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Spons' Mechanics' Own Book: A Manual For Handicraftsmen And Amateurs | by Edward Spon



The title of this work almost suffices to indicate the character of the contents, without the aid of any prefatory explanation. The authors have no new theories to advance, nor discoveries to relate : their aim has been rather to discuss from an everyday practical view the various mechanical trades that deal with the conversion of wood, metals, and stone into useful objects.

TitleSpons' Mechanics' Own Book: A Manual For Handicraftsmen And Amateurs
AuthorEdward Spon
PublisherE. & F. N. Spon
Year1886
Copyright1886, E. & F. N. Spon
AmazonSpons' Mechanics' Own Book

Second Edition.

E. & F. N. Spon
-Introduction
The title of this work almost suffices to indicate the character of the contents, without the aid of any prefatory explanation. The authors have no new theories to advance, nor discoveries to relate :...
-Mechanical Drawing
A knowledge of the method of making working drawings, and a capability of interpreting them correctly and with facility, are essential qualifications in a mechanic, as almost all work, unless that of ...
-Buying And Keeping Instruments
Persons with limited means will find it better to procure good instruments separately of any respectable maker, W. Stanley of Holborn for instance, as they may be able to afford them, than to purchase...
-Drawing-Boards
You may procure 2 drawing-boards, 42 in. long and 30 in. wide, to receive double elephant paper. Have the boards plain, without cleets, or ingenious devices for fastening the paper; they should be m...
-Scales
In working to regular scales, such as 1/2, 1/8, or 1/16 size, a good plan is to use a common rule, instead of a graduated scale. There is nothing more convenient for a mechanical draughtsman than to b...
-T-Squares
A plain T-square, with a parallel blade fastened on the side of the head, but not imbedded into it, is the best; in this way set squares can be passed over the head of a T-square in working at the edg...
-Paper
The following table contains the dimensions of every description of English drawing-paper. in. in. Demy.......... 20 by 15 Medium............... 22 ...
-Mounting
In mounting sheets that are likely to be removed and replaced, for the purpose of modification, as working drawings generally are, they can be fastened very well by small copper tacks driven in along ...
-Mounting On Linen
The linen or calico is first stretched by tacking it tightly on a frame or board. It is then thoroughly coated with strong size, and left until nearly dry. The sheet of paper to be mounted requires to...
-Pencilling
This is the first and the most important operation in drawing; more skill is required to produce neat pencil-work than to ink in the lines after the pencilling is done. A beginner, unless he exercises...
-Erasing Errors
To erase Cumberland-lead pencil marks, native or bottle india-rubber answers perfectly. This, however, will not entirely erase any kind of German or other manufactured pencil marks. What is found best...
-Inking
Ink used in drawing should always be the best that can be procured; without good ink a draughtsman is continually annoyed by an imperfect working of pens, and the washing of the lines if there is shad...
-Testing Straight-Edge
Lay the straight-edge upon a stretched sheet of paper, placing weights upon it to hold it firmly; then draw a line against the edge with a needle in a holder, or a very fine hard pencil, held constant...
-Using Parallel Rule
One of the rules is pressed down firmly with the fingers, while the other is moved by the centre stud to the distances at which parallel lines are required. Should the bars not extend a sufficient dis...
-Using Compasses
It is considered best to place the forefinger upon the head, and to move the legs within the second finger and thumb. In dividing distances into equal parts, it is best to hold the dividers as much as...
-Tints, Dimensions, And Centre Lines
A drawing being inked in, the next things are tints, dimensions, and centre lines. The centre line should be in red ink, and pass through all points of the drawing that have an axial centre, or where ...
-Title
The title of a drawing is a feature that has much to do with its appearance, and the impression conveyed to the mind of an observer. While it can add nothing to the real value of a drawing, it is so e...
-Nature Of Drawings
Isometrical perspective is often useful in drawing, especially in wood structures, when the material is of rectangular section, and disposed at right angles, as in machine frames. One isometrical view...
-Finishing A Drawing
While to finish a drawing without any error or defect should be the draughtsman's object, he should never be in haste to reject a damaged drawing, but should exercise his ingenuity to see how far inju...
-Shading
For shading, camel- or sable-hair brushes, called softeners, are generally used: these have a brush at each end of the handle, one being much larger than the other. The manner of using the softener fo...
-Colouring Tracings
It is always best to colour tracings on the back, as the ink lines are liable to be obliterated when the colour is applied. Mix the colours very dark, so that they may appear of proper depth on the ot...
-Removing Drawings From The Board
Make a pencil line round the paper with the T-square at a sufficient distance to clear the glued edge, and to cut the paper with a penknife, guided by a stout ruler. In no instance should the edge of ...
-Mounting Engravings
Strain thin calico on a frame, then carefully paste on the engraving so as to be free from creases; afterwards, when dry, give 2 coats of thin size (a piece the size of a small nut in a small cupful o...
-How To Fix Pencil Drawings
Prepare water-starch, in the manner of the laundress, of such a strength as to form a jelly when cold, and then apply with a broad camel-hair brush, as in varnishing. The same may be done with thin, c...
-Tracing-Cloth
Varnish the cloth with Canada balsam dissolved in turpentine, to which may be added a few drops of castor-oil, but do not add too much, or it will not dry. Try a little piece first with a small quanti...
-Tracing-Paper
(1) A German invention has for its object the rendering more or less transparent of paper used for writing or drawing, either with ink, pencil, or crayon, and also to give the paper such a surface tha...
-Transfer-Paper
(1) Hub the surface of thin post or tissue-paper with graphite (blacklead), vermilion, red chalk, or other pigment, and carefully remove the excess of colouring matter by rubbing with a clean rag. (2...
-Copying Drawings
Apart from the mechanical operation of tracing, there are several methods by which facsimile copies of drawings can be produced with a very slight expenditure of labour and at small cost. These will n...
-Copying Drawings. Continued
(3) Blue figures on a white ground are changed into black by dipping the proof in a solution of 4 oz. common potash in 100 oz. water, when the blue colour gives place to a sort of rusty colour, produc...
-Casting And Founding
The following remarks by W. H. Cooper in the School of Mines Quarterly, New York, give a very clear outline of the operations of easting and founding: - We are indebted to the fusibility of the metal...
-How to Prepare a Cast Mould
The method of preparing a mould is as follows The sand having been prepared, the moulder frees the patterns from all glue and adhering foreign particles. He then selects the most appropriate flasks,...
-Brass And Bronze Founding
A vast number of articles, chiefly small in size and of a more or less artistic character, are cast in brass, bronze, or one of the many modifications of these well-known alloys. Pure copper is mould...
-Furnaces
Furnaces for melting brass or bronze may be built of common brick and lined with fire-brick; but the best are made with a boiler-plate caisson, 20-30 in. diam. and 30-10 in. high, usually set down in ...
-Crucibles
All the metals and alloys, with the exception of iron and the very fusible metals, are melted in crucibles, of which there are several different kinds. The principal ones in use are the Hessian pots, ...
-Moulding
Brass moulding is carried on by means of earthen or sand moulds. The formation of sand moulds is by no means so simple an affair as it would first appear, for it requires long practical experience to ...
-Casting
When brass is ready to be poured, the zinc on the surface begins to waste with a lambent flame. When this condition is observed, the large cokes are first removed from the mouth of the pot, and a long...
-Cores
Following are instructions for a composition for cores that may be required for difficult jobs, where it would be extremely expensive to make a core-box for the same: Make a pattern (of any material t...
-Making Bronze Figures
It is a singular fact that melted gold, silver, copper, and iron, if poured hot into a mould, will take an impression of all the details of the pattern from which the mould was made, only if the mould...
-Making Bronze Figures. Bronzing
The next process it that of bronzing. The colour known as bronze is that which a piece of that metal would take through the natural process of atmospheric oxidation, if it were exposed to a dry atmo...
-Casting En Cire Perdue
A very interesting report on bronze-casting in Belgium, by Sir J. Savile Lumley, has recently been issued, from which the following remarks are abstracted. The bronze castings made under the First Em...
-The Model
The bust produced by the sculptor, which may be in terra-cotta or plaster, finished as far as the artist thinks advisable, is handed over to the founder. Reproduction in wax. This requires 3 distinct...
-A. Formation Of A Piece-Mould
After having examined the bust so as to be thoroughly acquainted with its difficulties, the workman proceeds to cut off with a twisted wire the projecting portions of the heard, and the hair, which, f...
-B. Reproduction In Wax
One-half of the piece-mould is placed on the table, that is to say, one of the copes, with all its pieces, and the mould is wetted with water in order to prevent the wax from adhering to it; the workm...
-0. Formation Of The Core
The core is the substance with which is filled the hollow left in the mould after the liquid wax is poured out of it; if the bust were cast in bronze without a core, it would come out solid and weighi...
-Retouching The Wax Bust
The great advantage of reproducing the bust in wax is that it enables the artist to work upon it so that the wax bust is not only equal to the original in plaster or terra-cotta, but may become even s...
-Preparing The Bust Before Making The Casting Mould Or Cope
The bust in wax, having been looked over and corrected by the artist, is now placed in the hands of the founder, who begins by building a layer of fire-bricks of the size required for the object that ...
-Formation Of The Casting Mould Or Cope
The bust thus prepared is placed on the brick layer in the place in which it is to be fired; it is then surrounded by a wooden case, having the form of a 4-sided truncated pyramid. This case, which mu...
-Firing
The block is now ready for firing. A furnace of fire-bricks is built round it, 2 chimneys being placed on the runner, and the vent communicating with the outer air, and round this furnace a second is ...
-The Casting In Bronze
This is the last operation. The block having become sufficiently cool, it is surrounded with iron frames placed one above the other; the space between the block and the frames is filled by pressing in...
-Iron Founding
The following observations, while bearing more or less on casting generally, refer more particularly to the art of the ironfounder. The first consideration is the pattern from which the moulding is t...
-Patterns
The subjoined remarks on the conditions to be considered in pattern-making are condensed from Richards' valuable manual on 'Workshop Manipulation,' which is more than once referred to as an indispensa...
-Patterns. Tools
These include crucibles or furnaces for melting the metal; pots for carrying it to the moulds; moulding flasks and implements for packing them; clamps for holding the moulds. Crucibles vary in size, ...
-Casting In Sand
The foregoing preparations having been completed, the metal may be poured in. But first, to prevent the metal being chilled by contact with the sand, the inside of the mould is painted over with a bla...
-Casting In Loam
Large pipes and cylinders are cast in a somewhat different way. A hollow vertical core of somewhat less diameter than the interior of the proposed cylinder is formed either in metal or brickwork. The ...
-Form Of Castings
The shape given to castings should be very carefully considered. All changes of form should be gradual. Sharp corners or angles are a source of weakness This is attributed to the manner in which the c...
-Examination Of Castings
In examining castings, with a view to ascertaining their quality and soundness, several points should be attended to. The edges should be struck with a light hammer. If the blow make a slight impressi...
-Shrinkage Of Iron Castings
The chief trouble with iron castings is their liability to have internal strains put upon them in cooling, in consequence of their shrinking. The amount of this shrinkage varies with the quality of th...
-Chilling Iron Castings
The service part of a casting that is wanted to retain a certain shape, size, and smoothness, and to withstand constant wear and tear, can in most cases be chilled, when cast, by forming the shape of ...
-Forging And Finishing
These terms are defined by Richards, in his 'Workshop Manipulation,' in the following words: Forging relates to shaping metal by compression or blows when it is in a heated or softened condition; as ...
-Technical Phrases Employed In Forging
The technical phrases employed in forging are thus explained by Cameron Knight: - How To Make Up A Stock. The stock is that mass of coal or coke which is situated between the fire and the cast-i...
-Forges Or Hearths
These are made in a great variety of form and size, some obtaining the necessary blast by means of bellows, others by rotary fans or blowers; some with a single and others with a double blast; some wi...
-Anxils
An anvil is an iron block, usually with a steel face, upon which metal is hammered and shaped. The ordinary smith's anvil, Figs. 14 and 15, is one solid mass of metal, - iron in different states; C is...
-Vices And Tongs
Of vices there is a great variety; Fig. 16 is a typical example of a malleable iron parallel vice. Fig. 17 is a useful little combined anvil and vice, face 10 in. by 4, 4-in. jaw, weight 40 lb., costi...
-Hammers
Upon the principles underlying the shapes, sizes, and uses of hammers, much will be found under the heading of Carpentry. A few representative forms of hammer head are shown in Figs. 18,19: a to d are...
-Chisels and Chisel-shaped Tools
The following remarks are in the main condensed from a lecture on Chisels and Chisel-shaped Tools, delivered by Joshua Rose before the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia. In Figs. 20 and 21 are shown t...
-Chisels and Chisel-shaped Tools. Continued
The side chisel obeys just the same rule, so you may give it bevel at w in Fig. 37 for shallow holes, and lean it over as at z in Fig. 31, or make the side v w straight along its whole length, for dee...
-Drilling And Boring
The term drilling is applied to the operation of perforating or sinking holes in solid material, while boring is confined to turning out annular holes to true dimensions. These allied processes ar...
-Swaging Tools
Figs. 50, 51, illustrate a couple of forms of swaging block, which are often useful for shaping a piece of hot metal quickly and truly. ...
-Surfacing Tools
By far the most important tool used in perfecting the surface of fused; or cast work is the file. It is sometimes replaced by emery, either in the form of wheels or as powder attached to cloth; and is...
-Surfacing Tools. Continued
The best plan to follow is probably this - First brush the casting thoroughly - scrub it - with a hard brush; this will rub off the loose sand; then take an old file, and file away steadily at the ski...
-Screw-Cutting Tools
These are intended for cutting screw threads in circular work, such as on the outside of pipes or rods, and in the holes cut in solid work, for the purpose of making screwed joints. Figs. 52-63 show a...
-Forging
Forging metal consists in raising it to a high temperature and hammering it into any form that may be required. Good wrought iron may be seriously injured by want of care or skill in forging it to dif...
-Welding
This is the process by which 2 pieces of metal are joined together with the aid of heat. There are several forms of weld. The principles upon which the welding of metals depends are here given. In w...
-Wrought Iron
The property of welding possessed by wrought iron is due to its continuing soft and more or less pasty through a considerable range of temperature below its melting point. When at a white heat, it is ...
-Steel
The facility with which steel may be welded to steel diminishes as the metal approximates to cast iron with respect to the proportion of carbon; or, what amounts to the same thing, it increases as the...
-Steel To Wrought Iron
If the melting points of 2 metals sensibly differ, then the welding point of the one may be near the melting point of the other, and the difference in the degree of plasticity, so to speak, between th...
-Tempering
According to Richards, an excellent authority on the subject, no one has been able to explain clearly why a sudden change of temperature hardens steel, nor why it assumes various shades of colour at d...
-Tempering. Continued
It may be remarked as a general rule that the hardness of cutting tools is inverse as the hardness of the material to be cut, which seems anomalous, and no doubt is so, if nothing but the cutting p...
-Examples Of Smiths' Work
It will be instructive to conclude this section with detailed descriptions of the operations entailed in a few of the more common kinds of work performed by smiths. ...
-Keys
For forging small round short rods, or keys, no tools are required except the ordinary fire irons and the hand-hammer, tongs, and anvil chisel, in the anvil, shown by Figs. 68 to 70. The pin should be...
-Bolts
Bolts are made in such immense numbers, that a variety of machinery exists for producing small bolts by compression of the iron while hot into dies. But the machinery is not yet adapted to forge good ...
-Nuts
The simplest method of making small nuts is by punching with a small punch that is held in the left hand; this punch is driven through a bar near one end of it, which is placed upon a bolster on the a...
-Tongs
Fig. 88 shows a curved-gap tongs, Fig. 89 a bar tongs, and Fig. 90 a side-grip tongs. Other forms are illustrated in Figs. 92 to 99. To forge and put together a pair of flat bitted tongs (Fig. 93), of...
-Hammers For Hand Use
All hammers for hand use, whether chipping hammers or sledge hammers, should be made entirely of steel. The practice of welding steel faces to iron eye portions in order to avoid using a larger quanti...
-Chisels
Chipping chisels for engineers seldom remain long in use, through the continual hammering and consequent vibration to which they are subjected for cutting metals, and because they are made of a granul...
-Files
The processes to which files are subjected, after receiving them from the file maker, include hardening, bending, cranking the tangs, and shaping the tangs to prevent their handles falling off. Rough...
-Scrapers
A scraper having a flat extremity is easily made of a small flat file, the thin taper portion of the file being first broken off, and a straight smooth extremity produced with grinding on a grindstone...
-Drifts
Cutting drifts having teeth on their sides, similar to large file teeth, are shaped by two methods; small ones not more than 1 in. thick being grooved by filing, and large ones that may be 3 or 4 in. ...
-Punches
A punch with a circular extremity, for making round holes into cold sheet iron and other metals, is about 6 in. long, and made of an old round file, to avoid forging. The file is first thoroughly soft...
-Spanners
The proper metal for spanners generally, is a soft fibrous Bessemer steel; such metal is produced by rolling and hammering the Bessemer product after being cast, that the fibrous character may be prod...
