. 1 shows a four-stick head made on a cod iron A (Figs. 1 and 3), welded into a frame...
-Putting New Felloes On Old Wheels
Generally speaking, wheels that require new felloes all round are worn a little at the shoulders of the spokes. Having split off the old felloes and knocked out the wedges from the tongues of the spok...
-Preservatives For Paste
Certain substances are added to flour pastes, liquid glues, etc., to prevent them turning mouldy. Alum is a moderately good preservative for paste, though not absolutely protective; the paste should b...
-A Letter-Box In Sheet Metal
The letter-box shown by Fig. 1 is made of tin-plate of the thickness known as DXXX. Set out the pattern (Fig. 2), punch holes along the edges for the screws that fasten, it to the door, and cut out th...
-How To Make A Macadam Road
One of the essential requirements of a good road is a solid foundation, and without this it is impossible to keep the contour and the surface in good condition. After the excavating has been done, goo...
-How To Make Roll-Shutter For Roll-Top Desk
The accompanying illustration shows a good form of section for the roll-shutter of an American roll-top desk. Each strip of wood is moulded to the section and firmly glued to a backing of stout canvas...
-Sizing And Varnishing A Papered Room
Below are instructions on revarnishing the walls and ceiling of a room covered with sanitary paper Well wash the ceiling and walls with warm water and ox-galls - 1/2 pt. of the latter in 1 gal. of wat...
-How To Make Zinc Yellow
Zinc yellow is a chromate of zinc mixed with oxide of zinc. To make zinc yellow, boil separate saturated solutions (1) of 29 oz. of sulphate of zinc in water and (2) 20 oz. of chromate (not bichromate...
-Varieties Of Marbles
The table of the better-known marbles given below has been compiled chiefly from Lee's Marble and Marble Workers, though other authorities have been consulted as well. Marbles may be classified in d...
-How To Cut And Polishing Diamonds
The processes through which a piece of carbon passes in the course of its conversion into a natural diamond are not known to man; all that is known is that the carbon crystallises. The natural home of...
-How To Make Imperial Yellow
Imperial yellow is a sulphide of arsenic, and the materials employed in making-it are very poisonous. Three parts of white arsenic are mixed with 1 part of powdered sulphur, and the mixl are is heated...
-Purifying Zinc
The method generally adopted commercially of purifying zinc is to melt the metal in a reverberatory furnace having an inclined bed, in which the metal collects, and the lead, being of heavier specific...
-Wells System Of Measuring Distances
The accompanying figures show the Wells -apparatus used by surveyors for judging distance when taking trial levels without chaining the horizontal distances. It may also be used as a check upon chaine...
-Crazy China-Work
Jars decorated by crazy china-work, or china patchwork, form useful and ornamental vases, pot-pourri jars, etc. Take an ordinary brown earthenware stew-pot, together with its lid, thoroughly wash them...
-Drilling Holes In Glass
In order to drill a hole in glass, it is necessary to have a hard and welltempered steel drill. This may be prepared by heating to a dull red, and then plunging into mercury so as to become har...
-How To Make Artificial Oilstones
One way of making artificial oilstones is to mix finely powdered sand with a small quantity of shellac; heat the mixture, then place it under great pressure in a mould and allow to become cold. ...
-Use Of Sensitometer In Photography
A sensito-meter (or actinoineter, as it is sometimes called) is an instrument for measuring the sensitiveness to light of photographic plates and paper. In certain printing processes in photography, s...
-How To Renovate Piano Keys
In removing scratches from piano keys, first find out whether the key coverings are of ivory or celluloid by wiping them over with methylated spirit; if they are of celluloid, a strong smell of campho...
-How To Make A Projecting Swinging Sign
The projecting swinging glass-faced sign affords a permanent advertisement, and is made easily. The design should firsl be drawn in every detail. Next get a deal board about tin. thick and of the widt...
-Flatting For Steel Castings
To make a flatting or filling for rough steel castings, mix together lib. of white lead and 1/4 lb. of terehine; thin down with turpentine till the mixture is of the consistency of paint. This Hatting...
-Design For Front Of Pigeons' House
Figs. 1 and 2 show front elevation and side elevation respectively of the front of a pigeons' house, about 9 ft. long, 4ft.4in. high at the sides, and 6 ft. 8 in. high in the centre. including the tur...
-How To Stain And Wax-Polishing Wood Carvings
The following is a description of how wood carvings are finished by staining and wax-polishing. Before staining wood carvings, the surface must be made very smooth to prevent the wood swelling on the ...
-How To Repair Goloshes
It is difficult to find a cement that will adhere to the composition of which goloshes are made. Still, the following method of repairing may prove successful. First, the part to be repaired must be r...
-Enamelling Slate Mantelshelf
The process of enamelling slate, as for instance a mantelshelf, is as follows. A dark lacquer or tar varnish is applied with a brush to the surface of the slate, which is then placed in an oven and ba...
-Consumption Of Gas By Various Burners
The table below gives the consumption of gas in the different varieties of Bray's flat-flame burners in ordinary use, under a pressure of ten-tenths, or lin. With regard to the apparent inconsistency ...
-Gilding Glass By The Chemical Process
Gold chloride dissolved in distilled water is employed for gilding glass by the chemical process. The chloride is prepared by dissolving pure gold in nitro-muriatic acid, evaporating the liquid nearly...
-How To Make Draw-Hooks
Figs. 1 and 2 shows a locomotive engine drawbar hook and shackle of a pattern generally used. The method of making the shackle is explained on p. 67. The hooks are usually made of Bessemer steel, forg...
-How To Make Chrome Yellow
In making chrome yellow, 62 1/2 parts of lead acetate should be used to 291/2 parts of bichromate of potash. These salts should be dissolved separately in hot water, and the solutions allowed to becom...
-Counting The Vibrations Of A Clock Balance
In testing a lever clock hairspring by counting its vibrations, fix it temporarily to the balance, and with a pair of tweezers hold the outer end of the spring in such a way as to let the bottom pivot...
-Reciprocating Water Motor
Fig. I is a side elevation of a reciprocating water motor, with the back end in section showing the piston packed with the ordinary hydraulic cup leathers. Fig. 2 is an end elevation with valve gear f...
-Burnishing Photographs
Below are given instructions on burnishing photographs with a bar burnisher. First examine the bar to see that it is free from scratches. Unscrew the nut and remove the slab holding the plated bar. If...
-French Polishing Decorated Woodwork
To French polish woodwork the surface of which has been printed upon, or has had. prints transferred to it, the method of procedure may be as follows. Dissolve loz. of best isinglass in lpt. of water,...
-Preventing Moisture Dropping From Glass Roof
One way of preventing condensed moisture from dropping from a glass roof would be to fix small gutters to the sides of the bars, as shown by the sections A (Figs. 1 and 2), and mitre them to a similar...
-The Preservation Of American Organs
On the arrival by rail of an American organ it should be unpacked carefully. Before use it should be thoroughly cleansed, inside and out, from dust, which will sometimes get into the organ, especially...
-How To Make Prussian Blue And Vermilionette
Prussian blue is made by adding a solution of ferrocyanide of potassium (yellow prussiate) to a solution of ferric chloride, or by adding the former to a solution of ferrous sulphate (green viti-iol) ...
-Electro-Plating Aluminium
For copper-plating aluminium, the bath may be cyanide of copper, 6 parts (by weight); cyanide of potassium, 9 parts; phosphate of soda, 9 parts; and water, 100 parts. For gold-plating, chloride of gol...
-Medicated Soaps
It is obvious that of primary importance in making medicinal or medicated soaps is the employment of a pure base. However effectual as a remedy for skin diseases the medicinal soap might be, the prese...
