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Industrial Recipes | by John Phin



A collection of useful, reliable, practical recipes, rules, processes, methods, wrinkles and practical hints forming a reliable workshop companion for all engaged in the various industrial arts and trades.

TitleIndustrial Recipes
AuthorJohn Phin
PublisherIndustrial Book Co.
Year1913
Copyright1912, Industrial Book Co.
AmazonThe Workshop Companion
Industrial Recipes.

By John Phin, Ph.D, Author Of "Success With Recipes," "Trade Secrets" "Cements And Glues," " How To Use The Microscope," Etc.

Third Edition - Greatly Enlarged

By John Phin Ph D 2
-Preface
The following pages have been prepared with very great care, the chief aim being to give none but recipes which will not disappoint those who attempt to use them. Several of the recipes here given are...
-Preface To Revised Edition Preface
The extraordinary favor which has been accorded to the first part of The Workshop Companion - over twenty-five thousand copies having been sold without any special effort - has induced the author to p...
-Abyssinian Gold
This compound was so called because it was brought out in England during the recent war with Abyssinia. It consists of copper, 90.74; zinc, 8.33. This alloy, if of good materials and not heated too hi...
-Accidents
As those who are engaged in mechanical pursuits are peculiarly liable to accidents, we have introduced under the proper heads (Burns, Eye, Fires, Poisons) such brief suggestions as we thought might pr...
-Alabaster
This material is so common and yields such beautiful results when worked, that a few hints in regard to working and mending it may not be out of place. There are two distinct chemical compounds to ...
-Alcohol
This familiar liquid requires no description, but it may not be out of place to caution our readers that failure in the making of varnishes, etc., very often arises from the use of alcohol which by st...
-Alloys
In making alloys, especially where the component metals vary greatly in fusibility and volatility, the following rules must be observed: 1. Melt the least fusible, oxidable and volatile first, and ...
-Alloys. Continued
Amalgam Far Electrical Machines 1. Tin, 1 oz.; zinc, 1 oz.; mercury, 2 oz. 2. Baettgw's Amalgam. - Zinc, 2 oz.; mercury, 1 oz. At a certain temperature (easily found by experiment) it powders re...
-Amber
Amber is principally obtained from the shores of the Baltic, but it is also found in other parts of Europe. The most esteemed is the opaque variety, resembling the color of a lemon, and sometimes call...
-Annealing And Hardening
For the best methods of annealing, hardening and tempering steel, see article steel in this volume. Several valuable facts in regard to glass are alsc given under glass. Copper, brass, German silve...
-Antiseptic Preparations
Specimens of natural history intended for subsequent examination and dissection are best preserved in alcohol, but as this is expensive, a saturated solution of 100 parts of alum and 2 parts of saltpe...
-Beeswax
Beeswax is obtained by washing and melting the honeycomb. The product is yellow and is freed from its impurities, and bleached by melting it with hot water or steam, in a tinned copper or wooden vesse...
-Black-Boards
Various kinds of so-called liquid slating have been sold for converting any smooth board or wall into a black-board for school or other purposes. The following give very good results; No. 1 is pro...
-Brass
Next to iron, brass is probably the most generally useful metal, and as the varieties of this alloy are almost infinite, the range of purposes to which it may be applied is very great. The color of th...
-Brass. Continued
How To Whiten Brass Small articles of brass or copper may be whitened by boiling them in a solution of 3/4 lb. cream of tartar, 2 quarts of water, and 1 lb. grain tin or any pure tin finely divided...
-Brazing And Soldering
The term soldering is generally applied when fusible alloys of lead and tin are employed for uniting metals. When hard metals, such as copper, brass or silver are used, the terra brazing (derived from...
-Bronzing
Two distinct processes have had this name applied to them. The first consists in staining brass work a dark brown or bronze color and lacquering it; the second consists in partially corroding the bras...