-Spanners. Continued
The preparation of the stem consists in thickening one end by upsetting, and shaping it to a 6-sided form to fit the socket-hole. A stem thus shaped is denoted by Fig. 114; and the thick part is made ...
-Wrenches
Wrenches for rotating taps, broaches, and similar tools are made of three portions for each wrench, one piece being the boss which is to contain the hole or holes, and the other pieces being round str...
-Adjusting Surfaces By Hammering
One of the most interesting uses of the hammer is for stretching plates of metal. Blows applied upon the surface of a straight piece of metal will cause the side struck to rise up and become convex, a...
-Adjusting Surfaces By Hammering. Continued
Now, while the dog-head is used entirely for regulating the tension, it may also bo used for the same purposes as either the long cross-faced or the twist hammer, because the smith operates to equaliz...
-Bed-Lead Joints
In every case in which steam is used at a pressure exceeding that of the atmosphere, either as a motive power or a heating agent, it is necessary to make the machinery or piping connected therewith in...
-Rust Joints
Rust cement, known also as cast iron cement, and by other names, is used for caulking the joints of cast iron tanks, pipes, etc. It is composed of cast iron turnings, pounded so that they will pass ...
-Quick-Setting Cement
1 sal-ammoniac by weight; 2 flowers of sulphur; 80 iron borings. ...
-Slow-Setting Cement
2 sal-ammoniac; 1 flowers of sulphur; 200 iron borings. The latter cement being the best if the joint is not required for immediate use. In the absence of sal-ammoniac the urine of an animal may be s...
-Rivets
The dimensions of rivets and of the plates at the joint may be calculated by the same rules as for single bolts. If it is a joint subject to tension, as in Fig. 143 the effective strength of the joint...
-Soldering
Soldering is the art of forming joints between metallic surfaces by the application of molten alloys. ...
-Solders
Alloys employed for joining metals together are termed solders, and they are commonly divided into two classes: hard and soft solders. The former fuse only at a red heat, but soft solders fuse at co...
-Burning, Or Autogenous Soldering
The process of uniting two or more pieces of metal by partial fusion is called burning. This operation differs from the ordinary soldering, in the fact that the uniting or intermediate metal is the ...
-Burning, Or Autogenous Soldering. Continued
This method of lead-burning is considerably troublesome, and is rarely used, except when the lead is too thick to be melted conveniently by means of the blowpipe, or the oxyhydrogen flame. The latter ...
-Cold Soldering
Various nostrums have been proposed from time to time which profess to be reliable methods of soldering without heat; but when tried, they have generally proved useless. The following recipe, which is...
-Hard Soldering
Hard soldering is the art of soldering or uniting 2 metals or 2 pieces of the same metal together by means of solder that is almost as hard and infusible as the metals to be united. In some cases, the...
-Soft Soldering
Soft soldering is the art of soldering or uniting 2 of the fusible metals or 2 pieces of the same metal. The solder used is a more soft and fusible alloy than the metals united, and the mode of applyi...
-Soft Soldering. Continued
In soft soldering, the 6oldering-iron is only used for thin sheet metals, because, in order to unite 2 metals by soldering, their temperature must be raised to the melting-point of the solder, and a h...
-Generalities. (A) Apparatus. Blowpipes And Lamps
The blowpipe and an alcohol lamp are largely used in hard soldering, tempering small tools, and by chemists and mineralogists as an important means of analysis, etc, and for these uses the blowpipe ha...
-Blowers
When the work exceeds the capacity of the mouth blowpipe, or when it is too continuous to be done with the mouth alone, a mechanical blower must be used, and the selection of this to suit the work req...
-Supports
Work to be brazed needs to be supported on a bed of some refractory material. Often a fire-brick or piece of fire-lump is used for heavy work, or powdered pumice or charcoal for lighter work. A fire-b...
-Soldering Tools
Some of the tools incidental to soldering are illustrated above. Fig. 162 is a hornbeam dresser for flattening metal; Figs. 163, 164, bossing mallets; Figs. 165 1GG, copper bits; Figs. 167 to 170, so...
-Braziers' Hearth
In soldering or brazing large work of copper, silver, etc, an open fire is used, called the braziers' hearth. For large and long work, this hearth is made with a flate iron plate about 4 ft. by 3, whi...
-Heating The Iron
Fig. 175 shows a simple form of lamp for heating the soldering-iron : a is the casing; b, lamp and uptake; c, flame; d, baffle-plate; e, top of stove; f, tilt; g, wires; h, place for the bit. Make the...
-Soldering Techniques
(I) The soldering of 2 metallic surfaces together implies something more than mere mechanical union, and probably depends in some measure upon the formation of an alloy between the solder and the meta...
-Soldering Techniques. Part 2
(5) Soldering Zinc And Galvanized Iron Zinc may be soldered as readily as tin by using dilute hydrochloric acid (1/3 its bulk of rain-water added) as a flux instead of rosin and by taking care to kee...
-Soldering Techniques. Part 3
(9) Soldering Brass To Steel (a) Clean the surface of the steel, and with a fine brush coat the steel with a solution of copper sulphate. The iron reduces the copper to the metallic condition, in whi...
-(11) Soldering Iron And Steel
For large and heavy pieces of iron and steel, copper or brass is used. The surfaces to be united are first filed off, in order that they may be clean. Then they are bound together with steel, and upon...
-(12) Soldering Silver
The best solder for general purposes, to be employed in soldering silver, consists of 19 parts (by weight) silver, 10 of brass, and 1 of copper, carefully melted together, and well incorporated. To us...
-(13) Soldering Glass To Metal
This may be effected by first coating the glass with lead, as is sometimes done to give a bright reflecting surface. Small flat pieces of glass are painted over on one side with chalk or colcothar and...
-(20) Gas For Blowpipe Work
Fletcher, of Warrington, the well-known inventor of so many improved appliances for the employment of gas in the workshop, has published some interesting remarks on the use of the blowpipe. Where avai...
-(21) Blowpipe Brazing
For brazing, where powdered or grain spelter (a very fusible brass) is used, the borax is mixed as a powder with a spelter, usually with a little water, but sometimes the work to be brazed is made hot...
-Sheet-Metal Working
By the term sheet metals is meant those metals and alloys which are used in thin plates or sheets, such as brass, copper, lead, tin, zinc, tinned iron (tin plate), and thin sheet iron. The arts of m...
-Striking Out The Patterns
As the metal is procurable only in flat sheets of various dimensions and thicknesses, some knowledge of geometry is required to determine how the flat piece is to be marked and cut in order to produce...
-Relations Of Circles
The diameter of a circle is 0.31831 times the circumference; the circumference is 3.1416 times the diameter; the area (external surface) is the diameter multiplied by itself (squared) and by 0.7854; t...
-Cones
The solidity of a cone equals 1/3 the product of the area of the base multiplied by the perpendicular height; the convex surface equals half the product of the circumference of the base (diameter X 3....
-Cylindrical Tubes
The width of sheet required to form a cylinder is ascertained by multiplying the desired diameter of the cylinder by 3.1416; the diameter of a cylinder made from a sheet of known width will be the pro...
-Cutting Tools
Shears are made in several patterns, according to the stoutness and toughness of the material to be cut. Fig. 182 represents the common form termed platers' hand shears; Figs. 183, 184, are respective...
-Folding Tools
Fig. 192 is a folding or hatchet stake, which may be replaced by a strip of iron with a sharp edge, over which the margins of sheets are bent. Fig. 193 is a taper stake used for folding tubes of taper...
-Forming Tools
Fig. 203 is an iron or boxwood block recessed in the centre, by which cups or dishes of copper and tin maybe shaped in one piece. Fig. 204 is a fluting block, which is used on the same principle to ma...
-Working The Metals
There are 3 distinct ways of working sheet metal into objects of use or ornament, characterized by the manner of securing continuity of surface and absence of holes : these may be termed seamless, sol...
-Seamless Goods
Some metals, especially copper and block tin, lend themselves so well to hammering processes, and manifest such a tendency to assume various bent forms without either creasing or cracking, under the i...
-Seamed Goods
Seamed goods, whether to be soldered or riveted, may be described under one head, as they differ only in the manner of securing the seam. ...
-Pipes
These are among the simplest articles constructed out of sheet metal. The strip must be cut according to the directions already given for cylinders, allowing sufficient margin for the joint, whatever ...
-Cups
Cups differ from cylinders in the addition of a bottom and the necessity for strengthening the upper edge or rim. The sheet is set out as already described to form the upright or sloping sides, with a...
-Square Boxes
The sheets to form boxes and trays of rectangular shape may be cut in different ways, according to where it is admissible to have a soldered seam. Thus the bottom may be made separately from the sides...
-Riveting
This simple operation consists in punching holes in the overlapping sheet metal, inserting rivets of corresponding composition, and hammering out the ends to form second heads. A riveted joint can sel...
-Carpentry
The term carpentry is here employed in its widest sense, embracing what is more properly known as joinery. The former is strictly applied to the use of wood in architectural structures, as for ins...
-Woods
It will be well to begin with an enumeration of the woods used in carpentry - (other woods will be found described under the arts in which they are used, e. g. Carving) - leaving such matters as relat...
-Woods. Part 2
Alerse (Libocedrus Tetragona) This is a Chilian tree, affording a timber which is largely used on the S. Pacific coast of America, and an important article of commerce. It gives spars 80-90 ft. long,...
-Woods. Part 3
Beech [American] Two species of Fagus are common in N. America, - the white (F.sylvedris), and the red (F. ferruginea). The perfect wood of the former is frequently only 3 in. in a trunk 18 in. diam....
-Woods. Part 4
Broadleaf (Griselinia Littoralis) An erect and thickly branched bush tree, 50-60 ft. high; trunk 3-10 ft. diam. Wood splits freely, and is valuable for fencing and in shipbuilding; some portions make...
-Woods. Part 5
Cedar [Virginian Red] (Juniperus Virginiana) This small tree (45 to 50 ft. high and 8 to 18 in. in diameter) inhabits dry rocky hillsides in Canada, the United States, and W. Indies, 'and flourishes ...
-Woods. Part 6
Cypress Pine (Callitris Columellaris) Cypress pine (Callitris columellaris) is a plentiful tree in Queensland, attaining a diameter of 40 in. It is in great demand for piles and boat-sheathing, as it...
-Woods. Part 7
Greenheart Or Bibiri (Nectandra Rodioei [Leucantha]) This celebrated ship-building wood is a native of British Guiana, and has been largely exported from Demerara to English dockyards. It gives balks...
-Woods. Part 8
Hinau (Elaeocarpus Dentatus) A small tree, about 50 ft. high, and 18 in. thick in stem. Wood, a yellowish-brown colour and close grained, very durable for fencing and piles. Common throughout New Ze...
-Woods. Part 9
Ironwood [Cape] (Olea Undulata) This S. African wood, the tambooti or hooshe of the natives, is very heavy, fine-grained, and durable, and is used for waggon-axles, wheel-cogs, spokes, telegraph-pole...
-Woods. Part 10
Kanyin (Dipterocarpus Alatus) This magnificent tree is found chiefly in Pegu and the Straits, reaching 250 ft. high. Its wood is hard and close-grained, excellent for all house-building purposes, but...
-Woods. Part 11
Locust-Tree (Hyynenxa Cvurbaril) This tree is a native of S. America, and is found also in Jamaica. Its wood is hard and tough, and useful for house-building. Its weight is 42 lb. a cub. ft.; crushin...
-Woods. Part 12
Mingi-Mingi Or Yellowwood (Olearia Aviceuniaefolia) An ornamental shrub tree, trunk 2 ft. diam. Wood close-grained, with yellow markings, which render it desirable for cabinet-work; good for veneers....
-Woods. Part 13
Nan-Mu (Persea Nanmu) That portion of the Chinese province of Yunnan which lies between. 25 and 26 N. lat. produces the famous nan-mu tree, which is highly esteemed by the Chinese for build...
-Woods. Part 14
Plane (Flatanus Orientalis And P. Occidentalis) The first species inhabits the Levant and adjoining countries, growing 60-80 ft. high and up to 8 ft. diam. The wood is more figured than beech, and is...
-Woods. Part 15
Pukatea (Laurelia Novae-Zelandiae) Height, 150 ft., with buttressed trunk 3-7 ft. in diam.; the buttresses 15 ft. thick at the base; wood soft and yellowish, used for small boat planks. A variety of ...
-Woods. Part 16
Rohun (Soymida Febrifuga) This large forest tree of Central and S. India affords a close-grained, strong and durable wood, which stands well when underground or buried in masonry, but not so well whe...
-Woods. Part 17
Sissu Or Seesum (Dalbergia Sissu) This tree is met with in many parts of India, being said to attain its greatest size at Chanda. Its wood resembles the finest teak, but is tougher and more elastic. ...
-Woods. Part 18
Tamanu (Calophyllum Sp.) This valuable tree of the S. Sea Islands is becoming scarce. It sometimes reaches 200 ft. high and 20 ft. diam. Its timber is very useful for ship-building and ornamental pur...
-Woods. Part 19
Titoki(Alectryon Excelsum) A beautiful tree with trunk 15-20 ft. high and 12-20 in. diam. Wood has similar properties to ash, and is used for similar purposes. Its toughness makes it valuable for whe...
-Woods. Part 20
Tulip (Ilarpullia Pendula) Tulip (Ilarpullia pendula) grows in Queensland to a height of 50-60 ft., and yields planks 14-24 in. wide, of close-grained and beautifully marked wood, highly esteemed for...
-Woods. Part 21
Cape, Natal, And Transvaal Woods The timber trees of Cape Colony and Natal are chiefly evergreens. Their wood is dry and tough, and worked with more or less difficulty. Owing to the dryness of the so...
-Woods. Part 22
Ironwood (White) Ironwood (white), or Oomzimbiti: used for same purposes as black. Kafir Boom, Oomsinsi, Or Limsootsi Kafir boom, Oomsinsi, or Limsootsi weight, 38 lb.; wood, soft and light; the gr...
-Blackwood (Acacia Melanoxylon)
Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) is one of the most valuable Australian woods. It is extensively used in the construction of railway carriages, and is well adapted for light and heavy framing purposes, ...
-Box (Buzus Sempervirens)
The common evergreen box is a native of Europe as far as 52 N. lat., and is abundant in S. and E. France, Spain, Italy, the Black Sea coast, Persia, N. India, China, and Japan. For some years pas...
-Deal [White], White Fir, Or Norway Spruce (Abies Excelsa)
This tree inhabits the mountainous districts of Europe, and extends into N. Asia, being especially prevalent in Norway. It runs to 80-100 ft. high, and about 2-3 ft. max. diam. The tree requires 70-80...
-Elm (Ulmus Spp.)
Five species of elm are now grown in Britain: - The common rough-leaved (Z7. campestris) is frequent in scattered woods and hedges in S. England, and in France and Spain, attaining 70-80 ft. high, and...
-Larch [Common Or European] (Larix Europaea)
This species is a native of the Swiss and Italian Alps, Germany, and Siberia, but not of the Pyrenees nor of Spain. The Italian is most esteemed, and has been considerably planted in England. The tree...
-Mahogany (Swietenia Mahogani)
This tree is indigenous to the W. Indies and Central America. It is of comparatively rapid growth, reaching maturity in about 200 years, and the trunk exceeding 40-50 ft. long and 6-12 ft. diam. The w...
-Oak (Quercus Spp.)
The most common British oak is Q. pedunculata, found throughout Europe from Sweden to the Mediterranean, and in N. Africa and Asia. Its wood is tolerably straight and fine in the grain, and generally ...
-Pine [Northern], Or Red, Yellow, Scotch, Memel, Riga, Or Dantzic Fir (Pinus Sylvestris)
This tree forms with the spruce fir the great forests of Scandinavia and Russia, and attains considerable size in the highlands of Scotland. The logs shipped from Stettin reach 18-20 in. sq.; those fr...
-Pine. Part 2
Pine [Cluster], Or Pinaster (Pinus Pinaster) This pine inhabits the rocky mountains of Europe, and is cultivated in English plantations; it reaches 50-60 and even 70 ft. in height. It likes deep dry ...
-Pine. Part 3
Pine [Red, Norway, Or Yellow] (Pinus Rubra [Resinosa]) This tree grows on dry, stony soils in Canada, Nova Scotia, and the N. United States, reaching 60-70 ft. high, and 15-25 ft. diam. at 5 ft. abov...
-Pine [Weymouth Or White] (Pinus Strobus)
This tree inhabits the American continent between 43 and 47 N. lat., occupying almost all soils. The timber is exported in logs over 3 ft. sq. and 30 ft. long; it makes excellent masts; is l...
-Ceylon Woods
In the following list of Ceylon woods, the breaking-weight and the deflection before breaking are taken on a bar 24 in. long and 1 in. square; the absorptive power is calculated on a block measuring 1...
-Ceylon Woods. Part 2
Hal Mendora Hal Mendora weight, 56 lb.; durability, 8-20 years; uses, bridges and house buildings, lasts longer than the preceding for underground purposes. Hal Milila Hal Milila breaking-weight, 4...
-Ceylon Woods. Part 3
Mian Milila Mian Milila breaking-weight, 394 lb.; deflection, 1 in.; absorption, 8 oz.; weight, 561b.; durability, 20-90 years; logs average 16 ft. by 18 1/2 in.; uses, bridges, pade-boats, cart and ...