-Filter For Bleaching Fluid
An apparatus for filtering a chloride of lime bleaching fluid may be made easily. In the tube of a large glass funnel fix a short piece of the stem of a clay tobacco pipe; on the top of this pile a fe...
-Illuminating Powers Of Various Lights For Magic Lanterns
The following is an account of the work of M. Molteni on the projection value of various illuminants. The measurements were made with an ordinary lantern, the stage of which carried an opaque card in ...
-Winding Cotton On Reels
The method adopted by thread manufacturers in winding cotton on ordinary reels is to use a spooling machine. Wield's spooling machine has been very successful, and winds a number of spools simultaneou...
-How To Remove Nickel From Cycles
Nickel may be removed from cycle parts by steeping them for a short time in commercial sulphuric acid, to which is added, from time to time, a small quantity of nitric acid. However, owing to the corr...
-How To Blacken Carriage Ironwork
For blackening carriage ironwork, japan of two kinds is employed; one kind is known as baking-japan, and is hardened by heat, whilst the other dries in the open air and at ordinary temperatures. Bakin...
-Destroying Worms In Furniture
The furniture containing the worm or insect holes must be removed into the open air, or into a well-ventilated room where there is neither fire nor artificial light. Dissolve 4oz. of albo-carbon in 1 ...
-Sharpening Wood-Carving Tools
Wood-carving tools differ from the ordinary carpenter's chisels and gouges by being bevelled on both the inner and outer edge. The outside bevel of the curved tools is just sufficient to give a clean ...
-How To Fix Transfers On Metal And Wood
The groundwork of wooden or metallic articles to be decorated with printed transfers must in all cases be first prepared. Thus, metals are generally japanued or varnished, woodwork being chiefly Frenc...
-How To Polish Ox Horns
Here are instructions on polishing a pair of ox horns. Remove all roughness from the horns by means of a spokeshave or rasp, followed by a scraper, a knife, the side of a chisel, a wood scraper, etc. ...
-How To Clean Acetylene Gas Burners
Acetylene burners are most conveniently cleaned with a very line needle fixed firmly in a handle; but a piece of very fine wire of a stiffness equal to a needle, if obtainable, will do just as well. A...
-Cramping Picture Frames
Of the dozens of methods of cramping picture frames the following has been recommended as being cheap and efficient. After shooting the joints, glue them, and place the frame on the bench. With a piec...
-Poising A Watch Balance
To poise a watch balance, first remove the hairspring and brush the balance and pivots clean. Then place the balance on the parallel edges of a poising tool or in a pair of callipers and allow it to s...
-Laying A Tiled Hearth
A trowel, float, straightedge, and a pair of carpenter's pincers will be required. First mix cement and sand and make the hearth quite level and at a depth that will allow of the tiles, when laid, lin...
-Re-Varnishing A Jaunting Car
Here are instructions on treating a jaunting car the varnish of which is very much worn. Scrape off all the old varnish to the wood, then glasspaper down, working with the grain of the wood. The ironw...
-Copying Printed Pictures By Photographic Transfer
The process of transferring printed pictures photographically is as follows. Place any printed picture, face downwards, on a sensitive photographic dry plate, expose freely to the light, and pass a wa...
-Covering Roofs With Oak Shingling
Oak shingles as a roof covering have a good appearance after they have become somewhat weathered. They are made from the ordinary rended oak pales, and must be riven out of as straight-grained oak as ...
-Particulars Of Asbestos
Asbestos, a, fibrous form of amphibole or hornblende, is composed principally of silica, magnesia, lime, and oxide of iron. Sometimes asbestos is a compact substance, the fibres being stiff and brittl...
-Dimensions Of Fishing Rods
For an 18-ft. salmon rod, the top should be of lancewood, the second and third joints of greenheart, the butt of hickory, and the ferrules 3/8 in., 1/2 in., and 5/8 in. For a 16-ft salmon fly-rod, the...
-Enamelling Cycle
Enamelling processes are of two kinds, either cold enamelling or stoving. If the enamel is not to be stoved, the metal must be smoothed as much as possible with the file and with a fine emery cloth. A...
-How To Make Cushions For Pony Cart
For best work pouy cart cushions should be covered with all-wool cloth; for hard wear, a French carpet or Oxford cord may be found suitable; whilst American cloth is used for the cheaper kinds of cush...
-Setting Out Railway Wagon Brake Blocks
The illustration shows the various radii employed in setting out a brake block for a standard railway wagon. The diameter of the wheel is 3 ft. 1 in., and the radius for the sole of the brake block is...
-Mounting Large Photographs
Methods of mounting photographic prints are explained on pp. 21 and 97, but the following refers to the mounting of large photographs measuring about loin, by 20 in. Having squared the print, turn it ...
-The Conversion Of Thermometer Degrees
In the Fahrenheit thermometer, the freezing point of water (actually the temperature of melting ice) is indicated by the number 32, and the boiling point by 312; in the Centigrade instrument, these re...
-Sand In Mortar
In making mortar, sand is mixed with lime with a twofold purpose. Lime without sand sets or hardens so slowly as to be almost useless as mortar; but the addition of sand makes the mixture porous, and ...
-Preserving Cut Flowers
Perhaps the easiest way of lengthening by many months the life of cut flowers is to dip them immediately after gathering into weak gum water, and after allowing them to drain for a few minutes to arra...
-Postage Stamp Photographs
In a postage stamp camera a battery of small lenses is always employed, both for the sake of speed and for economy, and for these lenses a square bellows is essential. Postage stamp photographs may, h...
-Testing Crimson Lake
A pure crimson lake contains the colouring matter of the cochineal, known as carmine, precipitated on a base of alumina, but scarlet lakes contain vermilion. A pure crimson lake should dissolve entire...
-How To Clean Silk Tapestry Covers
Some furniture silks are heavily charged with filling or dressing, leaving very little body or strength to the fabric. It is next to impossible to make such silks look presentable after being subjecte...
-How To Make Insect Cases
The construction of a case to hold butterflies, moths, etc., is very simple. Make an ordinary box of the size required, and across the middle put a partition dividing the box into two; hinge the lids ...
-Turning And Polishing Ebonite And Vulcanite
To turn ebonite and vulcanite, use tools of good steel, but sharpened at about the same angles as for hardwood, ivory, and brass. Rough out with a round-nose tool, and finish with a flat-faced brass-f...
-Improving Thin Photographic Negative
When it is desired to improve a very thin photographic negative so as to yield a fairly good picture, first ascertain whether the negative is thoroughly free from hypo. This is essential, no matter wh...
-How To Make Peroxide Of Hydrogen
Peroxide of hydrogen is made by suspending barium peroxide in water and adding the requisite quantity of dilute sulphuric acid. Barium sulphate is precipitated and hydrogen peroxide remains in solutio...
-Re-Inking Typewriter Ribbons
Few quite satisfactory methods of re-inking typewriter ribbons are known. By a simple method, the ribbon is stretched and drawn over a bottle, the ink being brushed on as the ribbon passes. Use only a...
-Jewelling The Pallets Of A Regulator Clock
In jewelling a pair of dead-beat regulator pallets, the pallets must first he softened, then wide and deep slots must be filed out where the teeth engage with them. Jewels (rubies, garnets, or agates)...
-Bath And Dipper For Ferrotype Photography
An upright bath (Fig. 1) is the more convenient form for use in the ferrotype process of photography. This bath is not very easy to make, and can be purchased very cheaply. A flat porcelain dish may h...
-Producing Photographs In Relief
To produce photographs in relief, soak some fairly stout sheet gelatine for half an hour in a 5-per-cent. solution of potassium bichromate. This reuders the gelatine sensitive to light on drying, whic...
-Recipe For Harness Composition
A recipe for a waterproof harness composition is: In a glazed vessel melt 2 oz. of black resin over a fire and add 3 oz. of beeswax. When thoroughly amalgamated, remove from the fire, and add 1/2oz. o...