-Burns
Those who work in red-hot metals, glass blowing, etc., are sometimes apt to burn their fingers. It is well to know that a solution of bicarbonate of soda (baking soda) promptly and permanently relieve...
-Catgut
This material is so valuable for many purposes that many mechanics will find it useful to know how to make it, as they can then provide themselves with any size and length that may be needed. The proc...
-Cements
General Rules Some years ago the writer called attention* to the fact that quite as much depends upon the manner in which a cement is used as upon the cement itself. The best cement that ever was c...
-Cements. Part 2
Armenian Cement The jewellers of Turkey, who are mostly Armenians, have a singular method of ornamenting watch cases, etc., with diamonds and other precious stones by simply gluing or cementing the...
-Cements. Part 3
Chinese Glue Shellac dissolved in alcohol. Used for joining wood, earthenware, glass, etc. This cement requires considerable time to become thoroughly hard, and even then is not as strong as good g...
-Cements. Part 4
Portable Glue Put a pinch of shredded gelatine into a wide-mouthed bottle; put on it a very little water, and about one-fourth part of glacial acetic acid; put in a well-fitting cork. If the right ...
-Cements. Part 5
Kerosene Oil Lamps The cement commonly used for fastening the tops on kerosene lamps is plaster of paris, which is porous and quickly penetrated by the kerosene. Another cement which has not this d...
-Cements. Part 6
Cement For Uniting Leather And Metal Wash the metal with hot gelatine; steep the leather in an infusion of nut galls (hot) and bring the two together. Cement For Leather Belting One who h...
-Cements. Part 7
Paste The best paste is made of good flour, well boiled. Resin, etc., do more harm than good. 2. An excellent white paste may be made by dissolving 2 1/2 oz. gum arabic in 2 quarts hot water and...
-Cements. Part 8
Sorel's Cement Mix commercial zinc white with 1/2 its bulk of fine sand, adding a solution of chloride of zinc of 1.26 specific gravity, and rub the whole thoroughly together in a mortar. The mixtu...
-Glass Cement
Take pulverized glass, 10 parts; powdered fluorspar, 20 parts; soluble silicate of soda, 60 parts. Both glass and fluorspar must be in the finest possible condition, which is best done by shaking each...
-Copper
Copper is probably the most difficult of all the metals to work by the file or lathe, but pure copper may be cut like cheese with a graver, and consequently it is extensively used for plates where the...
-Artificial Coral
Twigs, raisin stalks, and any objects having the general outline of branched coral, may be made to resemble that material by being dipped in a mixture of 4 parts resin, 3 parts beeswax and 2 parts ver...
-Cork
Corks are so important in many operations, that a little knowledge of the best methods of working them is indispensable. They form the best material for a holder for sandpaper in rubbing down flat sur...
-Crayons For Black-Boards
Spanish white, which is simply very fine chalk, is mixed with water and just enough flour paste to cause the particles to adhere when dry. If too much paste is used, the crayons will he too hard and w...
-Curling
A method of finishing such metals as brass, German silver, etc., which if well done, gives a very handsome appearance to the work. The work must first be carefully finished so as to have no scratches,...
-Liquid Cuticle
Collodion, or gun cotton dissolved in sulphuric ether, has no equal as a covering for protecting burns, cuts or wounds from the air. It soon dries, and forms a skin-like protection that adheres with g...
-Etching
Etching is the art of cutting lines in any material by means of some corrosive agent. Thus, since nitric acid dissolves copper, if we confine the action of the acid to certain lines, we can cut groove...
-Etching On Glass
Fancy work, ornamental figures, lettering and monograms, are most easily and neatly cut into glass by the sand blast process, a simple apparatus for which will be found described in the Young Scientis...
-Accidents To Eye
Those who are engaged in mechanical operations run great risk of accidents to the eye, and therefore a few hints in regard to this subject may be valuable to our readers. Minute particles of dust, ...
-Fires
Most of the fires that occur might be avoided by proper care, and the following hints, if carefully observed, will aid materially in avoiding such accidents: 1. Never leave matches where they can b...