-English Woods
The spruce fir of Oxfordshire is used for scaffold-poles, common carpentry, etc.; the maple of the same county is valuable for ornamental work when knotted, it makes the best charcoal and turns well. ...
-Indian Woods
In the following descriptions of Indian woods, the weight denotes that of 1 cub. ft. of seasoned timber, elasticity is the coefficient of elasticity, cohesion is the constant of direct cohesion ...
-Indian Woods. Part 2
Ailantbus Excelsa Ailantbus excelsa wood is white, light, and not durable; used for scabbards, etc. Albizzia Elata Albizzia elata weight, 42-55 lb.; used by the Burmese for bridges and house-posts...
-Indian Woods. Part 3
Bassia Longifolia Bassia longifolia weight, 60 lb.; elasticity, 3174; cohesion, 15,070 lb.; strength, 730 lb.; is used for spars in Malabar, and considered nearly equal to teak, though smaller. Bau...
-Indian Woods. Part 4
Cassalpinia Sappan Cassalpinia Sappan weight, 60 lb.; elasticity, 4790; cohesion, 22,578 lb.; strength, 15401b.; admirably adapted for ornamental work, being of a beautiful flame colour, with a sm...
-Indian Woods. Part 5
Conocarpus Latifolius Conocarpus latifolius weight, 65 lb.; elasticity, 5033; cohesion, 21,155 lb.; strength, 1220 lb.; furnishes a hard, durable, chocolate-coloured wood, very strong in sustaining ...
-Indian Woods. Part 6
Emblica Officinalis Emblica officinalis weight, 46 lb.; elasticity, 2270; cohesion, 16,964 lb.; strength. 562 lb.; furnishing a hard and durable wood, used for gun-stocks, furniture, boxes, and vene...
-Indian Woods. Part 7
Hopea Odorata Hopea odorata weight, 45-58 lb.; elasticity, 3GG0; cohesion, 22,2091b.; strength, 706-800 lb.; one of the finest timber trees of British Burma, sometimes reaching 80 ft. in height to t...
-Indian Woods. Part 8
Mimusops Hexandra Mimusops hexandra weight, 70 lb.; elasticity, 3948; cohesion, 19,0361b.; strength, 944 lb.; furnishes wood very similar to the last named; used for similar purposes, and for instru...
-Indian Woods. Part 9
Pterocarpus Dalbergioides Pterocarpus dalbergioides weight, 49-56 lb.; elasticity, 4180; cohesion, 19,036 lb.; strength, 864-934 lb.; furnishes a red, mahogany-like timber, prized by the natives abov...
-Indian Woods. Part 10
Sonneratia Apetala Sonneratia apetala yields a strong, hard, red wood of coarse grain, used in Calcutta for packing-cases for beer and wine, and is also adapted for rough house-building purposes. So...
-Indian Woods. Part 11
Terminalia Glabra Terminalia glabra weight 55 lb.; elasticity, 3905; cohesion, 20,085 lb.; strength, 840 lb.; furnishing a very hard, durable, strong, close and even-grained wood, of a dark-brown col...
-New Zealand Woods
The dimensions of the specimens described in the following table were 12 in. long, and 1 in. sq. Name. Specific Gravity. Weight of 1 Cub. Ft. Greatest Weight Carried with Unim...
-Queensland Woods
Among the principal are the following: - Acacia Pendula (Weeping Myall) Acacia pendula (Weeping Myall) 6-12 in. diain.; 20-30 ft. high; wood is hard, possessing a close texture, and a rich dark colo...
-Straits Settlements Woods
The specimens experimented on measured 3 ft. by 1 1/2 ft. by 11/2 ft. Name of Wood. Average weight per cub. ft. Deflection in in. Weight producing deflection in 11). Breakin...
-Tasmanian Woods
Ironwood, Tasmanian (Noteloea Ligustrina) Ironwood, Tasmanian (Noteloea ligustrina) exceedingly hard, close-grained wood, used for mallets, sheaves of blocks, turnery, etc.; diam., 9-18 in.; height, ...
-West Indian Woods
Crabwood is mostly used for picture-frames and small ornamented cabinet-work, etc. It seldom grows larger than 3-4 in. in diam., and is a rather hard, fine, cross-grained, moderately heavy wood. The h...
-Growth Of Wood
This may be sufficiently explained in a few words. A cross section of an exogenous ( outward growing ) tree, which class includes all timbers used in construction, shows it to be made up of several ...
-Felling
While the tree is growing, the heartwood is the strongest; but after the growth has stopped, the heart is the first part to decay. It is important, therefore, that the tree should be felled at the rig...
-Timber Features
These depend greatly upon the treatment of the tree, the time of felling it, and the nature of the soil in which it has grown. Good timber should be from the heart of a sound tree, the sapwood being e...
-Timber Defects
The principal natural defects in timber, caused by vicissitudes of climate, soil, etc, are: - Heartshakes: splits or clefts in the centre of the tree; common in nearly every kind of timber; in some ...
-Timber Classification
Timber is generally divided into 2 classes, called pine woods and hard woods. The chief practical bearings of this classification are as follows: - Pine wood (coniferous timber) in most cases co...
-Timber Market Forms
The chief forms into which timber is converted for the market are as follows: - A log is the trunk of a tree with the branches lopped off; a balk is obtained by roughly squaring the log. Fir timbe...
-Timber Seasoning
The object of seasoning timber is to expel or dry up the sap remaining in it, which otherwise putrefies and causes decay. One effect is to reduce the weight. Tredgold calls timber seasoned when it h...
-Timber Decay
To preserve wood from decay it should be kept constantly dry and well ventilated; clear of the influence of damp earth or damp walls, and free from contact with mortar, which hastens decomposition. Wo...
-Timber Preservation
The best means for preserving timber from decay are to have it thoroughly seasoned and well ventilated. Painting preserves it if the wood is thoroughly seasoned before the paint is applied; otherwise,...
-Timber Conversion; Shrinkage
By the term conversion is understood the cutting up of the log or balk timber to dimensions suitable for use, allowance being made for alterations in form due to atmospheric influence, even on well-...
-Wood Composition
The composition of wood is shown in the following table : - Carbon. Hydrogen. Oxygen. Nitrogen. Ash. per cent. per cent. per cent. per cent. ...
-Wood Suitability
The properties which render a wood most suitable for one class of purposes may preclude its use in another class. It is therefore useful to have a general idea of the relative order of merit of woods ...
-Timber Measuring
Following Are Useful Rules For The Measurement Of Timber: - Standing Timber In measuring standing limber, the length is taken as high as the tree will measure 24 in. in circumference. At half this he...
-Unsquared Timber
In order to ascertain the contents, multiply the square of the quarter girth, or of 1/4 of the mean circumference, by the length. When the buyer is not allowed his choice of girth in taper trees, he m...
-Timber Prices
In London, a different system of charging sawing of deals is adopted to that in the provinces, viz. cuts are charged so much per dozen, the price varying with the length; lipping being called flat-cut...
-Carpenters' Tools
Carpenters' tools may conveniently be divided into 7 classes, as follows: - (1) Guiding tools - rules, lines, squares; (2) Holding tools - pincers, vice; (3) Rasping tools - saws, files; (4) Edge tool...
-Guiding Tools
These comprise the chalk line, rule, straight-edge, square, spirit level, A-level, plumb level, gauges, bevel, mitre-box, callipers and compasses, trammel, and a few modern contrivances combining two ...
-Chalk Line
The chalk line is used as shown in Fig. 242 for the purpose of marking where cuts have to be made in wood. It consists of several yards of cord wound on a wooden reel, and well rubbed with a piece of ...
-Mule
The foot rule consists of a thin narrow strip of metal, hard wood, or ivory, generally 2 ft. long, graduated on both sides into inches and fractions of an inch (halves, 4ths, 8ths, 12ths, 16ths, 32ndt...
-Straight-Edge
The nature of this tool is expressed in its name. It consists of a long (5 or 6 ft.) strip of well-seasoned wood or of bright hardened steel (nickel-plated if preferred), several inches wide, having a...
-Squares
The use of these instruments is for marking out work at right angles. The most usual forms are illustrated below. Fig. 244 is a common brass-mounted square; Fig. 245 a mitre square. It consists genera...
-Spirit Level
The spirit level consists of a glass tube partially filled with spirit, encased in a framework made of hard wood and protected by metallic facing on the most important sides. The quantity of spirit pl...
-Plumb Level
This consists of a straight-edge to which is attached a cord having a weight suspended from the end, as shown in Fig. 251. The top end a of the straightedge has 3 saw-cuts made in it, one being exactl...
-Gauges
There are 3 kinds of gauge used in carpentry, known respectively as the marking, the cutting, and the mortice gauge. They are outlined in the annexed illustrations. Fig. 252 is a cutting gauge h...
-Bevels
These differ from squares, in that they are destined for marking lines at angles to the first side of the work, but not at right angles. Examples are shown in the annexed illustrations. Fig. 256 is an...
-Mitre-Box
The mitre-box is an arrangement for guiding a saw-cut at an angle of 45 exactly, or half the dimensions of a right angle. It is mostly required for cutting mouldings, where the end of one piece o...
-Compasses And Callipers
These implements are used for taking inside and outside dimensions where a rule cannot be employed, and for striking out circular figures. Ordinary forms are shown in the annexed diagrams. Fig. 262 is...
-Trammel
This is employed for drawing elliptic or oval curves, and is represented in Fig. 267. It can be purchased with varying degrees of finish, or may be home made in the following manner: - Two strips of d...
-Shooting-Board
This implement, Fig. 268, is for the purpose of securing a true surface and straight edge on wood when planing. It is generally made by fastening one board on another in such a way as to form a step b...
-Bell Centre Punch
This handy little device enables any mechanic instantaneously to centre any round, square, oval, triangular, hexagonal, or octagonal article for the purpose of drilling or turning. In use the punch is...
-Combinations
Combination tools are essentially American novelties, and those described here may all be obtained of Churchills, Finsbury. Starrett's calliper-square is shown in Fig. 270; the jaws are hardened, and...
-Holding-Tools
These are chiefly represented by pincers, vices, and clamps. ...
-Pincers
This well-known tool is shown in Fig. 274. It is made in various sizes and qualities, the most generally useful being the 5-in. and 8-in. sizes, costing about 3d. per in. ...
-Vices
The old-fashioned form of hand-vice is shown in Fig. 275; in size and price it ranges from 3-in. and 2s. to 6-in. and 6s. Steer's patent hand-vice, as sold by Melhuish, Fetter Lane, is represented in ...
-Clamps
The ordinary carpenter's clamp (or cramp), shown in Fig. 287, is employed for tightening up the joints of boards, whether for the purpose of nailing or to allow time for glue to harden. It is composed...
-Rasping Tools
These comprise the various forms of saw as well as files and rasps. ...
-Saws
The saw is a tool for cutting and dividing substances, chiefly wood, and consisting of a thin plate or blade of steel with a series of sharp teeth on one edge, which remove successive portions of the ...
-Saws. Part 2
For the purpose of separating a bundle of fibres, the edge cannot be the edge with which we are familiar in axes and chisels. Such an edge drawn across will cut fibres on a surface only; this is ins...
-Saws. Part 3
The depth, or rather length, of the cutting face may be decreased, and the number of teeth increased, for the fibres to be cut cannot be more vertically than can be contained between 2 teeth. The oper...
-Saws. Part 4
A few words upon the handles of single-handed saws. Whatever may be the other conditions required in handles, the large majority of saw-handles have the curved hooked projections a and b, Fig. 299; th...
-Saws. Part 5
Any exhaustive attempt to deal with the considerations which present themselves to one who enters upon the question, what under all the varying conditions of the problems should be the form and set of...
-Saws. Part 6
The chief facts to be borne in mind in selecting a saw with the teeth best suited to the work in hand are the nature and condition of the wood to be operated on. No fixed rule can, however, be laid do...
-Saw Qualities
Hodgson made a number of experiments on saws to test their qualities and capabilities; and after using them in various ways, fairly and unfairly, he arrived at the following conclusions : - (1) That ...
-Selecting Saws
The following valuable suggestions on the purchasing of saws are given by Disston, the well-known saw-maker of Philadelphia. The first point to be observed in the selection of a hand-saw is to see tha...
-Using Saws
The first thing to be considered is the position of the stuff while being operated upon. Board or plank should be laid on one or more saw-horses a in either a sloping or flat position, the saw being h...
-Filing And Setting Saws
These subjects have been so ably discussed in such works as Grimshaw on 'Saw Filing'; Holly on the 'Art of Saw Filing'; and Hodgson on ' Hand Saws,' that it is difficult to attack them without in some...
-Filing And Setting Saws. Part 2
Both hand filing and machine filing have their advocates. The former is generally more convenient, and may be rendered sufficiently regular by means of guides. The latter gives greater speed and regul...
-Filing And Setting Saws. Part 3
In order to get the correct pitch of the tooth, the loose bushing, through which the file carrier passes, must be perfectly free, and by pressing the file down between the teeth, you have the pitch. T...
-Filing And Setting Saws. Part 4
Many appliances for bending and spreading teeth are described in Grimshaw's large work on ' Saws.' The crotch-punch of ordinary form is shown in Fig. 315. It is made of steel and case-hardened in the ...
-Filing And Setting Saws. Part 5
The order followed in renovating the cutting edge of a saw should be (1) gumming, (2) setting, (3) filing; but as the last named is often the only kind of attention the saw receives, it has been descr...
-Filing And Setting Saws. Part 6
When a saw is not round, the defect may be corrected by adopting the following directions: Take a piece of grindstone or a cobblestone and hold it against the points of the teeth while the saw is revo...
-Filing And Setting Saws. Part 7
The speed of sawing, or the cost of sawing, which is much the same thing as the movement of the teeth, is with the band-saw almost unlimited. Its performance, contrasted with jig-saws for cutting pla...
-Files. Principles
A file is a steel instrument having the surface covered with sharp-edged furrows or teeth, used for abrading or smoothing substances, chiefly wood and metals. A file proper differs from a rasp, in hav...
-Sharpening
Until recently this was done by recutting the grooves in machines devoted to that class of work, but lately the sand blast has been most successfully applied to the purpose. The operator holds the fil...
-Edge-Tools
This section comprises chisels and gouges, planes, and miscellaneous smoothing tools (e. g. spokeshaves), as well as the means adopted for keeping up a keen cutting edge (grindstones, oilstones). ...
-Chisels And Gouges. Principles
The chisel in its simplest form constitutes a slice of an axe, but as the impact is not from the motion of the chisel, but from that of a swung mallet or hammer, the eye of the axe is replaced by a co...
-How to Use Chisels And Gouges
Forms Forms of chisels and gouges are shown in the annexed illustrations. The difference between a chisel and a gouge is that the former has a straight cutting edge while the latter is more or less c...
-Spokeshaves
The drawing-knife, Fig. 352, is practically a 2-handed chisel, which can only he used by drawing it towards the operator. Beyond its greater effective surface it is no improvement upon the chisel. A d...
-Planes
Principles The plane, in its simplest form, consists of a chisel inserted at an angle into a box, generally of wood, and with the cutting edge projecting through the bottom of the box. If the actions...
-Plane Forms
After the wood has passed from the sawyer into the hands of the carpenter, the surface undergoes those operations which render it true and smooth These 3 planes do this work. The jack, usually about...
-Adjusting Planes
Reference has already been made (p. 235) to the second iron introduced into the plane for the purpose of curling up and breaking off the shaving produced by the cutter. The arrangement of the 2 irons ...
-Using Planes
Wood to be planed should be laid quite flat on the bench, and tight against a stop to prevent its moving. The planing must always follow the direction of the grain of the wood, and never meet it o...
-Grindstones
The sharpening of the cutting edges of planes and chisels is performed primarily on a grindstone or its equivalent an emery grinder, and secondarily on an oilstone. The implement known as a grindston...
-Oilstones
These are of several kinds, the best known being the Charnley Forest,. Turkey, Arkansas, and Washita brands. They are sold in pieces of convenient size at about Is. 6d. to 2s. a lb., and smaller slips...
-Miscellaneous Plane Forms
Circular Plane All the forms of plane hitherto considered have been provided with a guide principle which shall repeat a straight level surface. The guide may, however, be the counterpart of any requ...
-Mitre-Plane
The Rogers mitre-plane, Fig. 371, is made entirely of iron, and is arranged for planing any desired angle on straight or curved work. The main bed-piece is semicircular in form, with a way or frame at...
-Combination Filisters
Miller's combination, Fig. 372, embraces the common carpenters' plough, an adjustable filletster, and a perfect matching-plane. The entire assortment can be kept in smaller space, or made more portabl...
-Boring Tools
These comprise awls, gimlets, augers, bits and braces, and drills. ...
-Auls
The simplest form of boring tool is the awl or bradawl as it is more generally called, Fig. 374. It consists of a piece of small steel rod, with one end fastened in a wooden handle, and the other doub...
-Gimlets
The gimlet is an offspring of the awl, and of more recent origin. The gimlet of the Greeks had the cross-head or handle of the style now prevalent. It also had possibly a hollow pod, as the earliest s...