-Moulds For Casting Brass
For very delicate work, loam, which is a clayey sand mixed with ordinary sand, must be used. The mould can be made in the ordinary way, but it must be well dried on both sides if double-faced work is ...
-Magnetic North
An ordinary pocket compass, orany instrument containing a magnetic needle, will give the direction of the magnetic north at the time and place where the compass is used. The direction of the magnetic ...
-How To Work Electro-Gilding Solutions
A very dark brown deposit of gold from an electro-gilding bath is generally caused by excess of current, but may also be due to excessive free cyanide and to a deficiency of gold in the solution. The ...
-How To Make Pleated Back Squab For Carriage
Below are instructions on making a pleated back squab or cushion for a carriage. To get the size of the squab, the part that has to be lilled should be loosely fitted with canvas; carefully mark round...
-How To Make Hand-Guards For Singlesticks
In making baskets or hand-guards for a pair of singlesticks, take about eight long thin osiers and with them form a slarth. As both butts and tops of these eight osiers are to form the border, they mu...
-Painting A Farm Waggon
Here are instructions on painting a farm waggon. The body is to be blue lined out with red and white, the undercarriage is to be blood red picked out with black, and the lettering is to be in golden y...
-Sun-Printing On Embossed Glass
The method employed in sun-printing for repeating designs on glass embossed work is as described below. To make the sensitive resist, crush to a fine powder 1 cub. in. of pure asphaltum and dissolve i...
-Gauge For Inlaying Purfling On Violin
The accompanying sketch shows a useful form of purfling gauge, easily made and very effective. A is a sliding bar carrying the cutter and wedge, B is the wedge for fixing the sliding bar, and C is a h...
-How To Repair And Painting Wire Gauze Blinds
To repair an ordinary wire gauze blind, fix the frame on a clean, flat bench; lay the gauze on, and secure it along the bottom with 1/4-in. blue tacks. The tension is obtained by compressing the stile...
-Black Bronze For Iron
The article to be blacked must first be well cleansed from grease, and then dipped into a solution consisting of 1 part of bismuth chloride, 2 parts of mercury bichloride, 1 part of copper chloride, 6...
-How To Make Pincushions From Cow's Hoofs
In making pincushions from a pair of cow's hoot'-scrape out theinsides of the hoofs with a knife, and well wash with carbolic acid or sprinkle with alum. Then polish the outsides. To do this, first fi...
-How To Make Straw Bands Or Ropes
Where short lengths only are required, say up to 20 ft., the straw hands or ropes are best twisted by hand. To do this, a simple twisting hook, as shown below, is needed. It consists of a piece of sto...
-Rusting Of Galvanised Iron Tank
The rusting of a galvanised iron tank often is due either to soft water having been used or to the water being softened by heat; the latter would be the case when the tank is above a gas engine exhaus...
-Building Stones
York stone is the best known of the sandstones. It is composed of grains of silica or Band cemented together with silica, carbonates of lime and maguesia, alumina, and oxide of iron. York stone is obt...
-How To Repair Oval And Square Baskets
Baskets should be repaired before they are too badly worn. As soon as the foot rim gets broken, well soak that part, draw out all foot stakes (with pincers, if necessary I, and put on a new rim. If th...
-Lettering Shop Blinds
Shellac dissolved in a saturated solution of borax as a vehicle, chiefly for black, is sometimes used for lettering union blinds. So also are artists' tube-oil colours mixed with varnish or gold size....
-A Model Pumping Windmill
The little windmill here described is easily made, and works well in quite a moderate wind. It may be made in any size, even with the wheel Jin. in diameter, but the one illustrated has a 1-in. wheel,...
-How To Polish Heads Of Brass Screws
Brass wood-screws are usually polished in a shaking barrel about 18 in. in diameter by 2 ft. 6 in. long; the barrel is actuated by steam, or, if machine power is not available, by hand. The barrel is ...
-Tempering Steel
Molten lead is a good heating agent for tempering steel articles of unequal thickness, as these can be heated more uniformly by this method than by placing in an open fire or by supporting on an iron ...
-Preserving Piano And Organ Keys
The appearance of many a good piano and organ is spoiled by the discoloration of the keys. Where children have played upon them with sticky fingers, merely to wipe them with a clean duster will not al...
-Preserving Planes
To keep planes clean and smooth in appearance the grain must be filled. Clean off the surface with a joiner's scraper and fine glasspaper, rubbing along rather than across the grain. Rub with linseed ...
-Brazing Keys
Brazing is another name for hard soldering; the process differs from ordinary soft soldering principally in the fact that the uniting metal or spelter is not applied with a hot bit. Greater heat is re...
-How To Make Glass Blowpipes For Blowing Birds' Eggs
To make glass blowpipes for blowing birds' eggs, hold in the gas a piece of glass tube and gently rotate it with the fingers. When the tube is hot, draw the two ends gently apart until they separate. ...
-Flower Window-Box
Fig. 1 shows the construction of a flower window-box. The wood should be about 3/4 in. or 1 in. thick, according to the size of the box; the angles should be dovetailed and nailed together as shown. T...
-How To Clean Wash-Leather Gloves
One method of cleaning wash-leather gloves, if they are not much soiled, is to well rub them with bread crumbs. Another method is to damp about 1 pt. of bran with water, and with this well rub the glo...
-How To Clean An Ormolu Clock-Case
Presuming that it is desired to clean the gilt case of the clock, the movement must first be taken out. Unscrew the bell at the back, and take off the pendulum. Undo the two screws at the back rim tha...
-Constructing A Small Counter
Figs. 1 to i show the construction of a simple form of counter. The front and ends are made of 3/9-in. narrow matchboards; these are fixed at the bottom to a 6-in. by 3/4-in. hoard, the latter being m...
-Cheap Electro-Gilding Solutions
Several attempts have been made, but without success, to invent a cheap electro-gildmg solution for metal jewellery. Much however, may he done with copper anodes; these may be so worked in the ordinar...
-Black Varnish For Grates And Stoves
In the spring, when fires are dispensed with, it is the custom to coat the grates, stoves, fenders, and other ironwork attached to fireplaces with Brunswick black in order to save the trouble of const...
-Cause And Prevention Of Halation In Negatives
The word halation signifies a halo or mist of light that surrounds and confuses the outline of an object. Halation is caused when some of the light that enters the camera passes through the film on ...
-Steel-Facing Electrotypes
A film of pure iron of such hardness as to resemble steel (hence the process is named steel-facing) may be deposited on the face of an electrotype. The solution for the purpose is made as follows. D...
-A Simple Boot-Rack
To make an easily constructed boot-rack, procure a piece of any kind of well-seasoned wood, rough or planed, lin. to 1 1/4in. thick and of any breadth from Sin. upwards, the length varying with the nu...
-Colouring Portland Cements
To make Portland cement red, mix with it mineral red oxide of iron in the proportion of 5 to 10 per cent, by weight. The best plan will be to mix a small quantity by way of experiment, and increase or...
-Box Gutters On Roofs
The box gutter of a roof is parallel from end to end, and has upright (instead of sloping) sides, the latter being formed by the pole plates on which the bottom ends of the common rafters rest. A box ...
-How To Make Cushion For Gig
The bottom canvas of a round-cornered cushion for a gig should be cut out by the top pattern of the driving-box, sufficient being allowed for turnings, etc. To get the shape of the corner, bend a piec...
-Wheels For Bevelling And Polishing Glass
Fig. 1. shows the construction of a wheel used for bevelling and polishing glass; Fig. 2 shows the wooden wheel in its iron frame. The first wheel is of cast-iron, the second wheel is of clear stone, ...
-How To Clean Oily Bottles
Wash oily bottles in warm soapsuds in which some washing soda has been dissolved. Should the oil still cling to the bottles, shake into them, along with the soap and water, a little fine shot. After w...