-Fires. Continued
Clothes On Fire So many accidents are daily occurring from broken kerosene lamps, and clothes taking fire from gas lights and open fire-places, that it is very important to know what to do under su...
-Fly-Papers
Sticky or adhesive fly-papers are to be discouraged, as it is a cruelty to subject even flies to the long struggles and slow death caused by it. Such papers, however, are occasionally sold, and are pr...
-Freezing Mixtures
The temperatures here given are Fahrenheit. When ice or snow are not to be had and it is desired to cool any solid, liquid or gas, a good freezing mixture is the simplest method of accomplishing the ...
-Fumigating Pastils
For the purpose of deodorizing a room in which there is an offensive smell, common coffee berries, and even rags or brown paper, if properly burned, will serve admirably. The smoke from these substanc...
-Gilding
A covering of gold, when judiciously applied to the proper parts of any object adds greatly to its beauty, and in the case of metals, such as steel, copper, silver, etc., the gold, being capable of re...
-Glass Working
Glass is usually brought into shape by being moulded or blown. Simple and complete directions for blowing small articles may be found in the Young Scientist, vol. I, p. 37. There are a few other op...
-Glass Working. Part 2
Fitting Glass Stoppers Very few stoppers fit properly the bottles for which they are intended. The stoppers and bottles are ground with copper cones, fed with sand and made to revolve rapidly in a ...
-Glass Working. Part 3
How To Powder Glass Powdered glass is frequently used instead of paper, cloth, cotton or sand for filtering varnishes, acids, etc. It is not soluble or corrodible. Sand, if purely silicious, would ...
-Washing Glass Vessels
In many operations where glass vessels are used, success will depend upon having the glass perfectly clean. Upon this subject a correspondent of the Chemical News says: Such a subject may seem too sim...
-How To Stain Dried Grass
There are few prettier ornaments, and none more economical and lasting, than bouquets of dried grasses mingled with the various unchangeable flowers. They have but one fault, and that is this, the wan...
-Guns
The excellence of a gun depends very much upon the form and finish of the interior of the barrels, and as the owner may, if he chooses, work the inside of his gun over so as to improve it, we give a f...
-How To Fasten Handles
The handles of knives, forks, and similar articles, that have come off by being put in hot water, may be fastened on in the following manner: 1. Take powdered resin and mix with it a small quantity...
-Ink
The varieties of writing-fluids that have been devised and introduced are almost innumerable, but for practical purposes the inks in common use may be divided into three classes, viz: 1. Those which c...
-Ink. Part 2
Many inks, especially those made with iron and galls, are liable to mould and decompose. The formation of mould may, to a certain extent, be prevented by the use of creosote, carbolic acid, or cloves,...
-Ink. Part 3
Aqueous Solutions 1. Magenta, 1 oz. to the gallon of boiling distilled water. 2. Violet: 1/2 oz. to a gallon ditto. 3. Blue: 1 oz 9 pts. ditto. 4. Green: 1 oz. to 5 pta. ditto. The addition of a...
-Ink. Part 4
Ink That Will Not Freeze It is said that a mixture of eqxial parts of concentrated glycerine, alcohol and water, deeply colored with aniline black, does not freeze in the coldest weather, flows fre...
-Ink Eraser
A good ink eraser is thus made: Take of chloride of lime, one pound, thoroughly pulverized, and four quarts of soft water. The above must be thoroughly shaken when first put together. It is required t...
-Inlaying
Inlaying is a term applied to work in which certain figures which have been cut out of one kind of material are filled up with another of a different color. Such work is known as marquetry, and also a...
-Iron
This is undoubtedly the most important metal used in the arts. Directions for working it, such at least as would be valuable to professional blacksmiths, would occupy more space than we can afford, an...
-Iron. Part 2
Rust And Corrosion Iron is easily corroded by even the weak acids. Sulphuric acid, nitric acid, and hydrochloric acid all act on it quickly and powerfully. Air and moisture also quickly corrode it....