-Augers
These are only magnified gimlets for use with both hands. They are represented in Fig. 3S0, a being the twisted, and b the shell form. A wooden bar is thrust through the eye c, and the hands excha...
-Bits And Braces
The faults inherent in all forms of awl, gimlet, and auger are that the rotation is necessarily interrupted to enable the position of the hand or hands to be changed, and that the pressure exercised o...
-Drills
This is another method of securing more rapid and continuous rotation of the tool. A quick-speed hand-drill sold by Churchills, Finsbury, for 7s. 6cl. is shown in Fig. 397. It has a continuous revolvi...
-Miscellaneous
Several improved tools of recent introduction scarcely fall under any of the foregoing classes. They are as follows : - ...
-Angular Bit Stock
This very useful adjunct to the brace and bits is shown in Fig. 399. Its object is to alter the direction of the pressure in boring (so as to permit boring in a corner), for which purpose it is placed...
-Wheeler's Countersink
The bit of this countersink, Fig. 400, is in the shape of a hollow eccentric cone, thus scouring a cutting edge of uniform draft from the point to the base of the tool, and obviating the tendency of s...
-Expansion Bit
Clark's expansion bit, Fig. 401, is designed to cut holes of varying size by means of a shifting cutter. It is made in 2 sizes, one ranging from 1/2 in. to 1 1/2 in., and costing 7s. 6c?., and the oth...
-Boring Machine
Fig. 402 represents a plain and an angular boring machine, adapted for heavy work, costing respectively 22s. and 30s. without augers; a set of augers to match, 1/2 in., 5/8 in., 3/4 in., 7/8in., 1 in....
-Striking Tools. Hammers
Hammers, with and without handles, are in use; hammers of various weights from 1/2 oz. to 10 lb., and from 15 lb. to 56 lb., are now employed as hand-hammers. The angles of attachment of handles to he...
-Mallets
In these tools the steel head is replaced by a wooden one. Fig. 405 shows the usual square form; there is also a round form. The former ranges from 6 in. long and 2 1/2 in. by 3 1/2 in. wide, costing ...
-Chopping Tools
These comprise axes, hatchets, and adzes. They consist of a combination of a striking tool with a cutting tool, the cutting edge being of stronger form than those described in a previous section (p. 2...
-Axes And Hatchets
Principles. Axes are tools to be used with both hands; they have long handles, and may be swung as sledge hammers. Hatchets are to be used with one hand, have short handles, are much lighter and thinn...
-Form Of Handle
The form of the axe handle deserves notice, differing as it does from that of the sledge hammer. In the latter, it is round or nearly so; in the axe, it is oval, the narrow end of the oval being on th...
-Form Of Cutting Edge
The form of the cutting edge as seen in the side of the axe is often convex. The line across the face in Fig. 417 indicates the extent of the steel, and the corresponding line in Fig. 407 the bevel of...
-Adzes
Those whose business requires the forming of lengths of wood into curved shapes, and who rely upon the adze for the preliminary operation, use an Indian form of adze. In India it is held so near the m...
-Curvature
Clearly the adze must be sharpened from the inside; and when the action of it is considered, it is also clear that the curvature of the adze iron must be circular, or nearly so. The true curvature of ...
-Carpentery Accessories
The principal accessories to a carpenters' workshop are a bench, nails and screws, and a few trifles which could not be conveniently placed in the preceding categories. ...
-Bench
The essential qualities of a carpenters' bench are that it shall be very strong and firm to resist the sawing, planing, and other operations performed on it; also that the surface shall be level and e...
-Bench-Stops
These necessary adjuncts to the bench consist of an arrangement capable of projecting above the surface of the bench to hold pieces of wood against during the operation of planing. One of the simplest...
-Sawing-Rest
Fig. 439 represents a handy article for holding a piece of wood on the bench while using the tenon-saw. It consists of a strip of hard wood about 9 in. long, 4 in. wide, and 1 in. thick, cut with bloc...
-Bench-Vices
Various forms of independent vice have already been described (p. 193). Those now to be mentioned differ in that they are either attached to, or form part of, the bench, and are for the most part of w...
-Nails
These are of various shapes and sizes, and are made of wrought, cast, and malleable iron. Fig. 445 illustrates many kinds in general use: a, joiners' cut brad, varying in size from 1/4 in. to 2 in. ...
-Nail-Punch
This is simply a piece of tapering steel, used with a hammer for driving the heads of nails below the surface of the wood they are in. Some 3 or 4 sizes are needed to suit the various nails. The punch...
-Nail-Pullers
Fig. 447 shows a handy little tack-wrench for drawing small nails out of wood. A more complicated implement is the Victor nail-puller, which is said to remove nails without injuring either them or t...
-Screws
These are made in many sizes and degrees of stoutness, and of both brass and iron. In Fig. 448, a is the ordinary gimlet pointed wood screw; b is the Nettlefold, with a stronger kind of thread ; c, ...
-Screw-Driver
Screws are driven into wood (in holes previously made by a bradawl or gimlet one size smaller) by means of a screw-driver or turnscrew, shown in Fig. 449. This tool consists of a steel blade tapering ...
-Hints On The Care Of Tools
The following hints on the best means of keeping tools in good condition cannot fail to be useful: - ...
-Wooden Parts
The wooden parts of tools, such as the stocks of planes and handles of chisels, are often made to have a nice appearance by French polishing; but this adds nothing to their durability. A much better p...
-Iron Parts. Rust Preventives
The following recipes are recommended for preventing rust on iron and steel surfaces: - (1) Caoutchouc-oil is said to have proved efficient in preventing rust, and to have been adopted by the German ...
-Rust Removers
(1) Cover the metal with sweet oil well rubbed in, and allow to stand for 48 hours; smear with oil applied freely with a feather or piece of cotton wool, after rubbing the steel. Then rub with unslake...
-Construction
This section of the art of carpentry may be conveniently dealt with in 2 divisions, the first containing a description of the multifarious forms of joint which underlie all kinds of construction in wo...
-Joints
The following remarks are principally drawn from an excellent paper on Joints in Woodwork, read before the Civil and Mechanical Engineers' Society by Henry Adams, and embracing nearly all that need...
-Definition Of Carpentry And Joinery
The use of wood may be discussed under the 2 heads of carpentry and joinery: the former consists principally in using large timbers, rough, adzed, or sawn; the latter employs smaller pieces, always sa...
-Principles Of Joints
In all cases the proper connection of the parts is an essential element, and in designing or executing joints and fastenings in woodwork, the following principles, laid down by Professor Rankine, shou...
-Equal Bearing
To ensure a fair and equal bearing in a joint which is not quite true, it is usual, after the pieces are put together, to run a saw-cut between each bearing surface or abutment; the kerf or width of c...
-Close Jointing
When the visible junction of 2 pieces is required to be as close as possible and no great strain has to be met at the joint, it is usual to slightly undercut the parts, and give clearance on the insid...
-Strains
The various strains that can come upon any member of a structure are - (1) Tension : stretching or pulling; (2) Compression : crushing or pushing; (3) Transverse strain: cross strain or bending; (4) T...
-Classification Of Joints
(1) Joints for lengthening ties, struts, and beams; lapping, fishing, scarfing, tabling, building-up; (2) Bearing-joints for beams : halving, notching, cogging, dovetailing, tusk-tenoning, housing, ch...
-Classification Of Fastenings
(1) wedges; (2) keys; (3) pins : wood pins, nails, spikes, treenails, screws, bolts; (4) straps; (5) sockets; (6) glue. ...
-Lengthening Joints
One of the first requirements in the use of timber for constructive purposes is the connection of 2 or more beams to obtain a greater length. Fig. 453 shows the method of lengthening a beam by lapping...
-Strengthening
In building-up beams to obtain increased strength, the most usual method is to lay 2 beams together sideways for short spans, as in the lintels over doors and windows; or to cut one down the middle, a...
-Bearing Joints
In a consideration of bearing joints for beams, the term beam is taken to include all pieces which carry or receive a load across the grain. The simplest of these is the halving joint, shown at Fig....
-Post And Beam Joints
The most common joint between posts and beams is the tenon and mortice joint, either wedged or fixed by a pin; the former arrangement is shown in Fig. 488, and the latter in Fig. 489. The friction of ...
-Strut Joints
A strut meeting a tie, as in the case of the foot of a principal rafter in a roof truss, is generally tenoned into the tie by an oblique tenon, as shown in Fig. 499; and the joint is further strengthe...
-Miscellaneous Joints
Among the miscellaneous joints in carpentry not previously mentioned, the most common are the butt-joint, Fig. 503, where the pieces meet each other with square ends or sides; the mitre-joint, Fig. 50...
-Fastenings
With regard to fastenings, the figures already given show several applications. Wedges should be split or torn from the log, so that the grain may be continuous; or if sawn out, a straight-grained pie...
-Keying
This is a useful joint for uniting pieces of wood at right angles, as in the sides of a box, where much strength is not needed. Each end is mitred off and the bevels are then joined by glue. When the ...
-Corner-Piecing
This is another weak joint, only admissible in the lightest work. The bevelled ends of the side pieces (of a box, for instance) are glued together as for keying, and then a triangular piece is glued i...
-Mortising And Tenoning
This joint is so important and so constantly employed in one modification or another in almost all branches of carpentry and joinery that it deserves special description at some length. The gauge used...
-Half-Lap Joint
This is an every-day joint, and apparently one of the simplest, yet it is very often badly made. Each of the pieces has 3 surfaces in contact, viz. the broad face a of Fig. 514, the side d, the front ...
-Dovetailing
This forms a secure and strong joint, but needs great care in marking out and cutting the work. The dovetails should not have too sharp angles, or they will be liable to be broken off. The fit may be ...
-Blind Dovetails
These are so named when the pins or dovetails, or both, are hidden from view in the finished article. One plan, in which the joint is seen at the side only, is shown in Fig. 515. The wood a forming th...
-Mechanical Aids In Dovetailing
To an amateur, dovetailing is no easy matter, when beauty and strength of joint are aimed at. The pins are less difficult to make than the dovetails, but they must be truly vertical. The real trouble ...
-Dowelling
The dowels, which are tapering cylindrical pegs of tough wood, prepared beforehand, and kept dry, should be placed 3-12 in. apart in holes prepared for them by the centre-bit, all of uniform depth (...
-Joining Thin Woods
For mating joints in 1/4-in. to 1/2-in. stuff, the material is cut to size, trimmed clean, and arranged in sets, with the joints numbered. The edges are planed off with a sharp trying-plane on a shoot...
-Glueing
For an account of glue, its qualities, characters, etc., the reader is referred to ' Workshop Receipts,' second series, pp. 78-84, in which full details are given for soaking, boiling, and otherwise p...
-Hinging
Hinging is the art of connecting two pieces of metal, wood, or other material together, such as a door to its frame; the connecting ligaments that allow one or other of the attached substances to revo...
-Examples Of Construction
In giving a selection of examples illustrative of the construction of articles in which wood forms the chief if not only material employed, it will be convenient to adopt some sort of classification. ...
-Workshop Appliances
The principal workshop appliances which can be made by the mechanic or amateur for his own use are the tool-chest, carpenters' bench, and grindstone mount. ...
-Tool-Chest
The most common way of arranging a tool-chest is in the form of a box, i. e. with the cover opening at top. This has one great disadvantage as compared with what may be called the cupboard arrangement...
-Carpenters' Bench
Several forms of bench which can be purchased ready made have been already described (pp. 257-9); but a home-made bench is much less expensive and affords good practice in joinery, accurate work being...
-Grindstone Mount
As already stated (p. 240), grindstones may be bought ready mounted; but while the stone and its iron handle, friction rollers, and other metallic accessories had best be obtained in a complete form f...
-Rough Furniture
Perhaps the term furniture is hardly appropriate here in its commonly accepted sense. Furniture proper will come under Cabinet-making and Upholstery; but there are some few articles that admit of be...
-Steps
These are shown in Fig. 570. The sides (2) a may be 2 1/2-6 ft. long (high), 5 in. wide, and 1 in. thick; their top and bottom ends are bevelled, so that the finished article shall stand in a slanting...
-Ladders
The simplest form of ladder, and suited only to lengths of 12 ft. and under, consists of 2 pieces of good red deal, about 2 in. by 3 in., placed side by side some 14 in. apart, and joined by cross pie...
-Cask-Cradle
This is simply a stout frame on 4 legs 9-12 in. high, made of quartering which may vary from 2 in. sq. for small casks to 3 in. sq. for larger ones. The proportions given in the annexed illustration (...
-Tables
To begin with a simple example and one where but little finish is necessary, recourse may be had to a kitchen table described by Cabe in Amateur Mechanics. The table and its parts are shown in Figs. 5...
-Tables. Part 2
Now the ends are ready to cramp together. Cut a little off the corner of each tenon, and see that they enter their respective mortices before glueing. The glue should be thin, and while one heats the ...
-Tables. Part 3
Draw again along the upper edge inside, and plane down to this mark. These fronts should fit tight, and at present it is sufficient if they just enter. Cut out 4 sides of 5/8-in. wood, dress and squar...
-Tables. Part 4
The table frame is cleaned off with the hand plane in all parts, the tops of the back legs are cut off, and the upper edges of rails planed, to receive the top. The frame is 3 ft. long by 1 ft. 8 in. ...
-Seats
Seats are of miscellaneous kinds, ranging from rustic garden chairs to iron benches and the most elegant specimens of artistic furniture. Here attention will be confined to simple forms. ...
-Box Stool
The box stool or ottoman consists of a box without a bottom and with a stuffed lid, supported on knob feet. One is shown in Fig. 587. The box a is formed of 4 pieces of wood, 12-15 in. long, and 3 in....
-3-Legged Stool
This is simplicity itself. The top or seat proper consists of a circular slab of wood 1 1/2 in. thick having 3 1-in. holes bored through it at equidistant intervals about l 1/2 in. from the edge. Into...
-Construction Of Chairs
A short description may bo given here of the general principles underlying the construction of chairs, with some illustrated examples of the commoner and rougher kinds, showing how they are made and r...
-Washstand
A rough handy washatand of simple design is shown in Fig. 589. The legs a, of 2-in. or 2 1/2-in. wood, are shown square, but may of course be rounded at the corners by a plane, or completely turned in...
-Bedstead
A simple yet comfortable trestle bedstead is shown in Fig. 590, which is an end view looking at the head. The frame consists in the main of 2 lengths of deal a, about 3 in. by 2 1/2 in., planed off to...
-Chest Of Drawers
This article of furniture may be divided into 3 parts - the case or frame, the cross pieces or partitions, and the drawers. A rough form is illustrated in Fig. 592. The sides a and bottom b of the cas...
-Dresser
A useful form of kitchen dresser, removable at pleasure, is shown in Fig. 593. It is constructed out of best clean yellow pine, French polished. The ends are formed by 2 gables a, 5 ft. 2 in. high, 20...
-Garden And Yard Accessories
This section is intended to include such articles of every-day use as wheelbarrows, coops, hutches, kennels, hives, flower-stands, and garden frames, as well as such elementary examples of rough build...
-Wheelbarrow
For ordinary work, good sound deal board 3/4 in. thick is quite durable enough for the body of the barrow; elm lasts much longer under rough wear, but is much more costly and difficult to work. The di...
-Poultry And Pigeon Houses
A useful size for a hencoop (Fig. 594) to place against a wall is about 4 ft. long, 2 ft. wide, 2 1/2 ft. high in front, and 3 1/4 ft. at the back. The framework will consist of 6 uprights o, a bottom...
-Poultry And Pigeon Houses. Part 2
The following description of a combined poultry and pigeon house is condensed from an interesting communication made to Amateur Work. The ground at disposal measures 22 ft. by 8 ft., with walls on 3 s...
-Poultry And Pigeon Houses. Part 3
Figs. 602 to 605 represent the 4 sides of the house. The rear (Fig. 602) is boarded up from top to bottom with the exception of 2 widths of match-lining 4 ft. from the ground, which are battened toget...
-Poultry And Pigeon Houses. Part 4
In the whole interior is but one permanent partition - that is, there is a single part only which is nailed, all the other portions being removable at pleasure. The exception is the boarding which div...
-Poultry And Pigeon Houses. Part 5
The fowls enter the house from the yards by the side doorway already described, which they reach by means of a ladder made of a plank, with half a dozen steps of beading 4 or 5 in. apart. If a staple ...
-Poultry And Pigeon Houses. Part 6
For the sake of economy, it is best to employ match-lining on the other parts of the house, using say 3 lengths of 16 ft. each at Id. per ft. run. Match-lining should be nailed round 3 sides of tier a...
-Hive
The construction of a good bar-frame hive at a low cost out of an old tea-chest is thus described by A. Watkins. Materials A full-sized or Indian tea-chest, another packing-case, at least 6 in. long...
-Frames
These are to be made first. If your pine board is not already cut up into 7/8-in. strips, you must do so by means of a cutting gauge (not a marking-gauge). Set the cutting knife 7/8 in. from the movab...
-Frame Block
A piece of board, thickness not important, is cut off 17 in. long, and 8 1/2 in. deep; 2 strips (a, Fig. 615), 1 in. square, and 8 1/8in. long, are nailed across the ends exactly square, and with a sp...