-Black French Polish
If ornamental articles are to be finished in black and gold, woods may be used that are devoid of figure or fancy grain, such as canary wood, light walnut, or mahogany. Other soft woods may be used; b...
-Jobbing Builder's Trestle
The jobbing builder's trestle here illustrated is useful for odd jobs of repairs to eaves, gutters, windows, and other work. Two trestles, made as showu in Figs. 1 and 2, are placed in position leanin...
-How To Polish And Frosting Aluminium
The British Aluminium Co. recommend the following methods of treating aluminium. One method of polishing is to place in a bottle equal parts by weight of olive oil and rum, and shake until an emulsifi...
-How To Remove Grease Stains From Black Cloth
To remove grease stains from black cloth, mix together a small quantity of fresh ox-gall and a little carbonate of potash; spread the mixture over the stains and brush with a hard brush, then wash out...
-Distinguishing Woods
To distinguish between spruce (or whitewood) and yellow deal (or Baltic redwood), the difference in colour should be noted. In the redwood, the lines that constitute the figure are a light tabac colou...
-Photographic Enlargement On Carbon Paper
Enlarged negatives may be made on bromide paper by giving a very full exposure and developing a deep imager. After drying, wax the back of the print well and heat it over a stove until the print is th...
-How To Stain Baskets
Several kinds of stains and varnishes are used for baskets. Most stains are applied alter the baskets are made. Brown japan thinned with turpentine will give a mahogany colour. See that the baskets ar...
-Re-Blackening Bent-Wood Furniture
In renovating bent-wood furniture, first remove grease, etc., by scrubbing with strong soda water. When dry, smooth down with No. 0 glasspaper, then apply with a camel-hair brush several coats of comb...
-Construction Of A Pile-Driving Engine
The accompanying illustrations show a pile-driving engine suitable for driving piles lift, by 6in. by 2 in., with a, ram of about 1 1/2 cwt., to be raised by manual power. The base frame shown in Fig....
-Bending Small Tubes
To bend a number of pieces of, say, |-in. brass tube as A (Fig. 1), cut a piece of hardwood as oak or beech, 1 in. thick, to the curve required, and in it drill a small hole B. In this hole one end of...
-Preserving Tortoise Shell
In preserving the shell of a tortoise, first it is necessary to remove the carcase from its shell. Cut the skin along the top and bottom of the front and rear parts. Then, with scissors or a knife, di...
-Varnish On Door Turning White
Door varnish which blooms or turns white in wet weather, probably was left uncorked for some time, or had been stored in a damp, cold place and become chilled before being applied to the door. If ...
-Cupboard For Carpenter's Tools
The accompanying drawing shows a cupboard that will be suitable for holding carpenter's tools. A useful size would be about 2ft. 6 in. wide, 3ft. high, and llin. deep; but the dimensions may be varied...
-Modelling Materials And Method Of Construction
In making a model of a small tract of country showing, on a large scale, the intersection of road and railway, modelling clay may be used if the model is to be somewhat rough in its nature, is require...
-Preserving Lamb's Foot
To preserve a lamb s foot for the purpose of making a whip stock, the whole of the inside of the foot must be taken out. The shank bones should be removed without cutting the skin, but a cut above the...
-How To Make A Trotting Sulky
The accompanying sketch shows a side elevation of a very light sulky suitable for a cob 14 1/2 hands high. The oval iron stays A are made with a flap at the top end, to which the seat B is fixed; the ...
-Damp Wall Remedies
If the wall affected by damp is not of great extent, the most effectual remedy is to cut out the old brickwork in small portions at a time, and rebuild the wall with Staffordshire blue bricks set in c...
-How To Stain Or Dye Ivory Billiard Balls
The process of colouring ivory billiard balls by immersion in water stains requires close attention that the balls may be withdrawn directly the required tone is obtained, and therefore only two or th...
-Miking Cheap Bicarbonate Of Soda
Bicarbonate of soda is made by passing carbonic acid over carbonate of soda until the material is saturated. It can be home-manufactured as cheaply as it can be bought. ...
-How To Clean Oil Lamp Burner
In cleaning an oil lamp burner all gauze or perforated parts should be well brushed. These parts cannot be thoroughly cleaned by boiling, and it is often impossible to brush them in the ordinary way. ...
-Grocer's Hoist
Figs. 1 and 2 show a side and end elevation, respectively, of a goods hoist suitable for a grocer's use. The hauling rope is an endless band of any desired length, and works a 3-ft. flywheel with a V-...
-Blocking Out On Glass Positive
In blocking out some figures from a glass with oil or water colour, the positive should be mounted with its glass side outwards, otherwise the image would be reversed. If the positive is so mounted, t...
-A Small Blowing-Fan For A Forge
For a blowing-fan to be used with a small forge the base may be of '-in. deal to the shape and dimensions shown by Fig. 1. The two deal sides (Fig. 2) form a gradually increasing space for the air ins...
-How To Polish Granite
Granite is polished in many different ways, the method employed depending upon the nature and quality of the granite, the varieties of which are very numerous. The following method is the one generall...
-How To Make Resin Paste
Resin must be dissolved before it can be added to flour paste. Dissolve 1 lb. of washing soda in 1 gal. of water, then add 21b. of resin in powder and boil until the latter is dissolved. This solution...
-Construction Of A Goods Lift
The accompanying illustrations are intended to explain the construction of a goods lift, to be worked by hand, and fitted with balance weights. The extreme dimensions of the lift are 4 ft. wide, 3 ft....
-Stripping Silver From Copper
If the copper article is small the silver may be stripped by immersion in hot concentrated sulphuric acid, to which nitrate of potash crystals must be added in small quantities as the work proceeds. T...
-Garden Wicket Gates
Garden wicket gates are made in many kinds of timber, but chiefly in oak and pine; this must be dry and well-seasoned, or the gates will soon warp and wedge. A good width is 3 ft. 6 in. A piece 9 ft. ...
-Deoxidising Tin
To deoxidise tin, stir into it while in the molten condition plenty of sal-ammoniac or resin, and continue adding either of these substances until the tin appears in its usual state: then skim the dro...
-Forming Grooves In Cement Floor
A grooved cement floor, say, for a stable, is laid in sections, and the deep part of the grooves is formed by inserting laths in the wet cement, the rounded portion between the grooves being obtained ...
-Beam Compasses
A beam compass is used for the purpose of drawing circles or ares of longer radius than can be taken in by the ordinary bow compass. A beam compass usually consists of a flat wooden beam fitted with t...
-Bacterial Treatment Of Sewage
No hard-and-fast rules can be laid down for the construction of bacterial filters, this method of treating sewage being of comparatively recent date. Any kind of tank that will hold water may be used....
-Whitening Stone Stairs
For whitening Portland or Painswick stone, pipeclay should answer well, but should be sparingly used - that is. just a smear rubbed on evenly with a wet rag. Or a piece of soft Bath stone (Corsham or ...
-How To Make Caulked Joints
The method of making a caulked joint in a cast hot-water pipe is first to caulk the space about one-third full of hemp, then put about half an inch of putty, then a ring of hemp, then another ring of ...
-How To Make A Hand Camera
In constructing a hand camera, first fix up a suitable lens of about 5 1/2in. focus in a box, ascertain exactly the principal focus, and see, also, whether the lens covers a 3-plate satisfactorily; th...
-Electro-Plating Lead With Copper
To plate sheet lead with a thin film of copper first prepare the following solution. Dissolve l1b. of copper sulphate in 1/2 gal. of rainwater, then stir in enough liquor ammonia to throw down the cop...
-How To Repair Marble Clock-Cases
When the corners of a marble clock-case are broken off, the disfigurement may often he remedied by reducing the case, after which the polish may be restored. The procedure is as follows. File off from...