-Iron. Part 3
Tinning Iron The surface of the iron is cleaned from scale by vitriol or sulphuric acid, and then scoured with sand. It is now coated with a strong solution of chloride of zinc, and dipped into mel...
-Ivory
Ivory is obtained from the tusk of the elephant, and although material nearly resembling it may be obtained from other animals, yet the true ivory stands unequalled as a material for ornamental turnin...
-Bleaching And Cleaning Ivory
In reply to the question, What means there are of bleaching ivory which has become discolored? Holtzapffel, the great authority on such subjects, tells us that he regrets to be obliged to say that he ...
-Javelle Water
This name was derived from the town of Javelie, in France, where a manufactory sold a liquor which had the property of bleaching cloth by an immersion of some hours only. The following is the original...
-Jewelry And Gilded Ware
Ordinary gold jewelry may be effectually cleansed by washing with soap and warm water, rinsing in cold water and drying in warm boxwood sawdust. Plain, smooth surfaces may be rubbed with chamois leath...
-Lacquer
Lacquer is so called because it usually contains gum lac, either shellac or seed lac. Seed lac is the original form of the gum or resin; after being purified it is moulded into thin sheets, like shell...
-Laundry Gloss
Various recipes have been given for imparting a fine gloss to linen. Gum arabic, white wax, spermaceti, etc., have all been highly recommended, and are, no doubt, useful to a certain extent, but the g...
-Skeleton-Leaves
The following is a simple method of preparing skeleton leaves, and is decidedly preferable to the old and tedious method of maceration, as it is quite as efficient and not at all offensive. First diss...
-Signal And Colored Lights
The following recipes are from the United States Ordnance Manual, and may be considered reliable. The composition for signal lights is packed in shallow vessels of large diameter so as to expose consi...
-Signal And Colored Lights. Continued
Lights For Indoor Illuminations Many of the above are unfit for indoor exhibitions owing to the amount of sulphurous gas given off. For tableaux in churches, schools and private houses, the best li...
-Ghosts, Demons, Spectres And Murderers
To give a ghastly hue to the faces of the actors, the best light is that produced by some salt of soda, common salt being very good. We have succeeded well in this way: A piece of wire gauze such as a...
-Phosphorous Light
One of the most brilliant lights known is produced by burning phosphorous in oxygen. The apparatus usually employed for this purpose is bulky and expensive, but the following is a very simple method o...
-Photographic Light
A light of intense photographic power is produced by burning bisulphide of carbon in an argand lamp and passing a stream of nitric oxide through the centre of the flame Nitric oxide is easily produced...
-Chatham Light
This is a most intense flash-light used for military signals. Three parts finely powdered resin are mixed with one part magnesium dust, and blown by means of a tube through the flame of a spirit lamp....
-Lubricators
In selecting a lubricator for any rubbing surfaces, care must be taken to adapt the character of the lubricating material to the nature of the rubbing surfaces and the weight which they have to sustai...
-Marble
Marble is a compact carbonate of lime which varies in color, some specimens being pure white, others perfectly black, while others are green, red, veined, mottled, etc. The famous Mexican onyx, so-cal...
-Polishing Marble
Next comes the polishing, which is principally performed with rollers of woolen cloth or list made to the size of about three inches diameter. As the sixth process, a rubber is charged with flour emer...
-Polishing Metals
Metals are polished either by burnishing or buffing. The process of burnishing consists in rubbing down all the minute roughnesses by means of a highly polished steel or agate tool - none of the metal...
-Mirrors
As it is frequently convenient to be able to silver a piece of glass for a special purpose, we quote from Faraday's work on Chemical Manipulation, the following directions for performing this operatio...
-How To Silver
Provision must be made for supporting the glass in a perfectly horizontal position at the surface of the liquid. This is best done by cementing to the face of the mirror three nice hooks by which it m...