-Division Board
This hangs in the hive in the same manner as the frames d, Fig. 616. A piece of 1/2-in. board is cut 14i in. long, and 8 1/2 in. wide; a top bar 15 1/2 in. long nailed to the top edge, and 2 1-in. str...
-Distance Guides For Frames
Advanced bee-keepers often dispense with these, but they are useful to a beginner. The flat-headed shoenails are driven into each side of the top bar (4 to each frame), 1 1/2 in. from each end; the di...
-Body Of Hive
The stand and flight board a b, Fig. 616, should be made first; they are fixtures to the hive; 2 pieces of board, 4 in. wide and as thick as convenient (not less than 1 in.), are cut with one end slan...
-Super Case
Sectional supers are used by most advanced bee-keepers; they can be bought much cheaper and better than they can be made, and as the most used (and probably the best) size is 4 1/2 in. sq. holding whe...
-Roof
This is the most unsatisfactory part of a large hive like this to make. The chief fault is that it is heavy and cumbersome to lift off. A good carpenter, with new boards to work on, would do better to...
-Forcing-Frames
The construction of the wooden portion of forcing-frames is illustrated in Fig. 617, and described below; the fixing of the glass portion will be found under Glazing. A convenient length for the frame...
-Greenlwuses
Fig. 618 illustrates the construction of a greenhouse with a span roof 20 ft. wide, as recommended by E. Luckhurst in the Journal of Horticulture. Following are the details: - ...
-The Roof
This is only 5 ft. high at the eaves, and 10 ft. at the apex. It consists simply of fixed rafters mortised into a ridge-board at top, and an eave-board at bottom. The width of the ridge-board a d...
-The Sides
Here the sashbars are similar to those in the roof, the only difference being in the large size, which, as they help to support the roof, are 3 in. by 3. They are mortised into the wall-plate n, which...
-Summer-House
The following remarks are intended only to describe the materials adapted for building summer-houses and the manner of putting them together. For designs, the reader must exercise his own taste, or he...
-Fences
This term may be made to include hedges, stone walls, and iron wire, but it will be restricted now to structures formed of wood. A common fence in America is the zigzag or rail, Fig. 624, in whic...
-Gales
A wooden gate, the only kind to be considered here, consists of a framework, as a, b, c, d in Fig. 632, hinged or hung to a gate-post e, which is firmly secured in the ground, and catching on a latch ...
-House Building
There are 4 important matters connected with house building which come within the range of the carpenter and joiner; these are the laying of floors, the construction of the wooden framework of roofs, ...
-Floors
The chief considerations to be borne in mind in choosing the material for a floor are: (1) wearing resistance, (2) comfort to the feet, (3) retention of warmth, (4) capability of being laid evenly and...
-Floors. Continued
The simplest kind of floor is that termed single-joisted, in which the joists are 12 in. apart, resting on the wall-plates, and carrying the boards above, while, if there be a ceiling, the ceiling l...
-Roofs
In discussing roofs, attention will here be confined to the timber part of the structure, leaving the covering to be dealt with under the section on Roofing; and the descriptions will stop short at th...
-Doors
Ordinary room doors are of 2 kinds, distinguished as ledged and panelled. The former are easier to make, heavier, and stronger, but have a commonplace appearance. Every kind of door requires a woo...
-Windows
Windows may be divided into 3 classes - (1) casement windows (opening on hinges or pivots), (2) sash windows (opening by sliding up and down), and (3) skylights. The construction and arrangement of th...
-Cabinet-Making
The art of cabinet-making is usually divided into two classes - carcase work, embracing the production of articles of chest-like form, such as book-cases, etc., and chair work, comprising not on...
-Cabinet-Making Tools
These are mainly the same as employed in Carpentry, but some special forms are added. These will be described here, including chest and bench. Tool-chest. A convenient chest for holding cabinet-makin...
-Cabinet-Makers' Bench
A full-sized cabinet-makers' bench is generally 7 ft. long and 2 1/2 ft. wide, but a very convenient size is 6 ft. by 2 ft. Such a bench is illustrated in Fig. 683. The top is in 2 parts, the front po...
-Toothing Planes
Besides the ordinary planes, the cabinet-maker uses a toothing plane. This has a stock similar to the hard wood hand-plane, but the iron, instead of having a cutting edge, presents a series of sharp...
-Dowel Plate
The dowel plate is a steel plate about 1/2 in. thick, with holes from 3/16 in. to 1/2 in., and centre-bits are fitted and marked so that dowel pins made in the holes will fit holes made by the corresp...
-Smoothing Implements
The scraper is a bit of steel plate about the thickness of a hand-saw blade, 5 in. by 3 in.; its use is to take off any ridges left by the smoothing plane in planing hard wood, producing a surface p...
-Moulding Board
This contrivance for holding strips of wood while under the moulding plane somewhat resembles the shooting board (Fig. 2G8, p. 191). It consists of a plank a of l 1/4-in. Bay mahogany, 6 ft. long and ...
-Mitring And Shooting Board
Here again the article used by carpenters (Fig. 260, p. 188) is replaced by a shorter form more suited to light work. It is made by screwing together 2 pieces of Bay mahogany 30 in. long, 6 in. wide, ...
-Vice
A wooden vice with jaws 6 in. wide is very useful for holding small work, either on the bench or in the bench vice. ...
-Veneering
This name is applied to the practice of laying very thin sheets (called veneers) of a more valuable wood upon the surface of a less valuable one, in order to gain superior effects at reduced cost. Th...
-Veneering. Part 2
There are 2 ways of fixing the veneer, known as hammering and cauling, alike in that they are both methods of applying pressure, but differing in that the former is accompanied by damp heat, the l...
-Veneering. Part 3
The caul should be planed true and smooth on both sides, toothed, and saturated with linseed oil, which last not only augments the heat, but prevents escaping glue from adhering to the caul. This adhe...
-Veneering. Part 4
When the same class of panel is to be laid by hand with the veneering hammer, carefully dry and tooth your veneer as before mentioned, fix your panel firmly to the bench, and proceed to lay one half; ...
-Inlaying
Inlaying is a term applied to work in which certain figures which have been cut out of one kind of material are filled up with another. Such work is known as marquetry, Boule work, or Reisner work. Th...
-Imitation Inlaying
Suppose an oak panel with a design inlaid with walnut is wanted. Grain the panel wholly in oil. This is not a bad ground for walnut. When the oak is dry, grain the whole of the panel in distemper. Hav...
-How To Make a Couch
The style of frame illustrated in Fig. 688 is known as German. The main points to be observed in constructing a couch are (1) let the height of the scroll be a convenient one to give the head repose, ...
-How To Make Chairs
To make a comfortable chair some respect must be paid to the measurements of the human body in a sitting posture. Thus in a man 5 ft. 9 in. high, the distance from heel to beneath knee-joint will bo 1...
-How To Make Chairs. Continued
If an extra amount of ease is required in any of the foregoing chairs, they should be made with a seat sloping from front to back; 1 in. longer in the front legs, and 1/2 in. shorter in the back, will...
-How To Make a Bookcase (Folding)
Fig. 696 illustrates the construction of a folding portable bookcase, which may be carved and ornamented to any degree. The 2 ends a are 4 ft. long over all and 1 ft. wide, either of plain board, or p...
-How To Build a Chest Of Drawers
The following detailed and illustrated description of the construction of a chest of drawers has been modified from one which appeared some time since in Amateur Mechanics. The example here given cons...
-How To Build a Chest Of Drawers. Part 2
The next operation is to make 2 frames of;-in. pine, to form a top and bottom to these gables; they are of a length to make the surbase 1 in. shorter than the base beneath, so that the base projects a...
-How To Build a Chest Of Drawers. Part 3
The grounds are planed to such a breadth that when glued to the gables the total breadth of face is 31 in. q is a cross section of this arrangement of pieces; 1 is a portion of the gable, say 3/4 in. ...
-How To Build a Chest Of Drawers. Part 4
The drawer sides for a first-class job are of cedar 5/8 in. thick. The grooves for the bottoms should not be run in this 5/8-in. side for a good job, but in a clamp glued to the side, as shown in n. T...
-How To Build a Chest Of Drawers. Part 5
Following is the method of veneering the base of drawers by having the grain of the veneer running in the same direction as the grain of the groundwork. The body or groundwork of the base is made exac...
-How To Build a Chest Of Drawers. Part 6
When the veneers have dried for about 24 hours they may be cleaned off. They are always planed first with a high-pitched hand-plane, set very close, then scraped and sandpapered. The drawer in the su...
-How To Build a Chest Of Drawers. Part 7
All the drawers being now in their places, provide mouldings and carvings. When mouldings or other projections are stuck on flat surfaces, the surfaces are French-polished before planting the mouldi...
-How To Make A Wardrobe
The description of the making of a 6 1/2-ft. break-front wardrobe in solid wood, as shown in Fig. 698, by W. Parnell, received a prize from the Cabinet-maker. It is as follows. When you have your job...
-How To Make A Wardrobe. Continued
Gauge for the dovetails, and cut first those in the ends and chop them out; next place the top and bottom of a carcase on the bench inside uppermost, stand the corresponding carcase end in position, a...
-How To Make A Sideboard
Fig.699 illustrates the construction of a 7-ft. pedestal sideboard with 3-panel back. The description gained for W. Robinson a prize in the Cabinet-maker. Having set out the work full size, first proc...
-Carving And Fretwork
These artistic operations may be described under one general head, as they deal mainly with the same material - elegant woods, and can be carried on together. Carving This is an industry which essen...
-Camphor
A very fine wood, with a close clean-cutting grain. It produces an excellent effect when worked into small articles of furniture of the Elizabethan and neo-Grecian style. Unfortunately, it is difficul...
-Ebony
Of this wood there are several varieties in the market, the only one serviceable to the carver being that with a close and even grain, so close indeed, that under the gouge it appears to have no fibre...
-Lime
The easiest of all woods to work, being soft and equal under the tool. But it is of little use for delicate work, as it does not hold to fine details; for that reason it is only used for frames, or ...
-Pear
This wood, owing to the fineness of its grain, its cohesiveness, its durability, and its equable cut, is perhaps the best for all delicate work, such as vegetation, flowers, etc. It takes a beautiful ...
-Walnut
The wood of this tree is usually of a brown colour, and on being cut shows a brilliant grain. It is soft, binding, and easy to work. Of all woods, it is the one whose colour varies most. Although its ...
-Wild Cherry
Easy to work, and of a vivid red tint, which, however, loses brilliancy with age. It is very liable to be worm-eaten, and is only used in sculpture in making little boxes. ...
-Yew
This extremely hard wood is well adapted to the carver, although it has almost gone out of use. The sap-wood is white, the heart-wood of a bright orange, the grain is fine and close, the cut being par...
-Carving Tools
The work of the carver rarely needs a special bench, any short deal table answering every practical purpose. This should be of a convenient height to suit the operator, and be placed under a north win...
-Carving Tools. Continued
The voluter is second only to the parting tool in importance and value to the carver, even if it be not equal to it. And this, again, is a tool which must receive special attention when the subject ...
-Carving Operations
When the carver has made a selection of a design and of a piece of wood to be carved, he proceeds to transfer the design to the wood. There are several ways of performing this. (1) Rub the surface of...
-Fretwork
Fret or scroll sawing is a modern invention by which much handsome work is now done especially for ornamental cabinet-making. The subject may be divided into woods, tools, and operations. Woods for F...
-Fretwork Tools
These are very few in number. The first requisite is an ordinary table for supporting the work, which latter is held tight by clamps such as have already been described (p. 106), the jaw of the clamp ...
-Fretwork Tool Operations
In fretwork, the design is cut out by means of a saw, instead of by the edged tools used in carving. The mode of working has been made pretty evident in describing the tools. In sawing, care must be t...
-Outline Cutting
This variety of work, as its name implies, is used for all purposes where outline shaping alone is required, either applied separately or to work that is to be afterwards carved. The importance of get...
-Brackets
Among the varieties of brackets most used may be mentioned the following. First, those which are fitted upon a flat surface or pilaster, the front and sides being carved, like those used for bookcases...
-Upholstery
This term is applied to the art of stuffing and covering seats, and the arrangement of curtains and bed hangings. The subject may be divided into sections on the tools, materials, and processes. ...
-Leather Work. Small Chair; Buttoned And Welted
The construction of the frame of a chair has already been described (Figs. 689-95, pp. 363-9). The first step is to tightly strain 3 lengths of webbing (No. 10 or 12) across the seat from front to bac...
-Plain Seats
In the case of chairs covered with morocco, roan, or American leather cloth, with plain seats and welted borders, the springs are usually left a little higher than in the previous case, otherwise they...
-Easy Chairs
Everything depends on adapting the height of the springs and adjustment of the stuffing to the particular character of the chair. A good rule is to keep the stuffing well to the front of the seat, in ...
-Settees And Couches
Here a new difficulty arises, in that the size of the articles necessitates 3 or more skins being joined together. If the seat is plain, the skins may be cut quite square across it, joined with a smal...
-Hair Cloth
Woven horsehair cloth is procurable in several widths, the price increasing out of proportion to the extra number of inches; hence, cloth work is usually welted, to permit the use of narrower widths. ...
-Fancy Coverings
Covering in soft fancy materials presents far fewer difficulties than when working with leather or hair-cloth. The stuffing should be kept softer and the springs may be more pliable. When joints in th...
-Buttoned Seats
In marking out the scrim for the buttons, the following allowances for fulness have to be made: - Small chairs, 1 1/2 in. each way; easy-chair seats, 2 in. each way; easy-chair backs, 1 1/2 in. each w...
-Spring Edges
If a spring edge is to be made, the middle springs should be soft and 8 or 9 in., and be lashed in place farther from the rails, with canvas laid over and tacked to the top of the rails on the extreme...
-French Easy Chairs
For these, the scrim is tacked down to the bottom of the frame in front, and finished with a round edge in calico slightly hanging over, but no stitched-up edge to the seat. The seat is filled with ve...
-Needlework Chairs
The best shape for displaying needlework is the Spanish. For a needlework central strip, with plush sides and border, the first step is to stuff without springs, keeping it quite flat across to counte...
-Mattresses. Spring
The construction of the box-frame spring mattress requires sides about 6 in. high with 8 laths across the bottom, and 5 10-in. springs for each lath in a mattress 4 1/2 ft. wide, the latter being secu...
-Tufted Top
An extra allowance of 3/4 in. to the ft. each way, must be made for fulness in cutting the tick top, if the mattress is to have a tufted top and welted or bound border. The diamonds may be 12 to 14 in...
-Folding
For a folding spring mattress, the two half boxes, about 5 in. high, are placed together, and the springs are lashed each way; the canvas and tick are each put on in a single piece, cutting the former...
-Stuffed
For mattresses stuffed with hair or wool, the ticks are cut with a fulness of 3/4 in. per ft. larger than the bedstead; no allowance for binding is made in the borders, which are cut 4 1/2 in. deep. T...
-French Pallets
In these, made of half wool and half hair, only 6 lb. of stuffing is reckoned per ft.; the ticks have an allowance of 1 1/2 in. per ft. each way for fulness, and are cut without a border, only one sid...
-Beds And Pillows
The tick for a feather bed should be cut to the size of the bedstead, with a 5-in. border and a welt, the pattern running lengthways on the bed, and crossways on the border and welting. The stuffing a...
-Painting, Graining, And Marbling
The primary object of painting is to aid the preservation of the material so treated; its secondary object is the ornamentation of the surface. Graining answers only a decorative purpose. ...
-Painting
Paints employed with a view of aiding preservation are of the kind known as oil paints. These consist of basic pigments to give body or covering power, colouring pigments to modify the hue, vehicl...
-Basic Pigments
The most important are white-lead, red-lead, zinc-white, and iron oxide. White-lead is a form of lead carbonate. The best kind is produced by the Dutch process, which consists in placing gratings of ...
-Colouring Pigments
Many of these, such as the ochres and umbers, are from natural earths; others are artificially made. They may generally be purchased either as dry powder or ground in oil. Blacks Lampblack is the ...
-Blues
Prussian Blue is made by mixing potash prussiate with a salt of iron. The potash prussiate is obtained by calcining and digesting old leather, blood, hoofs, or other animal matter with potash carbon...
-Oranges
Chrome orange is a lead chromate, brighter than vermilion, but less durable. Orange ochre is a bright yellow ochre burnt to give it warmth of tint; dries and works well in water and oil, and is ...
-Reds
Carmine, made from the cochineal insect, is the most brilliant red pigment known; but too expensive for ordinary house painting, and not durable; sometimes used for internal decoration. Hod-lead g...
-Yellows
Chrome yellows are lead chromates, produced by mixing dilute solutions of lead acetate or nitrate and potash bichromate; this makes a medium tint known as middle chrome. The addition of lead sulphat...
-Vehicles Or Mediums
A vehicle to be perfect should mix readily with the pigment, forming a pasty mass of treacly consistence; it should exert neither colouring nor chemical action upon the pigments with which it is mixed...
-Driers
The maximum drying power is obtained by the addition of certain metallic oxides, which not only part with some of their own oxygen to the oil, but also act as carriers between the atmospheric oxygen a...
-Driers. Continued
Since it has been tried to substitute zinc oxide for white-lead in painting, researches have been made to replace litharge as a drier by a substance free from the inconveniences which caused the aband...