-Waterproofing Small Shed
As a waterproof coating for a small shed tar, perhaps, is the most suitable. Paint or varnish may be used, but they are not so durable as tar, and much more expensive. A paint that, may be suitable ca...
-Photographic Studio Blinds
The method of fixing and the manner of controlling the blinds in the roof oe a photographic studio depend upon the position of the studio and on the quality of the light. The blinds should be of two k...
-Reservoir For Paraffin Blowpipe
There are two ways in which oil can be supplied from a reservoir to the burner of a paraffin blowpipe in sufficient quantity to keep up a steady flame. One method is shown by Fig. 1, the other by Fig....
-How To Cut Letters On Polished Granite
Letter cutting on polished granite headstones is executed in the following manner. Set out the letters on tracing-paper (care bein taken that they are evenly spaced) and paste or gum the paper on the ...
-Development Of Spiral Flute On A Column
If a piece of paper be cut to the shape of a right-angled triangle and wound round a cylinder, the top edge forms a helix or spiral line, as in the accompanying illustration. The larger the angle A, t...
-How To Make Amber Varnish
In making amber varnish, place 141b. of rock salt dissolved in spring water and 71b. of ordinary amber in a crucible over a fire till the amber is perfectly white. The bleached amber is then heated in...
-Restoring Polish Of White Marble
In order to impart a high lustre to white marble which has become dim, cover it with a solution of pure beeswax in oil of turpentine, and then rub dry with a linen or cotton cloth. The hard rubbing ge...
-Photographic Lenses Of Different Angles
The angle of a lens refers to the amount of subject it includes in the picture, and therefore depends upon the size of the plate it is used to cover. The term is only comparative. If, for example, a w...
-Setting Out Gradient Of Watercourse
Below are given instructions on setting out with an ordinary spirit level a new watercourse. Make a straightedge of wood, say 9 ft. or 10 ft. long, 6 in. broad, and 1 in. thick (see A, Fig. 1), and tr...
-Grain Fillers For Teak And Oak
The following will be found a useful filler for most kinds of coarse-grained woods. Take 3 parts of finely crushed dry whiting, 1 part of finest grade pumice powder, and tint with brown umber- mix to ...
-Cement For Repairing Plastering
A quick-drying plaster for repairing and patching may be made with Parian cement. It does not need time to dry, and the sooner it is painted (if in a painted wall) the better. There are two qualities,...
-How To Cut A Wooden Ball Inside Another
For cutting balls one inside another, sycamore, about 3| in. in diameter, is most suitable. Determine the top and bottom of the ball, and bore there holes 1/2m. deep with a 5/8in. Jennings' auger-bit....
-Re-Painting And Re-Varnishing A Mail Cart
It a mail cart is to be re-varnished only, provided it is in good condition, and is not cracked on the surface, a flatting with pumice powder and water should suffice previous to the varnish being app...
-Soldering Jewelled Ring
In order to prevent the bursting of the jewels of a ring whilst the latter is being soldered, cut a juicy potato into halves and make a hollow in both portions, in which the part of the ring having je...
-Window Board For Flower Pots
Fig. 1 is a section through a window board for flowerpots showing how it is fixed with brackets and screws to the sash frame. The board can be kept level with two or three pieces of l 1/2-in. or 2-...
-Annealing Malleable Iron Castings
Malleable iron castings are produced by heating castings made of white or mottled charcoal iron, smelted from hematite ores. The patterns should be made with a double allowance for contraction, and in...
-Plumber's Glossy Black
A little brown sugar, or a little stout, added to plumbers' soil or smudge will make it more tenacious, and cause it to dry with a slightly glossy surface. Some plumbers soil their joints, after they ...
-Rectilinear And Periscopic Lenses For Photographic Use
The term periscopic is applied to lenses intended for spectacles, which are uncorrected for colour or non-achromatic. For use in a camera they are, of course, much cheaper than the proper achromatic c...
-Cement Wash
For a cement wash to go over old cement stucco, place a few handfuls of cement in a bucket, and add water until the cement is of the consistency of thin cream. The wash should be mixed in small quanti...
-Composition Of Water
In judging the quality of water that is to be used for drinking purposes, it is necessary to take into account the source from which the water is procured, because the surroundings of the gathering gr...
-Stove For Vapour Bath
The stove for a vapour bath really consists of a little lamp containing methylated spirit, with a saucer above, in which is placed about 1/2pt. of water (plain or medicated). For a hot-air bath, the s...
-Chlorate Of Potassium
Chlorate of potassium (KCIO3) may be made thus. Pass chlorine gas through a warm and fairly strong solution of caustic potash or carbonate of potash until the alkali is quite neutralised; boil for a f...
-Imitation Granite Flooring
A very good imitation of granite flooring may be made by using granite chippings small enough to pass through -in. mesh, 1 1/4 parts; granite dust to pass through 1/8-in. mesh, 1 1/4 parts; and Portla...
-Hipped End Of A King-Post Truss
Fig. 1 shows part plan of trusses, ridge, and hips of a king-post roof. Fig. 2 shows the tusk tenon joint between the tie beams, with necessary straps and bolts; also the connection of king posts and ...
-The Manufacture Of Soft Soap
According to the Soapmaker and Perfumer, the chief fat used in the manufacture of either smoothed or grained soft soap is linseed oil, and this, if pure and good, gives a lasting, line transparent soa...
-Framework For Punch And Judy Show
For a Punch and Judy show, 2-in. square quartering should be used for making the frame, which should be about 3 ft. square and 9 ft, high. The four uprights should be in 10-ft. lengths, halved in the ...
-Aerated Water Machine
In an aerated water machine, the carbonic acid may be generated in a small cylindrical gas vessel A (see illustration) made of stout sheet copper lined with sheet lead. The charge of bicarbonate of so...
-How To Renovate Faded Crocodile Leather
Faded crocodile-leather coverings of furniture are restored to their original dark-green colour in the following way. Remove all grease and dirt from the leather by washing with warm water and soda wi...
-Preparation Of Whiting
Whiting, Paris white, or Spanish white is mere prepared chalk. To make ordinary whiting, mix ground chalk with water, and allow the sand contained in the chalk to settle in wooden troughs; then transf...
-How To Renovate Copper And Iron Lamp
Below are instructions on repolishing and lacquering an iron and copper standard lamp. Take the lamp bracket to pieces, and remove from the copper parts all the old lacquer by boiling in a potash solu...
-Putting Spring Seat In Armchair
Here are instructions on replacing with a spring seat the wooden seat of an armchair. Remove the wooden seat, and fix three battens across, 3 in. wide by 7/8in. thick, to act as spring rails. If the s...
-How To Make School Slates
Most of the school slates used in Great Britain come from Bangor, in North Wales, and are cut and faced by machinery. To make a single slate, get a Welsh roofing slate, and mark off with chalk to the ...
-Adjusting Surveyor's Level
In adjusting a surveyor's level, see that the two plates are parallel, with the screw points touching the lower plate. Open the legs to an angle of, say, 30o. Stand between two of the legs and grasp t...
-Circular Saw Attachment For Cutting Floor Blocks
For cutting floor blocks to various lengths the accompanying illustration shows a simple wooden arrangement that can be used with a circular saw bench. A piece of wide board B is fixed with screws to ...
-Transfer Paper For Carbon Process
Any paper having a grain or texture suitable to the subject under treatment may be used as transfer paper in the carbon process of photography. The paper is coated with a solution of gelatine containi...
-How To Polish Lead Pencils
Lead pencil cases are polished by hand with lac solutions as used by French polishers. The rounded strips are 22 in. long, the length of three ordinary pencils. Their handling in large quantities grea...