-Silver Amalgam For Mirrors
The great objections to mirrors coated with pure silver are the yellow character of the reflected light, and the fact that such mirrors are apt to be affected by sulphur. M. Lenoir has invented a proc...
-Care Of Looking Glasses
When looking glasses are exposed to the direct rays of the sun or to very strong heat from a fire the amalgam is apt to crystallize and the mirror loses its brilliancy. If a mirror is placed where the...
-Nickel
This is by far the most valuable metal that has been brought into notice during the past few years. It has been long familiar to chemists, and as a component of German silver, electrum, and similar al...
-Prevention Of Noise
To those who carry on any operations requiring much hammering or pounding, a simple means of deadening the noise of their work is a great relief. Several methods have been suggested, but the best are ...
-Painting Bright Metals
When paint is applied to bright metals like tin or zinc, it is very apt to peel off. This difficulty is greatly lessened if the metal be hot when the paint is applied, but in many cases this cannot be...
-Paper
There are so many purposes to which paper is applied that a small volume might be filled with a description of them. The following are those which will probably prove most useful to the amateur: ...
-Paper. Continued
Glass-Paper Paper coated with glass is known by this name just as paper coated with fine sharp sand is called sandpaper, and paper coated with emery is called emery paper. Paper or a cheap cloth is...
-Patina
An imitation of patina for bronze objects of all kinds can be produced by preparing a paint of carbonate of copper and any light alcoholic varnish, and applying it to the object with a brush. This gre...
-To Trace Patterns
There are various methods of making copies of patterns on paper, the simplest perhaps being the use of the tracing paper described on another page. When a few duplicates of patterns for embroidery ...
-Pencils As A Substitute For Ink
Aniline pencils have been in use for some time, and have given good satisfaction, but the following is said to give even better results. Pencils made after the following formula give a very black writ...
-To Fix Pencil Marks
To fix Pencil Marks so they will not rub out, take well-skimmed milk and dilute with an equal bulk of water. Wash the pencil marks (whether writing or drawing) with this liquid, using a soft, flat cam...
-Pewter
The principal constituents of pewter are lead and tin; the proportions of the two metals depending somewhat on the use to which the alloy is put. The best contains but 16 to 20 per cent, of lead. Of t...
-Pillows For The Sick Room
Save all your scraps of writing paper, old envelopes, old notes of no use for keeping, old backs of notes, etc. Cut them in strips about one-half inch wide and two inches long, and curl them well with...
-Plaster Of Paris
Plaster of Paris is a well known material, obtained by exposing the purer varieties of gypsum or alabaster to a heat a little above that of boiling water, when it becomes a fine, white dry powder. Som...
-Poisons
Many of the substances used in the arts are highly poisonous. Indeed, some of the most virulent poisons are employed in very common operations. Thus arsenic is vised for coloring brass; the strong aci...
-Poisons. Part 2
The following notes on special poisons will prove useful: Strong Acid Where nitric, sulphuric or hydrochloric acid has been swallowed, it is well to administer carbonate of soda before g...
-Poisons. Part 3
Corrosive Sublimate When corrosive sublimate has been swallowed, the first thing to be done is, if possible, to get rid of it, either by means of emetics or the stomach-pump. If the poison has been...
-Polishing Powders
Nothing is more necessary to the successful use of polish ing powder than equality in the grain. Fine dust clogs the action of coarse grinding powders, and prevents them from cutting with rapidity the...
-Polishing Powders. Part 2
Crocus Or Rouge These articles are manufactured at Liverpool, by persons who make it their sole occupation, in the following manner: They take crystals of sulphate of iron (green vitriol or copp...
-Oilstone Powder
The Turkey oilstone can hardly be considered as a hone slate, having nothing of a lamellar or schistose appearance. As a whetstone it surpasses every other known substance, and possesses, in an eminen...
-Pumice-Stone Powder
Pumice-stone is a volcanic product, and is obtained principally from the Carnpo Bianco, one of the Lipari islands, which is entirely composed of this substance. It is extensively employed in various b...