-Grinding
In working any form of grinding-rollers, great care must be taken to clean them thoroughly immediately after use. If the paint be allowed to dry upon the surface of the rollers, it is difficult of rem...
-Storing
When paint is not intended for immediate use, it is packed in metallic kegs For exportation to hot climates, the rim of the lid is soldered down, a practice which effectually prevents access of atmosp...
-Applying
Of whatever nature the surface may be to which the paint is to be applied, great care must be taken that it is perfectly dry. Wood especially, even when apparently dry, may on a damp day contain as mu...
-Priming
The first coat of paint applied to any surface is termed the priming-coat. It usually consists of red-lead and boiled and raw linseed-oil. Experience has shown that such a priming not only dries qui...
-Drying
The drying of paint is to a great extent dependent upon the temperature. Below the freezing-point of water, paint will remain wet for weeks, even when mixed with a considerable proportion of driers; w...
-Filling
Before the first coat is applied to wood, all holes should be filled up. The filling usually employed is ordinary putty; this, however, sometimes consists of whiting ground up with oil foots of a non-...
-Coats
There is no advantage in laying on the paint too thickly. A thick film takes longer to dry thoroughly than two thin films of the same aggregate thickness. Paint is thinned down or diluted with linseed...
-Brushes
The bristles are frequently fastened by glue or size, which is not perceptibly acted upon by oil, and if brought into contact with this liquid alone, there would be no complaints of loose hairs coming...
-Surface
When the surface to be painted is already covered with old paint, this mould be either removed or rubbed down smooth before applying the new. When the thickness of the old coat is not great, rubbing d...
-Knotting
Knotting is the material used by painters to cover over the surfaces of knots in wood before painting. The object is to prevent the exudation of turpentine, etc, from the knots, or, on the other hand,...
-Water-Colours
The manufacture of water-colour paints is more simple than that of oil-paints, the pigments being first ground extremely fine and then mixed with a solution of gum or glue. The paste produced in this ...
-Removing Smell
(1) Place a vessel of lighted charcoal in the room, and throw on it 2 or 3 handfuls of juniper berries; shut the windows, the chimney, and the door close; 24 hours afterwards the room may be opened, w...
-Discoloration
Light-coloured paints, especially those having white-lead as a basis, rapidly discolour under different circumstances. Thus white paint discolours when excluded from the light; stone colours lose thei...
-Miscellaneous Paints. Under This Head The Following Few Varieties Deserve Notice :- Cement Paint For Carton-Pierre
Composed of 2 parts washed graphite, 2 red-lead, 1G freshly-prepared cement, 16 barium sulphate, 4 lead protoxide, 2 alcoholized white litharge. The paint must be put on as soon as the roofing is secu...
-Coloured Paints
Coloured lead paints are produced by adding a suitable pigment to a white-lead paint until the required tint is obtained. A few of the most common tints produced by mixing 2 or more colours may be men...
-Copper Paint
Bessemer's copper paint gives a glossy and elegant covering to metal, wood, or porcelain; when united with oils, it assumes an antique green appearance. ...
-Paint For Floors
A paint for floors, which economizes the use of oil colours and varnish, is described in the German technical press as having been composed by Mareck. It is remarked that this paint can also be used o...
-Gold Paint
Do not mix the gold size and powder together, but go over the article to be gilded with the size alone, giving an even and moderate coating. Let it dry (which will not take long) till it is just stick...
-Iron Paint
The 'Photographisches Wochenblatt' mentions that Spangenberger has a paint composed of pulverized iron and linseed-oil varnish. It is intended for painting damp walls, kettles, outer walls, or any pla...
-Paint For Iron
The value of red-lead as a preservative for iron has been generally accepted. Wrought iron requires a hard and elastic paint, which will hold itself together even if the scale beneath gives way. The f...
-Lead Paints
For white-lead paint, the best pure white-lead is chosen, kept secure from the air. It possesses good covering power, but blackens in contact with air containing sulphuretted hydrogen, and is injuriou...
-Lime Paints
(a) For deal floors, wood, stone, and brick work. Dissolve 15 dr. good glue by boiling with thickish milk of lime, which contains 1 lb. caustic lime. Then add linseed-oil just sufficient to form a soa...
-Silicated
When the surface to be painted is of a mineral nature, such as the exterior of a house, the pigments may be mixed with a vehicle consisting chiefly of water-glass, or soda or potash silicate. This met...
-Steatite Paint
In the United States this is made from a native hydrated magnesia silicate, and is applied to ships' bottoms, to walls for preventing dampness, and to roofs fur making them fireproof. ...
-Paint For Tin Roofing
Perhaps the best paint for a tin roof is made from common Spanish brown, Venetian red, or yellow ochre, mixed with either pure raw linseed-oil, or equal parts linseed and fish oils; the only partial d...
-Transparent Paints
If in a position to coat the glass before putting in frame, excellent effects may be got by using ordinary shellac varnish (made with bleached shellac) tinted with aniline dye. The glass must be sligh...
-Tungsten Paints
The mineral colours from tungsten are obtained by decompoing soluble tungstates by means of salts of the metals yielding insoluble phosphates. The tungstate of nickel produces a light green, tungstate...
-Window-Paint
Mix with white-lead, boiled oil or varnish, and a small quantity of driers (no turps, which hardens for the time, being a volatile oil, and therefore objectionable in this case); paint this over the g...
-Paint For Zinc
The difficulty of making oil colours adhere to zinc is well known. Some time since, Prof. Bottger published a process which consists in applying with a hard brush a mordant composed of 1 part copper c...
-Composition Of Paints
The composition of paints should be governed - (1) by the nature of the material to be painted : thus the paints respectively best adapted for wood and iron differ considerably; (2) by the kind of sur...
-Measuring Painters' Work
Surface painting is measured by the superficial yd., girting every part of the work covered, always making allowance for the deep cuttings in mouldings, carved work, railings or other work that is dif...
-Painters' Cream
This is a preparation sometimes employed by painters when they are obliged to leave work unfinished for a length of time. Cover the already painted parts with it; it will preserve the freshness of the...
-Wall Painting
If a plastered wall be new, and has not been whitewashed, it will do to size it with glue water; but if it has been kalsomined or whitewashed, which is often the case, no glue sizing should ever touch...
-Wall Painting. Part 2
Keim's process claims attention as being the result of nearly 12 years' thoroughly scientific labour and research on the part of the inventor, and is based on the stereo-chrome process of Schlotthauer...
-Wall Painting. Part 3
The surface layer of mortar, or painting ground, can be prepared in various degrees of coarseness of grain to suit the artist's requirements. The more smooth and polished, however, the surface is made...
-Wall Painting. Part 4
It is significant of the success which has attended Keim's thorough appreciation of the requirements of the pigments, that his labours in this direction have so perfectly adapted them to the chemical ...
-Graining
This branch of the painter's art consists in imitating the grain, knots, etc, of different woods. The following is an outline of the process. If there are any knots or sappy places in the article, the...
-Styles Of Graining
The various styles of graining differ according to the kind of wood which it is intended to imitate. These may be considered in alphabetic order, premising that as oak is the wood most commonly copied...
-Styles Of Graining. Continued
To grain light work in distemper, which is not often done, proceed as follows. Lay on a coat of size and whiting; then a ground colour consisting of white-lead and golden ochre mixed with fine boiled ...
-Marbling
The decoration of painted surfaces so as to imitate natural marbles bears a close relation to graining in imitation of woods. It varies according to the figure of the marble simulated, the principal k...
-Staining
There are many cases where an article constructed of wood may be more conveniently and suitably finished by staining and polishing than by painting. The practice of staining woods is much less common ...
-Staining. Part 2
(9) For Table Wash the surface of table with liquid ammonia, applied with a piece of rag; the varnish will then peel off like a skin; afterwards smooth down with fine sandpaper. Mix 1/4 lb. lampblack...
-Staining. Part 3
Blue (1) Powder a little Prussian blue, and mix to the consistency of paint with beer; brush it on the wood, and when dry size it with glue dissolved in boiling water; apply lukewarm, and let this dr...
-Ebonizing
(1) Boil 1 lb. logwood chips 1 hour in 2 qt. water; brush the hot liquor over the work to be stained, lay aside to dry; when dry give another coat, still using it hot. When the second coat is dry, bru...
-Staining Floors
(1) Get the wood clean, have some Vandyke brown and burnt sienna ground in water, mix it in strong size, put on with a whitewash or new paint-brush as evenly as you can. When dry, give 2 coats of cop...
-Staining Floors. Part 2
Green (1) Mordant the wood with red liquor at 1 B. This is prepared by dissolving separately in water 1 part sugar of lead and 4 of alum free from iron; mix the solutions, and then add 1/32 part...
-Staining Floors. Part 3
Oak (1) Mix powdered ochre, Venetian red, and umber, in size, in proportions to suit; or a richer stain may be made with raw sienna, burnt sienna, and Vandyke. A light yellow stain of raw sienna alon...
-Staining Floors. Part 4
Purple (1) Take 1 lb. logwood chips, 3/4 gal. water, 4 oz. pearlash, 2 oz. powdered indigo. Boil the logwood in the water till the full strength is obtained, then add the pearlash and indigo, and whe...
-Staining Floors. Part 5
Satinwood Take 1 qt. alcohol, 3 oz. ground turmeric, 1 1/2 oz. powdered gamboge. When steeped to its full strength, strain through fine muslin. It is then ready for use. Apply with a piece of fine sp...
-Staining Floors. Part 6
(11) Darkening Walnut Slaked lime, 1 to 4 of water, will do for some kinds of walnut; a weak solution of iron sulphate for others; and yet again for other kinds a weak solution of pearlash. Try each ...
-Gilding
This method of ornamentation, adapted chiefly to articles of wood, consists in applying a coat of gold leaf to the surface by the aid of an adhesive medium termed gold size. Leaf Metal There are sev...
-How To Gild
Gilding On Plain Wood Before gilding plain wood, its absorbent character must be destroyed by the application of a ground colour, which may be japanners' gold size mixed with yellow ochre previously ...
-Dead Gilding
This is the simplest phase of the art. As usually performed, a leaf is taken from the book, laid on the pad, blown flat and smooth by puffs from the mouth, and then cut to shape for the surface to be ...
-Gilding On Transparent Material
The commonest transparent material is glass, and the polish, smoothness, and hardness of its surface adapt it well to the process. The operation is performed on the back of the sheet of glass, and thi...
-Gilding On Opaque Material
For fixing the leaf on polished or japanned surfaces, the water size used as a ground should contain no spirit. The best fixative for the pattern is Brunswick black. A final coat of copal varnish over...
-Polishing
It is a common proceeding to impart a brilliant lustrous surface to finished work by the operation of polishing. The methods of conducting the operation and the materials employed to produce the effec...
-How to Polish Marble
(1) If the piece to be polished is a plane surface, it is first rubbed by means of another piece of marble, or hard stone, with the intervention of water and two sorts of sand; first with the finest r...
-How to Polish Metals
The following general remarks on polishing metallic surfaces by hand are from a paper by T. F. Hagerty, in the American Machinist: - The practice generally employed by machinists in grinding and polis...
-Burnishing
To burnish an article is to polish it, by removing the small roughness upon its surface; and this is performed by a burnisher. This mode of polishing is the most expeditious, and gives the greatest lu...
-Burnishers
The burnishers used are of two kinds, of steel and of hard stone. They are either curved or straight, rounded or pointed, and made so as to suit the projecting parts, or the hollows of the piece. Ston...
-How to Burnish Book Edges
This is done with a wolfs or dog's tooth, or a steel burnisher; for this purpose place the books in a screw press, with boards on each side of them, and other boards distributed between each volume; f...
-How to Burnish Cutlery
The burnishing of cutlery is executed by hand or vice burnishers; they are all made of fine steel, hardened, and well polished. The first kind have nothing particular in their construction; but vice b...
-How to Burnish Pewter
The burnishing of pewter articles is done after the work has been turned, or finished off with a scraper. The burnishers are of different kinds, for burnishing articles either by hand or in the lathe;...
-How to Burnish Silver
Commence by cleaning off any kind of dirt which the surfaces of the silver articles had contracted whilst making, as that would entirely spoil the burnishing. For this purpose, take pumice powder, and...
-How to Burnish Crocus
Put tin, as pure as possible, into a glass vessel - a wineglass does very well when making small quantities - and pour in sufficient nitric acid to cover it. Great heat is evolved, and care must be ta...
-How to Burnish Emery Paper
Emery paper is extensively employed for cleaning and polishing metals, but all the kinds in use hitherto have the great disadvantage of not retaining an equal efficiency. The fresh parts bite too much...
-How to Burnish Emery Wheels
(1) Can be made with shellac powdered fine, and a small portion of rosin, a piece about the size of a walnut to 1 oz. shellac, and a piece of old vulcanized indiarubber about the same size, which give...
-Friction Polish
A good polish for iron or steel rotating in the lathe, is made of fine emery and oil; which is applied by lead or wood grinders, screwed together. Three very good oils for lubrication are olive oil, s...
-How to Burnish German Silver
Take 1 lb. peroxide of iron, pure, and put half of it into a washbasin, pouring on water, and keeping it stirred until the basin is nearly full. While the water and crocus are in slow motion, pour off...
-How to Burnish Gold And Silver Lace
Gold lace, spangles, clasps, knots, etc, may be brushed over with the following composition: 1 1/2 oz. shellac, 1/2 dr. dragons' blood, 1/2 dr. turmeric root , digest with strong alcohol, decan...
-Artificial Grindstone
Washed silicious sand 3 parts, shellac 1 part; melt the lac, and mould in the sand, while warm. Emery may be substituted for sand. Used for razors and fine cutlery. ...
-How to Polish Iron And Steel
(1) Take an ordinary bar of malleable iron in its usual merchantable state, remove the oxide from its surface by the application of diluted sulphuric acid, after which wash the bar in an alkaline solu...
-How to Polish Plate Powders
(1) Take equal parts precipitated subcarbonate of iron, and prepared chalk. (2) An impalpable rouge may be prepared by calcining the oxalate of iron. (3) Take quicksilver with chalk, 1/2 oz., and pr...
-How to Polish Prepared Chalk
(1) Pulverize chalk thoroughly, and mix with distilled water in the proportion of 2 lb. to the gal.; stir well, and then allow it to stand about 2 minutes, during which time the gritty matter will hav...
-How to Polish Putty Powder
A solution of commercial tin chloride is prepared by pouring on 1 part of the salt 6 of boiling distilled water, and the solution is filtered through a cloth into a cylindrical glass vessel, in order ...
-How to Polish Razor Paste
(1) Mix fine emery intimately with fat and wax until the proper consistency is obtained in the paste, and then rub it well into the leather strap. Prepare the emery by pounding thoroughly in a mortar ...
-How to Polish Rottenstone (Tripoli)
This very useful polishing medium is a natural product, originally obtained from Tripoli, from which it derives its name. It is of a yellowish-grey colour, and its particles are impalpably fine, hence...
-How to Polish Rouge
(1) The rouge used by machinists, watchmakers, and jewellers is a mineral substance. In its preparation crystals of sulphate of iron, commonly known as copperas, are heated in iron pots, by which the ...
-How to Polish Wood
Polished woods are chiefly employed in furniture making, hence wood polishes are most commonly known as furniture creams. They are also often termed French polishes. The operation of wood polishing co...
-How to Polish Wood. Part 2
On taking it up again, he removes any dust that may have settled upon it, by wiping it all over; thus also removing any little oil that may have sweated out from the previous operation. He then select...
-How to Polish Wood. Part 3
This is easily proved by pouring a solution from one bottle to another, when it will be seen to flow in a light, frothy-like stream, much less dense than a solution of the unbleached article. Further ...
-How to Polish Wood. Part 4
The following directions for polishing are said to represent the practice followed in the United States. It should be remembered that as regards the polishing the different climatic conditions should ...
-The Following Are Recipes For Furniture Creams Or French Polishes
(1) 1 pint spirits of wine, 1/4 oz. gum copal, 1/4 oz. gum arabic, 1 oz. shellac. Bruise the gums and sift them through a piece of muslin. Place the spirits and gums together in a vessel closely corke...
-The Following Are Recipes For Furniture Creams Or French Polishes. Part 2
(32) Dissolve 6 oz. pearlash in 1 qt. hot water, add \ lb. white wax, and simmer for 1/2 hour in a pipkin; take off the fire; and when cool, the wax will float; it should be taken off, and, with a lit...
-The Following Are Recipes For Furniture Creams Or French Polishes. Part 3
(54) 1 gal. soft water, 4 oz. soap, 1 lb. white wax in shavings; boil these together and add 2 oz. pearlash. This is to be diluted with water, laid on the furniture with a paint brush, and polished of...
-The Following Are Recipes For Furniture Creams Or French Polishes. Part 4
(68) A good polish for walking-canes and other hard wood. - The following process gives the most satisfactory and hardest finished surface : Fill with best clear filler or with shellac; dry by heat; r...
-Polishing In The Lathe
The beauty of good work depends on its being executed with tools properly ground, set, and in good order; the work performed by such tools will have its surface much smoother, its mouldings and edges ...