-Waterproofing Underground Water-Tank
To make an old underground tank water-tight from the outside without entirely reconstructing it is a difficult matter. Any solution or composition applied to the inner face of the walls would he force...
-How To Make A Garden Pump
A common form of garden pump used for spraying flowers and fruit is shown in the accompanying illustration. It is simply a brass tube with three rings soldered, or rather sweated, on the outside to st...
-Preparation Of Chalk
Chalk (carbonate of lime) is a soft white rock in a pulverent or only slightly consolidated state, being composed of minute fragments of shells, sponge spicules, etc., as may be seen on examination wi...
-How To Cut Out Stepped Flashings For Roofs
In marking off, cutting out, and fixing lead step flashings proceed as follows. The lead should be cut out 13in. wide, 6 in. of it to lie on the roof and 7in. to stand against the wall. The folding li...
-Hanging Hall-Rack
The hall-rack described below is intended for the accommodation of clothes, with convenience for hats, clothes brush, etc-. A mirror might be added in the centre, and a shelf or box for gloves might b...
-Washers For Callipers
Washers for callipers are best made of mild or spring steel. The hole is drilled, and then the material is made round with a file or emery wheel, put on a mandrel, and turned exactly to size. The ordi...
-How To Fit New Barrel Arbor To Watch
In fitting a new barrel arbor to a watch, first centre a rough barrel arbor by filing a centre on each end. Affix a screw ferrule to one end and turn the central portion to a diameter equal to one-thi...
-Ingle Nook With Sanded Roof
The ingle nook with a shingle roof shown in the illustrations is intended for a dining-room. The pillars are Sin. thick, part square and part turned, and have caps as shown: these pillars support the ...
-How To Make A Hand-Cart
The hand-cart shown in Figs. 1 and 2 is very shallow and light in construction. The sizes of, the various parts are shown in the illustrations, but space does not permit full instructions on dressing ...
-Recipes For Paste Blacking
Recipes for paste blackings are the following. (1) Mix together 8 parts (by weight) of ivory black, 4 parts of treacle, and 1 part of sweet oil, afterwards adding 2 parts of oil of vitriol diluted wit...
-Development Of Photographic Plates
The formula' for developers supplied by the makers of the plates used cannot he improved, and in nearly all cases these developers consist of pyrogallic acid and soda. The pyro-soda developer, as it i...
-Grease-Proofing Wooden Pill Boxes
A reliable method of making wooden pill boxes grease-proof is to clip them into moderately strong warm glue size. The dipping should be so arranged that both interiors and exteriors may be coated. Or,...
-How To Fit New Roller In Lever Watch
In fitting a new roller and pin in a lever watch, first procure a sott rough roller and broach out the centre hole to go on the balance-staff to the correct height. Place it on an arbor and in the tur...
-Imitating Dove Marble
For an imitation of dove marble, the ground colour must be a bluish-grey, and must lie worked on while it is wet, in the following manner. Provide a little dark blue-grey paint, a little black paint, ...
-How to Build a Rack For Holding Greenstuff Food
The illustrations show the construction of a rack for holding the greenstuff with which poultry are fed. The wood for the middle and side frames should be about 2 in. by li in.; the joints should be h...
-Oil Of Amber
Amber oil is a product of the dry distillation of amber, and consists, in its crude state, of a mixture of water, succinic acid, and oil of amber. On standing, it separates into three layers, the lowe...
-How To Remove Weather Stains From White Marble
Weather discoloured marble may be bleached with a solution of soap lyes and whiting-. Mix the soap lyes and whiting to the consistency of paste, and apply a good coating with an old brush. Let the pas...
-Constructing A Cesspool
Assuming that the quantity of sewage amounts to 300 gal. per day, and that the cesspool could be emptied every three months, a cesspool should have a capacity of about 4,300cub. ft. If the pool is 10f...
-Zinc
Zinc (Zn),a bluish-white and highly crystalline metal, is very malleable when pure, but impure commercial zinc is inclined to be brittle. It melts at 773 P. and has a specific gravity varying from 6'8...
-How To Make Divan Settee
Fig. 1 is a front view of half the framework, Fig. 2 is a side view, and Fig. 3 a section of a divan settee showing the position of the springs, etc. The extra length of the settee will necessitate it...
-How To Make Incense
To obtain a slow-burning incense, add cedar-wood powder or wood charcoal and nitre to gum olibamim. gum benzoin, and gum galbanum; the gums in this mixture are volatilised without burning, and dissemi...
-Connecting Musical Box To Striking Clock
Properly to arrange a musical box to work in connection with a striking clock to play one tune at each hour, a warning and letting-olf mechanism, similar to that in the train of a striking clock, must...
-A Bamboo Camera Stand
To make a small bamboo stand for supporting a hand camera, prepare a cylindrical block of hard wood like A (Fig. 1), boring it through the centre and making cuts B, C, and D. Into these fit firmly the...
-How To Determine Height Above Sea Level
The mode of ascertaining the height above sea level of a hill depends on circumstances. The term sea level indicates the mean half-tide level of the sea, and if the distance is short and the height ...
-How To Photograph With Telescope
A telescope or an opera glass may be used as a telephoto lens (that is, a lens for obtaining larger images of distant objects with less extension of camera) in the following way. Support the telescope...
-Boring Gun-Barrels
Gun barrels are bored with square bits of suitable size; as soon as one bit is used, another is put through the barrel, until the desired diameter is obtained. The barrel is secured on a carriage, the...
-Preparation Of Benzene
Benzene is a hydrocarbon C6H6 formed during the dry distillation of organic substances. It is containedin coal tar, which, on being distilled, yields a light oil that is washed with sulphuric acid and...
-Priming For Woodwork
A priming for outdoor woodwork, which is to be painted white, is made by mixing together white lead, 10 oz. red lead, 1 oz.; and driers, loz.; thin with half raw oil and turps. No hard and fast rule c...
-Wall Rack For Drying Clothes
Fig. 1 shows a wall rack for use with a gas stove or oven in drying clothes. The rack has a base 2ft. 6in. by Sin. by lin., with five rods 3ft. by lin. by fin. These are mortised in, and glued and wed...
-How To Cut And Polishing Carnelians
The following instructions on cutting and polishing carnelians, or cornelians, are equally applicable to other stones of a medium degree of hardness, such as agate, amethyst, aquamarine, beryl, bloods...
-Device For Photographing Cyclists
The illustration shows a very simple device for supporting a person on a cycle in an erect position whilst being photographed. The block is painted to match the foreground, and is light on one side an...
-Stripping Silver From Plated Articles
One method of removing silver from plated articles needs the use of a cold bath. The objects are hung in a large vessel filled with a mixture of 10 parts of sulphuric acid, 66 B., and 10 parts of nitr...
-Music Shelf For Piano
The shelf illustrated here is intended to be fixed on a piano fitted with a half lid: this extends only half-way back, with a long hinge running from end to end. These pianos are usually fitted with a...
-Ginger And Herb Beers
Ginger beer may be made in either of the following ways. (1) Boil 2 oz. of bruised (not powdered) ginger with 2gal. of water for half an hour, add 21b. of white sugar and loz. of lemon juice, or one s...
-Swing Back Camera In Portraiture
The purpose for which the swing back is employed in portraiture is just the opposite to that for which it is used in architectural work. In the former it is used to accommodate the focus to a figure t...
-How To Clean White Leghorn Hats
To renovate white Leghorn straw hats that have become slightly soiled, wash in hot soap and water (white curd or castile soap for preference), then in clean water, and carefully brush with a stiff nai...
-Etching In Gold On Glass
Below is described how to etch in gold on glass a dull letter with a burnished edge. The glass must first be well cleaned and polished with an old newspaper. A sketch of the letter having been placed ...