-Resins
The resins are so frequently employed in the arts that a knowledge of the action of different solvents upon them is of great value. Dr. Sac, of Neuenberg, Switzerland, has made an extensive inquiry...
-Saws
The grand secret of putting any saw in the best possible cutting order, consists in filing the teeth at a given angle to cut rapidly, and of a uniform length, so that the points will all touch a strai...
-Sieves
It is often desirable to sift powders into different degrees of fineness, and very fine sieves are not always to be easily had. Those made of hair and wire answer well, but the finest may be made out ...
-Shellac
Shellac or lac is a resinous substance which, in India, flows from certain trees in the form of lucid tears, in consequence of punctures made upon their branches by a small insect. It is found in c...
-Silver
Pure silver is quite soft, and is, therefore, generally alloyed with copper to harden it. Silversmiths' work, after having been filed is generally rubbed, firstly, with a lump of pumice-stone and w...
-Silver. Continued
Old Silvering To imitate old artistic productions made of solid silver, the groundwork and hollow portions not subject to friction are covered with a blackish-red earthy coat, the parts in relief r...
-Silvering
Leather, cloth, wood and similar materials are silvered by processes similar to those used for gilding, silver leaf being substituted for gold leaf. Metals may be silvered either by brazing a thin she...
-Size
The size used for filling the pores of plaster, wood, cloth, paper, etc., for the purpose of preparing it to receive paint or varnish, is usually made from glue. Where large quantities are used the si...
-Tanning And Curing Skins
Curing Fur Skins The following are the directions given in the Trapper's Guide, by Newkouse, an experienced trapper and hunter. 1. As soon as possible after the animal is dead, attend to the ski...
-Stains
Stains of different kinds are removed either by dissolving the offensive matter out of the material which it has soiled or by destroying it. Ordinary washing is a good example of the first method; the...
-Stains. Continued
Ink And Iron Mould Fresh ink and the soluble salts of iron produce stains which, if allowed to dry, and especially if afterwards the material has been washed, are difficult to extract without injur...
-Working And Tempering Steel
Most workmen find themselves, at times, compelled to forge and temper their own tools, such as drills, cold chisels, etc. The following hints will be of service: Forging Steel Beware of over...
-Blazing Off Steel
Saws and springs are generally hardened in various compositions of oil, suet, wax and other ingredients, which, however, lose their hardening property after a few weeks constant use; the saws are heat...
-Welding Steel
As we have already stated in the article on Iron, welding is in reality a species of autogenous soldering. And, as in soldering or brazing, it is necessary to keep the surfaces that are to be united, ...
-Sulphur
Sulphur or brimstone is a well-known yellow substance largely used in the manufacture of matches, gunpowder and sulphuric acid. Aside from these uses, which are of interest only to large manufacturers...
-Tin
Tin is a brilliant, silvery-white metal. It is very malleable, but its power to resist tensile strains is so small that it is not very ductile. When bent it emits a peculiar crackling sound, arising f...
-Varnish
It is in general more economical to buy varnishes than to make them on the small scale. Occasionally, however, our readers may find themselves in a situation where a simple recipe for a good varnish w...
-Varnish. Part 2
Bright Varnish For Iron Work Dissolve 3 lbs. of resin in 10 pints boiled Unseed oil, and add 2 lbs. of turpentine. Map Varnish Clear Canada balsam, 4 oz.; turpentine, 8 oz. Warm gently an...
-Varnish. Part 3
Varnish For Violins And Similar Articles Sandarach, 6 oz.; mastic, 3 oz.; turpentine varnish, one-half pint; alcohol 1 gallon. Keep in a tight tin can in a warm place until the gums are dissolved. ...
-Varnishing
Before beginning to varnish, it is necessary that the surface to which it is to be applied, should be perfectly free from all grease and smoke stains, for it will be found if this is not attended to, ...