-Polishing Hard Woods
These, from their nature, are readily turned very smooth; fine glass-paper will suffice to give them a very perfect surface; a little linseed-oil may then be rubbed on, and a portion of the turnings o...
-Japanese Lacquer, Shiunkei
This is so much superior to our best methods of polishing that while the best European and American pianos are readily spoiled by atmospheric influences, Japanese lacquered wooden ware can resist boil...
-Varnishing
Varnish is a solution of resin in oil, turpentine, or alcohol. The oil dries and the other 2 solvents evaporate, in either case leaving a solid transparent film of resin over the surface varnished. In...
-Oil Varnishes
The gum must first be melted alone till it is quite fluid, and then the clarified oil is poured in very slowly. The mixture must be kept over a strong fire until a drop pinched between the finger and ...
-Spirit And Turpentine Varnishes
Here the operation simply consists in stirring or otherwise agitating the resins and solvent together. The agitation must be continued till the resin is all dissolved, or it will agglutinate into lump...
-Oil Varnishes. Copal Varnishes
(1) Best Body Copal Varnish Fuse 8 lb. fine African gum copal; add 2 gal. clarified oil. Boil very slowly for 4 or 5 hours till quite stringy, and mix with 3 1/2 gal. turpentine. This is used for the...
-Spirit Varnishes - Cheap Oak Varnish
Dissolve 3 1/2 lb. clear good rosin in 1 gal. oil of turpentine. Darken, if required, by adding well-ground umber or fine lampblack. Oak varnish is used for common work. It dries generally in about 10...
-Copal Varnish
By slow heat in an iron pot melt 1/2 lb. powdered copal gum, 2 oz. balsam of capivi, previously heated and added. When melted, remove from the fire and pour in 10 oz. spirits of turpentine, also previ...
-French Polish
The simplest and probably the best is made by dissolving 1 1/2 lb. shellac in 1 gal. spirits of wine without heat. Other gums are sometimes used, and the polish may be darkened by adding benzoin, or i...
-Lacquer For Brass
The simplest and best lacquer for work not requiring to be coloured is made by dissolving with agitation 1/2 lb. best pale shellac in 1 gal. cold spirits of wine. The mixture is allowed to stand, filt...
-Turpentine Varnishes
Turpentine varnish consists of 4 lb. common (or bleached) rosin dissolved in 1 gal. oil of turpentine, under slight warmth. It is used for indoor painted work, and also to add to other varnishes to gi...
-Black Varnish For Metal Work
Fuse 3 lb. Egyptian asphaltum; when it is liquid, add 1/2 lb. shellac and 1 gal. turpentine. ...
-Brunswick Black
Boil 45 lb. asphaltum for 6 hours over a slow fire. During the same time boil 6 gal. oil which has been previously boiled, introducing litharge gradually until stringy, then pour the oil into the boil...
-Varnish For Ironwork
The following is recommended by Matheson as very effective : - 30 gal. of coal tar, fresh, with all its naphtha retained; 6 lb. tallow; 1 1/2 lb. rosin; 3 lb. lampblack; 30 lb. fresh slaked lime, fine...
-Mechanical Movements
Those means by which motion is transmitted for mechanical purposes are known as mechanical movements. Motion, in mechanics, may be simple or compound. Simple motions are, - those of straight translati...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 2
Fig. 756. A method of working a reciprocating pump by rotary motion. A rope carrying the pump-rod is attached to the wheel A, which runs loosely upon the shaft. The shaft carries a cam C, and has a co...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 3
Fig. 774. Rectilinear motion of slide produced by the rotation of screw. Fig. 775. Screw stamping-press; rectilinear motion from circular motion. Fig. 776. In this, rotary motion is imparted to the ...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 4
Fig. 797. A continuous rotary motion of the shaft carrying the 3 wipers produces a reciprocating rectilinear motion of the rectangular frame. The shaft must revolve in the direction of the arrow for t...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 5
Fig. 813. Reciprocating curvilinear motion of the beam gives a continuous rotary motion to the crank and fly-wheel. The small standard at the right, to which is attached one end of the lever with whic...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 6
Fig. 830. Another arrangement for a water-wheel governor. In this the governor controls the shuttle or gate by means of the cranked lever, which acts on the strap or belt in the following manner: - Th...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 7
Fig. 847. This only differs from Fig. 841 in being composed of a single piovted clamp operating in connection with a fixed side-piece. Figs. 848, 849. Diagonal catch and hand-gear used in large blowi...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 8
Fig. 857. Another modification of Fig. 852. Fig. 858. A screw-clamp. On turning the handle the screw thrusts upward against the holder, which operating as a lever, holds down the piece of wood or oth...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 9
Fig. 879. The external and internal mutilated cog-wheels work alternately into the pinion, and give slow forward and quick reverse motion. Figs. 880, 881. These are parts of the same movement, which ...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 10
Fig. 900 represents a pantograph for copying, enlarging, and reducing plans. One arm is attached to and turns on the fixed point C. B is an ivory tracing point, and A the pencil. Arranged as shown, if...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 11
Fig. 920. Rotary motion of the bevelled disc cam gives a reciprocating rectilinear motion to the rod bearing on its circumference. Fig. 921. Rectilinear into rectilinear motion. When the rods A and B...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 12
Fig. 933 is the movable head of a turning lathe. By turning the wheel to the right. motion is communicated to the screw, producing rectilinear motion of the spindle, in the end of which the centre is ...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 13
Fig. 943. Parallel ruler, consisting of a simple straight ruler B, with an attached axle C, and pair of wheels A, A. The wheels, which protrude but slightly through the under side of the ruler, have t...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 14
Fig. 965. Oscillating engine. The cylinder has trunnions at the middle of its length working in fixed bearings, and the piston-rod is connected directly with the crank, and no guides are used. Fig. 9...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 15
Fig. 985. A parallel ruler with which lines may be drawn at required distances apart without setting out. Lower edge of upper blade has a graduated ivory scale, on which the incidence of the outer edg...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 16
Fig. 1004. Feed-motion of Woodworth's planing machine, a smooth supporting roller, and a toothed top roller. Fig. 1005. Contrivance employed in Russia for shutting doors. One pin is fitted to and tur...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 17
Fig. 1022. Cyclograph for describing circular arcs in drawings where the centre is inaccessible. This is composed of 3 straight rules. The chord and versed sine being laid down, draw straight sloping ...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 18
Fig. 1034. Bisecting gauge. Of 2 parallel cheeks on the cross-bar one is fixed and the other adjustable, and held by thumb-screw. In either cheek is entered one of 2 short bars of equal length, united...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 19
Fig. 1052. Barker, or reaction mill. Rotary motion of central hollow shaft is obtained by the reaction of the water escaping at the ends of its arms, the rotation being in a direction the reverse of t...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 20
Fig. 1066. Double lantern-bellows pump. As one bellows is distended by lever, air is rarefied within it, and water passes up suction-pipe to fill space; at same time other bellows is compressed, and e...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 21
Fig. 1083. Flexible water-main, plan and section: 2 pipes of 15 in. and 18 in. interior diameter, having some of their joints thus formed, conduct water across the Clyde to Glasgow Water-works. Pipes ...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 22
Fig. 1094. A spiral wound round a cylinder to convert the motion of the wind, or a stream of water, into rotary motion. Fig. 1095. Common windmill, illustrating the production of circular motion by t...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 23
Fig. 1109. A very simple form of the epicyclic train, in which F, G is the arm, secured to the central shaft A, upon which are loosely fitted the bevel-wheels C, D. The arm is formed into an axle for ...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 24
Fig. 1117. A method of engaging, disengaging, and reversing the upright shaft at the left. The belt is shown on the middle one of the 3 pulleys on the lower shafts a, b, which pulley is loose, and con...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 25
Figs. 1131, 1132. Different kinds of gears for transmitting rotary motion from one shaft to another arranged obliquely thereto. Fig. 1133. A kind of gearing used to transmit great force and give a co...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 26
Fig. 1150. A uniform intermittent rotary motion in opposite directions is given to the bevel-gears A and B by means of the mutilated bevel-gear C. Fig. 1151. Reciprocating rectilinear motion of the r...
-Mechanical Movements. Part 27
Fig. 1170. Irregular circular motion imparted to wheel A. C is an elliptical spur-gear rotating round centre D, and is the driver. B is a small pinion with teeth of the same pitch, gearing with C. The...
-Turning
This operation consists in giving a new form to objects in wood, metal, ivory, etc, by means of fixed tools held against the object while it is revolved within reach of the tool. The machine employed ...
-Lathes
These are now made in a great variety of form and capacity. In looking back to the early days of the turning lathe, before the introduction of the transfer principle in the sliding rest, it is interes...
-Lathes. Part 2
The next part of the apparatus to which attention is called is the rest, upon which the operator supports the turning tool. There are 2 kinds, the common rest and the slide-rest; the former is that re...
-Lathes. Part 3
An apparatus called a boring collar, somewhat similar to that just described, is used for supporting the ends of pieces of which the ends are to be bored, and which are too long to be held by the cup-...
-Lathes. Part 4
If the tools are ground ready to use, of the proper shape, and placed in order so as to be reached without delay, the latheman may at once be set down as having 2 of the main qualifications of a first...
-Lathe Tools for Metals
Common lathe tools may be few or many, according to the requirements of their owner, and tools for wood working or for metal working may predominate, according to taste. A workman is always adding to ...
-Lathe Tools for Metals. Part 2
Hence, in workshops, the cutting tools generally take the form B, and the scrapers that of A. But these boring tools are not for hand use, the rigidity of the slide-rest being necessary to ensure accu...
-Lathe Tools for Metals. Part 3
The following notes treat of some of the processes of cutting metals adopted by W. F. Smith, Salford, and described by him in a paper read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. In a former p...
-Lathe Tools for Metals. Part 4
This system is useful where many screws of odd forms and pitches are required; but where there are sufficient numbers to be cut, special chasing lathes are far preferable to ordinary screw-cutting lat...
-Lathe Tools for Metals. Part 5
The section is thus never altered, no smithing or alteration in form is necessitated, and consequently no repairing has to be done in the smiths' shops. The objects aimed at have been: 1. To produce ...
-Lathe Tools for Metals. Part 6
Again, when the swivel tool-holders were first used in cutting square-threaded screws, the utmost the lathe could do with forged tools was to take 4 degrees of feed at each cut, as indicated by the mi...
-Lathe Tools for Metals. Part 7
It will therefore be readily understood that if one lip of a drill stands before the other to the extent of 1/100 in. only, the prominent lip, or portion of a lip, will have to remove the whole thickn...
-Lathe Tools for Metals. Part 8
The grinding line A B, Fig. 1252, was introduced in the States to assist the operator in keeping both lips of the drill identically the same. To arrive at this, however, is more than can be accomplish...
-Lathe Tools for Metals. Part 9
With special twist-drills, made for piercing hard Bessemer steel, rail holes, 13/16 in. deep and 29/32 in. in diameter, have been drilled at the rate of one hole in 1 minute and 20 seconds, in an ordi...
-Lathe Tools for Metals. Part 10
Each tooth is held in its correct position by means of a stop S, while the milling cutter is rapidly passed once forward and backward under the emery wheel. As will be seen by the arrows, the tendency...
-For Wood
The chief tools usually required for wood turnery are plain gouges and chisels. An inch gouge, that is, one 1 in. wide, is the largest that can well be used with a light treadle lathe, and to use that...
-Masonry
The term masonry is here used in a wide sense, embracing the work of the stonemason and bricklayer as well as concrete building. ...
-Stonework
In selecting stone for constructive purposes, it is necessary to ascertain its qualities with regard to the following characteristics. Durability The power of resisting atmospheric and other externa...
-Stonework. Part 2
Working The readiness with which stone can be converted by the mason into the various shapes in which it is required for different kinds of work is of importance from an economical point of view. The...
-Stonework. Part 3
Appearance The appearance of stone is often a matter of importance, especially in the face work of conspicuous buildings. In order that the appearance may be preserved, a good weathering stone should...
-Stonework. Part 4
Natural Beds All stones in walls, but especially those that are of a laminated structure, should be placed on their natural bed, - that is, either in the same position in which they were originally...
-Stonework. Part 5
Examination Speaking generally, in comparing stones of the same class, the least porous, most dense, and strongest, will be the most durable in atmospheres which have no special tendency to attack th...
-Granite
Granite generally contains more felspar than quartz, and more quartz than mica. The colour of the stone depends upon that of the predominating ingredient, felspar. An average granite may be expected t...
-Serpentine
Serpentine derives its name from the mottled appearance of its surface, which is supposed to resemble the skin of a serpent. Pure serpentine is a hydrated silicate of magnesia, but it is generally fou...
-Sandstones
Sandstones consist of quartz grains cemented together by silica, lime carbonate, magnesia carbonate, alumina, iron oxide, or mixtures of these substances. In addition to the quartz grains are often ot...
-Limestones
The term limestone is applied to any stone the greater proportion of which consists of lime carbonate; but the members of the class differ greatly in chemical composition, texture, hardness, and other...
-Compact Limestones
Compact limestone consists of lime carbonate either pure or in combination with sand or clay. It is generally devoid of crystalline structure, of a dull earthy appearance, and of a dark blue, grey, bl...
-Granular Limestones
These consist of grains of lime carbonate cemented together by the same substance, or by some mixture of lime carbonate with silica or alumina. They are generally found in the Oolitic formation. The g...
-Shelly Limestones
There are 2 classes of this stone. The first consists almost entirely of small shells cemented together, but shows no crystals on fracture : Purbeck is an example. Stones of the second class consist c...
-Magnesian Limestones
Magnesian limestones are composed of lime and magnesia carbonate in variable proportions, together with a small quantity of silica, iron, and alumina. Many limestones contain magnesia carbonate, but t...
-Stonemasons' Tools
The tools employed by the stonemason are neither numcrous intricate. The saw employed by the stonemason has the peculiarity of having no teeth, which those used in other trades have. It is made of a ...
-Laying Stonework
In constructing walls of stone, several methods are available for selection, according to the size and character of the stone to be dealt with. These will be described in progressive order, commencing...
-Rough Rubble
In this system, Fig. 1286, unsquared and undressed pieces of stone of all sizes are used indiscriminately, fitted into each other's broken surfaces as closely as possible, with large stones at interva...
-Ashlar Work
Ashlar forms the main feature in true masonry. The stones are always set in true courses, and the depth may be from 12 in. to any available thickness. The beds and joints should always be chisel dress...
-Joining Stones
When unusual strength is required, the stones are not only united by laying in mortar or cement, but are further held by joggles, dowels, cramps, and bolts. Simple forms of joggle are shown in Figs. 1...
-Brickwork
A most important element in nearly all structures of a permanent character is the ordinary building brick used in the formation of house walls. It consists of a mixture of clay and other earths, forme...
-Bricks
The art of making and burning bricks does not come within the range of the artisan who employs them, and need not be described here. Bricks may bo divided into 3 classes : . (1) Cutters or; rubber...
-Terracotta
Blocks of terracotta are now being frequently used in place of bricks, specially for the facing of buildings. The blocks should be so shaped as to form a good ad with the brickwork, or whatever materi...
-Hydraulic, Rich, Fat, Poor Limes
Rich or fat limes are those calcined from pure, or very nearly pure, lime carbonate, not containing sufficient foreign constituents to have any appreciable effect upon either the slaking or settin...
-Sand
Sand is known as argillaceous, siliceous, or calcareous, according to composition. It is procured from pits, river-shores, sea-shores, or by grinding sand-ones; and is chiefly used for mortar co...
-Substitutes
Burnt clay is sometimes used as a substitute for sand in mortar. It La separed by piling moistened clay over a bonfire of coals and wood. As the day comes burnt and the fire breaks through, fresh laye...
-Mortar
Ordinary mortar is composed of lime and sand mixed into a paste with water. When cement is substituted for the lime, the mixture is called cement mortar. The use of mortar in brickwork or masonry is t...
-Mortar. Part 2
Lime is much more expensive than sand. It is, therefore, a source of economy to add as much sand as is possible without unduly deteriorating the strength of the mortar. So long as the joints of masonr...
-Mortar. Part 3
Selenitic mortar is generally made by mixing selenitic cement and sand. It was at one time made by mixing a small proportion of calcined sulphate with ordinary lime and sand. The licences now issued b...
-Mortar Tools
The tools required by the bricklayer are not of a complicated nature, nor is it a matter of difficulty to become proficient in their use. They are illustrated below. Fig. 1302 is a masons' trowel; Fig...
-Laying Bricks
The average size of bricks in this country is a fraction under 9 in. long and 2 1/2 in. thick; and, in consequeuce of this uniformity of size, a wall of this material is described as of so many bricks...
-Laying Bricks. Part 2
Bricks should not be merely laid. Every brick should be rubbed and pressed down in such a manner as to force the slimy matter of the mortar into the pores of the bricks, and so produce a perfect adhes...
-Laying Bricks. Part 3
In the next place the stopping when filled into the natural joints of the brickwork, even if tucked in sound (which is not always the case), is ironed up to a smooth surface level with the face of t...
-Laying Bricks. Part 4
Those who are called upon to use black pointing mortar should never stain it with lamp-black, foundry sand, or forge blowers, but procure from a powder manufactory a refuse called green char...