-Fowls' House With Span Roof
The accompanying drawings show a fowls' house 6 ft. long, 5 ft. wide, and 6 ft. high to ridge; it has a span roof. The run may be of any length desired. A is a half-longitudinal section showing the ne...
-Amber
Amber (known in mineralogy as succinite) is the mineralised or fossil resin of an extinct pine-tree (probably Pinites succinifer), and though its colour is a transparent pale yellow usually, often it ...
-Setting Steel Plates
Steel plates, say of No. 14 gauge, are straightened or set by using a hammer andan iron setter. If, when the sheet is laid fiat, there are raised places along its centre, they must be worked down flat...
-Octagonal Fountain In Sheet Metal
Fig. 1 shows an elevation of a greenhouse fountain which could be made of copper or zinc. The parts A2, B2, and the moulded part of the foot C2 are of curved sheet metal, which, when mitred at the dif...
-Aluminium
Aluminium (symbol Al, melting point varying from 1,050 to 1,292 F., specific gravity 2'6), when of 98.5 per cent, purity, is bright white in colour, somewhat resembling silver, though its appeara...
-Plumbing Work Aboard A Troopship
The old-fashioned troopship is now practically abolished, and troops are carried in hired transports, which have to be specially fitted tip. The sanitary arrangements for the troops are here briefly d...
-How To Clean Gilt Bronze Ware
Gilt bronze ware, if greasy, should be dipped in a hot solution of caustic potash, washed in hot soapsuds, and rinsed in clean water. If not greasy, dip in a mixture of 10 parts of nitric acid, 1 part...
-Scoop For A Coal-Weighing Machine
A scoop (Fig. 1) for a coal-weighing machine should be made of No. 19 S.W.G. best charcoal iron. To mark out the pattern of the body (Fig. 2), first square a sheet of iron and set off along the edge a...
-Hydrochloric Acid
The liquid known as hydrochloric or muriatic acid, or spirit of salts, is an aqueous solution of the pure muriatic acid, which is a colourless, invisible gas possessing a pungent odour and an acid tas...
-Regulator For Reciprocating Water Motor
When the reciprocating motor described on p. 298 is used for organ blowing, an automatic speed regulator as shown by the accompanying illustrations will be required. In Fig. 1 the feeders are lettered...
-Papering A Ceiling
The paper for a ceiling is prepared in the same manner as for hanging on a wall. Special attention is, of course, paid to the pasting of the paper, and for obvious reasons it is almost useless to atte...
-How To Make Small Filter
A small filter for purifying water may be made in this way. Procure a large earthenware flower pot, well clean it, and fix a piece of glass tube in the hole at the bottom. Put in a layer of very small...
-Soldering Catch On Gun-Barrel
In soldering a catch on a gun barrel it will be necessary to tin the barrels and also the catch, and then to bind the latter to the barrels with strong wire; also bind the barrels for some distance fr...
-Sheaths For Hand Camera With Changing Bag
The accompanying diagram shows the pattern for a sheath for a hand camera with changing bag arrangement. The sheath should be cut in the zinc and bent on the dotted lines. If fairly thick sheaths are ...
-Preparing Sulphuric Acid
Sulphuric acid, H2SO4, known also as oil of vitriol, is an odourless, dense, oily liquid having a specific gravity of 1.842. Pure sulphuric acid is colourless, but the commercial acid is of a straw to...
-Glazing With Putty
In glazing a window lay the sash on a bench, and with the thumb run along the rebate a bed of soft putty; this is called back puttying. Next lay the piece of glass in its place, and with the second fi...
-Theatrical Grease Paints
The base for grease paints is 2 parts of clarified lard or cocoanut fat mixed with 1 part of white wax; or vaseline or paraffin wax may be used. Grease paint is put up in cylinders about 4in. long and...
-Using Neat Portland Cement
When neat Portland cement is used in thin layers that are exposed to the air, it cracks and breaks off. Thus it is unfitted for skimming walls or floors, or for pointing brickwork, and in such eases ...
-How To Clean Sponges
To clean sponges, soak them for about half an hour in warm dilute hydrochloric acid (1 part of strong acid to 5 parts of water); remove, rinse in water, and then steep in methylated spirit for a furth...
-A Tripod Plate-Stand
The hardwood stand for toast, etc., shown by Fig. 1, is simple, quaint, and useful. However it is placed, three of its legs must rest on the floor whilst the other three are ready to support the plate...
-The Manufacture Of Watch Glasses
The first watches, the Eggs of Nuremberg, were oval in shape, and had glasses which had been cut on a stone from a solid block of crystal. Later, when the watches took a round shape, this costly pro...
-Electric Arc Lamp For Portraiture
An automatic feed arc lamp for photographic portraiture is expensive. A clockwork arrangement or an electro-magnet causes the carbons to be drawn together or separated until the correct position is...
-Preparing Calf Skin For Banjo
To prepare a raw calf skin for a banjo, place the skin in a warm damp spot until sufficient putrefaction has taken place to enable the hair to readily slip; or the skin may be put into lime-water with...
-Liquid For Dry Shampooing
A liquid for dry shampooing may be made by dissolving 2oz. of Castile soap in 1 3/4pt. of spirit of wine and adding 3} pt. of water. If desired, the liquid may be scented with, a few drops of essence ...
-Temporary Outdoor Photographic Studio
Fig. 1. shows a simple form of temporary outdoor photographic studio. It is merely a light structure fitted with a double set of blinds, one blind being of darkish green material fairly opaque, and th...
-How To Polish And Re-Silvering Brass Clock Dials
For polishing brass dials of clocks a lathe is required, although it is not absolutely essential. If only a few dials have to be done, the following hand method, although tedious, will doubtless answe...
-Self-Propelling Chair For Invalid
A common Windsor armchair can be converted into a merlin chair by adding a pair of bath-chair wheels with a polished wood driving rim (see A in the sketch); the axle is bolted to the cross spindles. T...
-How To Renovate Old Leaded Lights
Old and leaky leaded lights to be renovated should be taken out of the window frames, laid flat on a board, and painted all over with a rather stiff paint of red and white lead and linseed oil, using ...
-Frosting Silver
Polished silver is frosted by a few minutes' immersion in nitric acid diluted with an equal volume of water. A better effect is gained by frequent dipping and withdrawing. On removal from the acid, ri...
-Correcting Barrel Of English Lever Watch
One cause of the barrel of a fusee lever watch rubbiug on the pillar plate may be that the barrel is too low down, or has too much side shake upon its arbor; or the barrel arbor may have too much ends...
-Stick And Umbrella Rack
The stick and umbrella rack shown by Fig. 1 is intended for use where there is not room for a hall stand. Prepare two pieces of 3/4-in. walnut or mahogany 3 ft. 11 in. by 3 in. by 3/4in., and two piec...
-Gunpowder
The proportions for the ingredients of gunpowder employed at the end of the nineteenth century are given in the following table: - Nitre. Sulphur. Charcoal...
-Driving Piles On A Batter
The guides of the pile-driving machine must be set to the batter at which it is intended that the piles are to be driven. The easiest way to do this with a machine having upright guides will be either...
-How To Make Alcohol From Sugar
Alcohol is made from sugar by the following process. Dissolve llb. of brown sugar in 1/2 gal. of warm water; when the temperature has fallen to blood heat, mix a little of the solution with a teacupfu...
-Plumbers' Soil Or Smudge
Plumbers' soil or smudge is made in small quantities, as it deteriorates if kept. To make a soiipotful, place in the pot 1/4 lb. of size or diluted molten glue and a little water; gently warm until th...
-Tyring Cart Wheels
After running off a wheel on a bar of iron to get the exact length it is necessary to know how much should be left to allow for the bending. No hard and fast rule can be given, as some brands of iron ...
-Alcohols
Alcohol is one member of a large series of organic products known by the generic term of alcohols. The lowest member of this series is methyl alcohol, which is contained in wood spirit; the next is et...