-Voltaic Batteries
In every kind of battery it is essential that the connections be bright, and that the metal surfaces which are to be united should be brought together under considerable pressure. Those batteries whic...
-Care Of Watch
1. Wind your watch as nearly as possible at same hour every day. 2. Be careful that the key is in good condition, as there is much danger of injuring the works when the key is worn or cracked; there a...
-Waterproofing
Porous goods are made waterproof according to two very distinct systems. According to the first the articles are made absolutely impervious to water and air by having their pores filled up with some o...
-Whitewash
The process of whitewashing is known by various names, such as calcimining. kalsomining, etc., most of them derived evidently from the latin name for lime, which was the principal ingredient of ...
-Wood Floors
The following method of staining floors in oak or walnut colors is highly commended by the London Furniture Gazette: Put 1 oz. Vandyke brown in oil, 3 oz. pearlash, and 2 drnis. dragon's blood, into a...
-Polishing Wood
Knotted or cross-grained wood cannot be planed with the planes used for deal, but with a special tool, of which the iron is placed at a more obtuse angle. These planes can be had in wood or metal, and...
-Wood Staining
In preparing any of the tinctures used for staining, it is of importance to powder or mash all the dry stuffs previous to dissolving or macerating them, and to purify all the liquids by filtration bef...
-Wood Staining. Continued
Mahogany 1. Water, 1 gallon; madder, 8 oz.; fustic, 4 oz. Boil. Lay on with a brush while hot, and while wet streak it with black to vary the grain. This imitates Honduras mahogany. 2. Madder, 8...
-Zinc
Zinc, when cast into plates or ingots, is a brittle metal, easily broken by blows from a hammer. In this state it is evidently somewhat porous, as its specific gravity is only 6.8, while that of rolle...
-Adamantine, Or Boron Diamond
This term has been applied to a crystalline form of boron prepared by heating boraeic acid - or, what is still better, amorphous borun - with aluminium in a crucible. The name is not a very happy one,...
-Aquarium
The aquarium is now not only an interesting plaything and a handsome house ornament, but an important means of studying the habits of those plants and animals that live in water, and of watching the e...
-Aquarium Tanks
Aquarium tanks are of all sizes and shapes, from the small fish-globe to the plate-glass tank, whose dimensions are measured by yards and whose contents are hundreds of gallons. In such tanks veritabl...
-Aquarium Cements
A great deal has been said about the cement proper to use for uniting the parts of the aquarium. Some authors tell us that any cement containing either lime or lead will be sure to injure the fish; bu...
-Aquarium Rock-Work
Rock-work is not only ornamental, but useful, as it furnishes hiding-places for the animals - all of which love seclusion at certain times. In selecting rocks, see that all those containing lime and o...
-Aquarium Water
In procuring water for the aquarium, always select that which is as pure as possible. Absolutely pure water can not be had, even in the laboratory of the chemist, nor would it be desirable if it could...
-Aquarium Floor And Soil
By floor is meant the surface of the sand, gravel, or earth, at the bottom of the tank. In the common fish-globes, this is frequently merely the glass itself, though sometimes a handful of gravel is...
-Stocking The Aquarium
The great mistake made by most beginners in stocking an aquarium is in getting too much animal life in proportion to the cubic capacity of the tank. It is not often that we see too many plants, but we...
-Aquarium Plants
The plants most suitable for the aquarium are those which grow with their leaves entirely submerged. Large plants like calla, arrowhead, etc., which grow with their leaves in the air, do not act upon ...
-Aquarium Mollusks
These are not only an interesting but an almost indispensably useful portion of the inhabitants of every well regulated aquarium. They serve to keep down the confervas, to remove decaying vegetable ma...
-Aquarium Insects
The larvae of insects - and in a few cases the mature animals themselves - are interesting. The bottoms of most of our small ponds are alive with different species, some of which are very curious in t...
-Aquarium Crustaceans
Crayfish and shrimp should by all means have a place in the aquarium. They are to be found in most streams by turning over the stones, and they are easily caught. Of the fresh-water crayfish we have o...