-Hollow Walls
Brick walls are sometimes built hollow, with the view of gaining one or more of the following objects, - (1) economy of materials, (2) equalizing the temperature and preventing damp in the apartment e...
-Fireplaces
Fig. 1332 shows the manner of supporting the hearth-stone of a fireplace when timber joists are used. Into the front wall a or chimney breast, below the grate, is built the hearth-stone b, supported a...
-Concrete
Concrete is an artificial compound, generally made by mixing lime or cement with sand, water, and some hard material, such as broken stone, gravel, burnt clay, bits of brick, slag, etc. These ingredie...
-Mixing
The materials are generally mixed in a dry state. The proportions decided upon are measured out either roughly by barrow-loads, or in a more precise manner by means of boxes made of sizes to suit the ...
-Laying
A common practice, which until lately was much insisted upon, is to tip the concrete, after mixing, from a height of 10 ft., or more, into the trench where it is to be deposited. This process is now c...
-Cementing Material
It is hardly necessary to say that when there is a choice, the strength and quality of the cementing material should be in proportion to the importance of the part the concrete has to play. Thus fat l...
-Hulk Produced
The bulk of concrete obtained from a mixture of proper proportions of lime, sand, and aggregate, varies considerably according to the nature and proportions of the materials and method of treatment; b...
-Selenitic Concrete
Concrete may be made with selenitic cement mortar as the matrix. Portland cement is sometimes added in small quantities to the selenitic cement. From a series of experiments it appears that a mixture ...
-Expansion
Concrete, when made with hot lime or cement, swells to an extent amounting to 1/8-3/8 in. per foot of its linear dimensions. This is owing to the imperfect slaking or cooling of the lime or cement. It...
-Saltpetreing Of Walls
The surfaces of walls are often covered with an efflorescence of an unsightly character, formed by a process known as saltpetreing. It shows itself chiefly in the case of newly built walls, but also...
-Damp Walls
The walls of a stone house, and sometimes of a brick house, are often covered with dampness. This is due to the same cause by which dew is deposited on grass, or moisture on the side of a glass or pit...
-Scaffolding
The scaffolding used by bricklayers consists of (1) poles which are usually 20-30 ft. long, or even more, and 6-9 in. in extreme diameter at the butt end; (2) putlogs, which are short poles about 6 ft...
-Plastering And Whitewashing
These operations are inseparable in the case of ceilings, and are often combined in other instances. ...
-Plastering
Materials A great variety of compositions are used by plasterers, among the most important being cements of various kinds. Many of these are used also for building purposes; others are very deficient...
-Plastering. Continued
Coarse stuff is a rough mortar containing 1-1 1/2 part sand to 1 of slaked lime by measure. This is thoroughly mixed with long, sound ox hair (free from grease or dirt, and well switched, or immerse...
-Plastering Tools
The trowel (Fig. 1339) should measure about 12 in. long, 4 in. wide, the blade being of light good steel, and the handle well rounded. The hawk (Fig. 1340) has a blade of hard wood, 14 in. sq., 3/...
-Lathing
The arrangement of the joists, etc, of floors and ceilings has already been described under Carpentry, pp. 334-40. Before beginning to lath a ceiling, it is necessary to prove the under surface of the...
-Laying And Pricking Up
When the lathing is finished, the work is either laid or pricked up, according as it is to be finished with 1, 2, or 3 coats. Laying is a thick coat of coarse stuff, or lime and hair, brought to a...
-Whitewashing
This is also known as calcimining and distemper painting. Whitewash is made from pure white lime mixed with water. It is used for common walls and ceilings, especially where, for sanitary reasons, a ...
-Whitewashing. Continued
If glue is employed to give body, it is destroyed by the corrosive action of the lime, and in consequence the latter easily rubs off the walls when dry. This is the case also if the lime is employed, ...
-Roofing
The subject for consideration in this section is the covering of buildings for the purpose of protecting them from the weather. The wooden framework for supporting the covering material has been alrea...
-Thatching
In country districts the roofs of cottages and outbuildings are frequently covered with thatch. This consists of layers of straw - wheaten lasts twice as long as oaten - about 15 in. in thickness, tie...
-Thatcher Tools
Thatchers' tools are as follows : - A common stable fork is used to toss the straw up together when it is wetted, preparatory to its being made into bundles for use. A thatchers' fork, Fig 1345, is a ...
-Shingles Or Shides
A convenient roofing material when wood is cheap and abundant consists of a kind of wooden slates, split pieces of wood measuring about 9 in. long, 5 in. wide, and 1 in. thick at one end but taperi...
-Felt
Roofing felt is a substance composed largely of hair saturated with an asphalte composition, and should be chosen more for closeness of texture than excessive thicknesa It is sold in rolls 2 ft. 8 in....
-Dachpappe
This is a kind of asphalte pasteboard much employed in Denmark; it is laid on close boarding at a very low pitch, and forms a light, durable covering, having the non-conducting properties of thatch. I...
-Willesden Paper
This is another extremely light, durable, and waterproof roofing material, which differs essentially from the 2 preceding substances in needing to be fixed to rafters or scantling, and requiring no bo...
-Slates
By far the most important roofing material, and the one in most general use at the present time, is slate. Slate is an argillaceous sedimentary rock which, after being deposited as clay at a very earl...
-Tiles
If all tiles were of the brilliant hue that is occasionally met with in country districts, it is probable that their use as a roofing material would have remained restricted. But lately manufacturers ...
-Metallic Roofing
The structural arrangement of a building frequently renders it impossible to form a sloping roof over all parts of it, and hence flats are necessary. When this is the case, metallic coverings are the ...
-Glazing
By this term is here meant the fixing of sheets of thin glass in windows for the admission of light to the interior of structures while excluding the weather. ...
-Glass
Glass is of several kinds. Crown glass is made in circular discs blown by hand; these discs are about 4 ft. diameter, and the glass averages about 1/15 in. thick. Owing to the mode of manufacture, t...
-Putty
Glaziers' putty is made of whiting and oil. The whiting should be in the form of a very dry fine powder; it should be specially dried for the purpose, and passed through a sieve of 45 holes to the inc...
-Soft Putty
10 lb. whiting and 1 lb. white-lead, mixed with the necessary quantity of boiled linseed oil, adding to it 1/2 gill best salad oil. The last prevents the white-lead from hardening, and preserves the p...
-How To Soften Putty
(a) 1 lb. American pearlash, 3 lb. quick stone lime; slake the lime in water, then add the pearlash, and make the whole about the consistence of paint. Apply it to both sides of the glass, and let it ...
-Glazing Tools
The tools employed by glaziers comprise a rule, for measuring the glass; putty knives of the form shown in Fig. 1361 which needs no pressure but that of the hands, and of the form in Fig. 1362 which r...
-Lead Glazing
Several species of glass are employed for this kind of glazing. Amongst these may be specified sheet and plate glass of various kinds; coloured glass, either pot-metal or flashed (pot-metal...
-Special Methods Of Glazing
Recently have been introduced a number of methods of glazing not depending on putty, thereby simplifying the operation of fixing and replacing the glass, though probably in all cases also facilitating...
-Bell-Hanging
The art of domestic bell-hanging is quite modern, and was but little in practice before the present century. At first it was usual to expose the wires to view along the walls and ceilings, even in the...
-Gas-Fitting
This is an eminently simple operation, capable of being performed by any one who has had any practice in soldering joints (see p. 114). It consists merely in making connections between a series of iro...
-Paperhanging
Wall papers may be divided into 3 classes: - (1) Common or pulp papers, in which the ground is the natural colour of the paper as first made, the pattern being printed upon it. (2) Satin papers...
-Paperhanging. Continued
With regard to the choice of paper, Edis has lately offered some well-considered remarks. The sizes of rooms should first be thought of, for papers with large patterns and wide dadoes are not generall...
-Lighting
The lighting of a dwelling is a most important consideration, as regards comfort and health. Natural lighting is provided for by windows, the construction of which has been described under Carpentry (...
-Oil-Lamps
The first lamp worthy of notice is that introduced by Argand; it consisted of an annular tube, on which the wick was stretched; of a reservoir containing the oil; of a pipe leading from the reservoir ...
-Gas
Coal gas, being much lighter than air, flows with greatest velocity in the upper floors of houses; hence the supply pipe may diminish in size as it rises, say from 1 1/4 in. at the basement to 3/4 in....
-Gas. Continued
With regard to the smaller flat flames, which are the most general for ordinary lighting, the selection of glass globes is a very important matter. It may be said at once that all the old-fashioned st...
-Electric Lighting
The following rules and regulations are drawn up by a committee of the Society of Telegraph Engineers and Electricians for the reduction to a minimum, in the case of electric lighting, of those risks ...
-Ventilating
This subject has long been left in a very unsatisfactory state of neglect, despite its importance with regard to health. The following remarks are mainly gathered from a paper on the subject recently ...
-Ventilating. Continued
In St. Thomas's Hospital, Lambeth, each ward contains central fireplaces facing the end of the room. The fresh air is admitted at the floor level, after passing through a flue open at one end to the e...
-Warming
In connection with warming an apartment, it is obviously a necessary condition that the warmth shall be conserved as much as possible. Hence there is an evil in having too much glass, as it cools the ...
-Open Grate
The ordinary open grate is too familiar to need any description, but it is wasteful of fuel to a degree that could only be tolerated in a mild climate where fuel was cheap. As a matter of fact, only s...
-Open Stove
This subject has been most ably discussed by Dr. Pridgin Teale, in connection with the economising of fuel in house fires. His remarks will well bear repeating. It is hardly possible to separate the...
-Close Stove
Where a continual genial warmth is required a1 little cost in an apartment, the slow combustion stove, such as that made by the Thames Bank Iron Company (Fig. 1394), may be employed. The external air ...
-Hot-Air Furnace
The close stove is really a hot-air furnace, but it is restricted to heating the air in the room. Other apparatus are designed to obtain a supply of fresh air and heat it before passing it into the ro...
-Hot Water
This is often used for heating greenhouses, churches, schoolrooms, &c The following simple plan is adapted for a greenhouse. If the kitchen boiler is one that is fed from a cistern at the side of...
-Steam Heat
Steam heat may well be compared with stove and furnace heat. Stove heat corresponds to direct radiation by steam, and furnace heat to indirect. The supply of fresh air from the outside to and over the...
-Foundations
The foundation of a building is the horizontal platform, either natural or artificial, prepared for carrying the walls and superstructure. It must not bo confounded with footings, which are the base...
-Soft Ground Of Indefinite Thickness
When the soft superstratum is of indefinite or very great thickness, and not hard enough to float the building upon it, by extending the area of the foundation, it must be supported upon piles or pi...
-Concrete Foundations
The nature of concrete that should be used for a foundation depends on the nature of the soil it is to be laid in : the object in all cases being to get as nearly as possible a homogeneous bed under t...
-Fascines
In soft marshy ground of great depth, a foundation of fascines is frequently employed in places where suitable brushwood is plentiful, in Holland for instance; and in such places it is highly approved...
-Piling
There are 2 modes in which piles may be used to form a foundation : - (1) When the soil is soft for a considerable depth; in which case a large area should be covered with piles connected together by ...
-Footings
In the process of constructing a wall, the mason or bricklayer first lays the footings on the foundation platform. The footing is an enlarged portion of the wall fur the purpose of distributing the ...
-Roads And Bridges
These subjects may be brought together under a single head as constituting the means of approach to a building. Roads Ordinary roads may be divided into 2 classes, - temporary and permanent. Attenti...
-Pavements
The London method of laying pavements is, first, to carefully grade the ground, sometimes using concrete to secure a firm foundation, where the soil is too soft; generally, sand spread over the level ...
-Cement Floors
Portland cement, and compositions that resemble that material, are used for a variety of purposes in Vienna; among others, for making artificial-stone sidewalks. A dry soil is to be preferred; but if ...
-Bridges
Obviously, to discuss the construction of bridges of large dimensions is quite beyond the scope of the present work. A simple form of timber bridge is shown in Fig. 1400, in which stout beams a are s...
-Banks, Hedges, Ditches, And Drains
Every house possessed of a garden or standing in the country will have more or less need for fences to exclude stray animals, and the means of carrying off surplus water during storms. In making bank...
-Water Supply And Sanitation
The supply of good water to the house and its outbuildings is of primary importance. The chief sources of supply are rivers, springs, wells, and ponds. In the case of river water, there is nothing sp...
-Water Supply And Sanitation. Continued
Where the interior of the well is faced with bricks - steined as it is termed - a simple method of proceeding is as follows: - A dram-curb is provided, being a circular frame of wood, with a strong ...
-House Construction
In many localities, the aid of an architect in planning a building has to be dispensed with, and various means have to be adopted with a view to utilizing the materials at hand. A few instructions und...
-Log Huts
Where timber abounds this is the simplest and cheapest form of house. The logs are cut to the length determined on for the walls, and merely squared on 2 opposite faces, as in Fig. 1403, to make them ...
-Frame Houses
These should commence with a foundation of brick or stone work carried up about 1 1/2 ft. above ground, or failing these materials, stout logs may be laid down. At proper intervals, the upright posts ...
-Earth Walls
These are made by ramming cohesive earth into a mould. The earth selected should contain no stones larger than 1 cub. in., and those which are admitted must be of a rounded form. No organic remains li...
-Stairs
The following are the technical names for the parts of stairs: - Flight is 1 the term for one continued series of steps without any break; landing is the level flat between two flights; tread ...
-Colonial Houses
The peculiar conditions of house building in Canada have been described in interesting detail by R. Gambier-Bousfield. He alludes to the absence, in the early days of the colony, of the means of quarr...
-Colonial Houses. Continued
Owing to there being no internal brick walls, each floor can be arranged without of necessity following the plan of the floor below; this gives endless facility in planning, and the consequence is tha...
-Books Relating To Applied Science
PUBLISHED BY E. & F. N. SPON. Workshop Receipts. For the Use of Manufacturers, Mechanics, and Scientific Amateurs. By Ernest Spon. Crown 8vo, cloth, with Illustrations, Price 5s. Bookbinding. Bron...
-Catalogue Of Scientific Books
Workshop Receipts (Second Series). By Robert Haldane. Devoted mainly to subjects connected with Chemical Manufactures. An entirely New Volume, uniform in Size, Style, and Type with the Original 'Works...
-Catalogue Of Scientific Books. Continued
In many cases hand-shaping is indispensable, such as sudden breakage, operations abroad, and on board ship; also for constructors having a limited number of machines. Turning and screw-cutting occupy ...
-The Practice Of Builders' Measurement
Mensuration and the Division of Land. Tables of the Weights of Iron and other Building Materials. Constants of Labour. Valuation of Property. Summary of the Practice in Delapidations. Scale of Profess...
-Chemists' Pocket-Book. A Pocket-Book For
Chemists, Chemical Manufacturers, Metallurgists, Dyers, Distillers, Brewers, Sugar Refiners, Photographers, Students, etc., etc., by Thomas Bayley, Assoc. R. C. Sc. Ireland, Analytical and Consulting ...
-Clerk Of Works. The Clerk Of Works, A Vade
Mecum for all engaged in' the Superintendence of Building Operations, by G. G. Hoskins, F. R I.B.A., third edition, fcap. 8vo, cloth, 1s. 6d. ...
-Factories And Workshops. Our Factories
Workshops, and Warehouses : their Sanitary and Fire-Resisting Arrangements, by B. H. Thwaite, Assoc. Mem. Inst. C.E., with numerous wood engravings, crown 8vo, cloth, 9s. Contents. Part 1. How the D...
-Tables Of The Weight Of Iron And Steel
Tabulated Weights of Angle, Tee, Bulb, Round, Square, and Flat Iron and Steel, and other information for the use of Naval Architects and Shipbuilders, by Chas. H. Jordan, Mem. Inst. N.A., Surveyor to ...
-A Supplement To Spons' Dictionary Of Engineering
Cibil, Mechanical, Military, and Nabal. Edited by ERNEST SPON, Assoc. Mem. Inst. C.E., Mem. Soc. Engineers, of the Franklin Institute, and of the Geologists' Association. The success which has atte...
-Spons' Encyclopaedia Of The Industrial Arts, Manufactures, And Commercial Products
EDITED BY C. G. WARNFORD LOCK, F.L.S., etc, etc. In Super-royal 8vo, containing 2100 pp., and Illustrated by nearly 1500 Engravings. Can be had in the following bindings: In 2 Vols., cloth...........
-Soap: A Treatise On The Manufacture Of Soap & Candles, Lubricants & Glycerine
By W. LANT CARPENTER, B.A., B.Sc. (LATE OF MESSRS. C. THOMAS AND BROTHERS, BRISTOL). Contents. ...
-Historical Epitome And References
Chapter I. Theoretical Principles - 2, Raw Materials : their Sources and Preparation - 3. Raw Materials: Refining, Clarifying, and Bleaching - 4. Raw Materials : their proximate Analysis - 5. Caustic ...
-Tanning. A Text-Book Of Tanning
A TREATISE ON THE CONVERSION OF SKINS INTO LEATHER, BOTH PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL. By HENRY R. PROCTER, F.C.S., OF LOWLIGHTS TANNERY; EXAMINER IN TANNING TO THE CITY AND GUILDS TECHNICAL INSTITUTE....









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