-Joint For Hot-Water Pipes
The accompanying illustrations show a simple and efficient method of making joints in hot-water pipes. Fig. 1 is a section of the finished joint. To make the joint, first caulk tightly to the bottom o...
-How To Renovate Bronze Ornaments
To clean and renovate bronze ornaments that have gone dull and rough, try brushing the articles with a fine brush and powdered pumice-stone and water; if this does not have the desired effect, they wi...
-Weight Of Air
Regnault ascertained that at the freezing point of water (320 F.) a cubic centimetre of perfectly pure, dry air had a weight of 0.0012932 of a gramme when the barometer stood at 76 centimetres at, Par...
-How To Make Koumiss
Koumiss (spelt also kumyss) is a fermented liquor made originally by the Tartars from mares' milk; a somewhat similar liquor, called lebau or yaourt, is made from cows' milk by the Arabians and Turks;...
-How To Remove Tar From Black Cloth
The best way to remove tar from black cloth is to immerse the soiled portion in benzene. After soaking for several hours renew the benzene, and with a hard nail-brush carefully brush away the stain. ...
-Weight Of Cubic Foot Of Air In Founds
Temp. F. Pressure in pounds per square inch, above atmosphere. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ...
-Sliding Sashes In Railway Carriage Doors
Fig. 1 is an elevation of the inside of a railway carriage door showing the strap for lifting the sash; Fig. 2 is a section through the door; whilst Fig. 3 is a detail showing the bottom rail of the s...
-How To Renovate Maroon Repp Chair Covers
To renovate faded and soiled maroon repp furniture covers, proceed thus. Strip the gimping, then with an old screwdriver knock up the tack heads sufficiently to allow them to be gripped with a pair of...
-How To Work Copper-Plating Solutions
Copper-plating solutions, made by dissolving the green precipitate from a copper sulphate solution with potassium cyanide, should he worked hot. A temperature of from 150 P. to 180 P. gives the h...
-Splayed Linings To Segmental Opening
The correct wav of getting the true shape of the soffit of splayed framed-up linings, sides and soffit to have the same angle of splay, is the following. Set out the plan and elevation (Figs. 1 and 2)...
-Particulars Of Copper
Copper (Cu) is a highly malleable, ductile, and tenacious red metal greatly used in many industrial arts. It does not resist the action of a rids, and even moisture affects it, causing it to form an o...
-How To Clean Gold
To clean gold ware, mix together 2 parts of acetic acid, 1 part of oxalic acid, and 2 parts of sulphuric acid; stir in 2 parts of rouge, and mix with 200 parts of distilled water. Rub this on with a c...
-Gilding Metal Chains Without Battery
As metal chains, etc., gilded without the aid of a battery only take on the thinnest film of gold, they cannot be expected to stand any real wear, as the film of gold is easily rubbed off. The follow...
-How To Make Flags
Flags are made of bunting joined by a double seam, the two edges being turned in. Sewing bunting cut diagonally is a rather awkward job. Silk is used for small and finer flags. Material may be economi...
-Antimony
Antimony (Sb.) is a bluish white metal, crystalline and brittle, and so can be powdered easily. Its specific gravity is 67, and its melting point about 430 C. Its chief use is in the formation o...
-Wire Gauges
The table shows the value in inches of the sizes on the principal wire gauges. Number of Gauge. London or Old English. English Legal Standard. ...
-How To Clean Silver
To clean silver ware, with a soft brush rub on a thin paste of equal parts of levigated (not precipitated) chalk and sodium hyposulphite rubbed up with distilled water. Rinse in clean water and dry in...
-Preparing Whitewash
A good way of preparing whitewash is to break up 6 lb. of whiting in a pail containing just sufficient water to cover the whiting; when the latter is thoroughly slaked and settled down, pour off the s...
-Fancy Dog-Kennel
Here is a design for a fancy panelled dog-kennel suitable for a room. The kennel may be about 20 in. long, 15 in. wide, and 14 in. high. Fig. 1 is a side elevation showing opening, Fig. 2 an end eleva...
-Lead
Lead (symbol Pb, melting point 612 F., specific gravity 111) is a bluish grey metal which is lustrous when freshly cut. Being very malleable, ductile, and tough, it is used largely in many of the...
-Restoring The Lustre Of Silver
The best way to restore the original lustrous whiteness of silver goods, lost or impaired by exposure to sulphurous atmospheres or by having been often and perhaps carelessly cleaned, is first to anne...
-How To Clean Furred Pipes
A satisfactory method of removing fur or lime deposit from hot-water pipes has not yet been discovered, and it is generally better, and about as cheap, to put in new pipe. One method of removing the l...
-Particulars Of Agate
Agate, esteemed the least valuable of the precious stones, is a variety of quartz occurring usually as rounded nodules, known as geodes, or veins in trap rock and serpentine. Silica enters into its co...
-Bronze Alloys
Bronze is a yellowish, reddish, or chocolate-brown alloy of copper, tin, and other elementary metals, and is made in a similar way to brass; and indeed, there does not appear to be a sharp distinction...
-How To Clean Silver Watch Dials
Dirty silver dials having enamelled figures are cleaned in a different way from those having painted figures. If the figures are enamelled - and this can be ascertained by touch-i g them with the poin...
-Stripping Gold From Gold-Plated Ware
By the following process the gold may be stripped from a gold-plated article, no matter whether it was fire or electrically gilt. Warm up an almost exhausted gold-plating bath, and use the plated ware...
-Sealing-Wax
To prepare sealing-wax, melt together at a moderate heat 30 oz. of Venice turpentine and 45 oz. of shellac; stir well with a wooden stick and introduce, a little at a time, a mixture of 6oz. of genuin...
-Polish For Calf Kid Boots
The best polish for calf kid boots is white of egg; this should be kept till it is stale and forms a liquid, not a jelly. Ordinary blacking should not be vised for calf kid boots. Another polish can b...
-How To Work Nickel-Plating Solution
A nickel solution for plating is at its proper working strength when it contains 11b, of nickel sulphate to the gallon of water. To maintain it at this strength attention must be paid to the anodes an...
-Graining Walnut
The ground colour for walnut graining is composed of 10 parts by weight of white-lead, 2 parts of yellow ochre, 1 part of burnt umber, and 1 part of patent driers, thinned with equal parts of raw lins...
-Putty Or Cement For Glass
A cement or superior putty for glass is the composition known as gilders' putty, the constituent parts of which are whiting, resin, glue, silver sand, and linseed oil; it sets as hard as metal, and ca...
-Dry Plates That Can Be Developed In Water
Photographic dry plates that can be developed in water contain one of the developing agents in a film of gum on the hack of the plate. On placing the plate in a specified quantity of water containing ...
-Side-Tipping Waggon
Fig. 1 is a perspective sketch of a side-tipping waggon for brickmakers' clay showing the arrangement by which the waggon is swung from side to side. The sizes and measurements of these waggons vary a...
-Brasses
Brass is a general name for alloys of copper and zinc. The colour varies with the proportions of the ingredients, though, strictly speaking, the term brass can be appiied only to those copper and ...
-How To Clean And Curl Feathers
Feathers may be cleaned by washing them in clean water, using a soft cloth, and then absorbing the water with dry plaster-of-Paris. Another method is to wash them in soap and water, followed by clean ...
-How To Blacken Brass Pins
Here is a method of darkening or blackening brass tacks and pins. Add to a solution of copper sulphate (Milestone) a strong solution of washing soda; allow this to settle, pour off the liquid, and add...
-White Paste For Canvas Shoes
This is a recipe for a white paste for canvas shoes. Scrape some pipeclay into a saucer, add a few pieces of oxalic acid and a very small portion of washing blue, and then pour on warm water till the ...









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