-Aquarium Reptiles
No aquarium can be considered complete without a frog or a tadpole. Watching a tadpole develop into a frog is a favorite amusement with young naturalists. First of all they gradually increase in size,...
-Aquarium Fish
In procuring fish for the aquarium, one of the greatest sources of pleasure will be the catching of them. The catching of small fish, under ordinary circumstances, is an insipid and to some a very dis...
-Aurum Musivum, Or Mosaicum
This compound early attracted the attention of the alchemists, who no doubt supposed, when they saw it come from their crucibles, that they had taken a long stride toward the discovery of the philosop...
-Authorship
Authorship consists of two distinct departments: first, the possession of good ideas; and second, the getting of them into a form fit for publication. In regard to the first, we can offer no help; but...
-How To Estimate The Amount Of Matter In Manuscript
A tolerably close estimate of the words contained in even bad manuscript may be made by counting the lines of say twelve of its varying pages, then getting an average per line of the words in several ...
-Babbitt's Anti-Attrition Metal
This has long been a favorite alloy for forming bearings for the journals of shafts, etc. The large proportion of tin which it contains renders it essentially anti-friction, while the copper and antim...
-Balloon
As a means of aerial navigation, in the proper sense of that term, the balloon is now generally acknowledged to be useless or worse than useless; but as an instrument for observation, whether in the o...
-Bast
Bast, or bass, is the inner bark of various species of the linden. It is used in Europe (chiefly in Russia) largely for manufacturing mats, which form a most excellent protective covering for plants, ...
-Bedbugs
Bedbugs are not only disgusting and annoying, but absolutely dangerous, as their bites and poison have been known to cause severe fevers in persons of sensitive organization. Some persons seem to be p...
-Oil Of Birch-Bark
It has long been a well-known fact that Russia leather owes its durability, as well as its peculiar odor, to the oil of birch-bark, with which it is dressed. The whole process seems to be pretty well ...
-Birdlime
This preparation is used extensively by professional birdcatchers, and affords a very simple and effectual method of capturing small birds without injuring them. Twigs or small rods are coated with bi...
-Brunswick Black
This is a black varnish which is a favorite with microscopists and amateurs. Being cheap it is also used to blacken ironwork, grates, etc. The formula for the best article is as follows: - In an ir...
-Bladders
To the amateur chemist bladders often form an efficient substitute for a much more expensive apparatus. They form the cheapest and most convenient gasholders that can be obtained; and we have often me...
-Cadmium
This metal would be of great use in the arts if it were not so rare. In many of its properties it stands between zinc and tin. The color and metallic luster of cadmium are similar to those of tin: it ...
-Cameos
Success in the cutting of cameos will depend largely upon the artistic abilities of the carver. In skillful hands the results are exceedingly delicate and beautiful. The following is the method of wor...
-Casehardening
There are few subjects which have afforded a more profitable field to the traveling recipe-monger than iron and steel, especially as relates to welding and casehardening. The latter is a very old proc...
-New Casehardening Compound
This compound is very efficacious for casehardeniug iron. It consists of 16 parts of lampblack, 18 of sal soda, 4 of muriate of soda, and 1 of black oxide of manganese. This recipe is almost worth...
-Casehardening Powders
Several powders have been placed on market for the purpose of casehardening. The principles to be adopted in compounding them will be obvious from what we have just written. The following are a few of...
-Castings And Patterns
There are few problems more interesting to the pattern-maker than the determination of the weight of the castings which his patterns will produce. Some years ago the author investigated this subject v...
-Chamois
The chamois of commerce is a variety of soft pliable leather obtained by tanning the skin of the animal of the same name belonging to the antelope species. The leather is used extensively for burnishi...
-Court-Plaster
This is a very convenient application for slight wounds or cuts, and is easily made. It is found of various colors, chiefly black and flesh-colored; and this depends altogether upon the color of the s...
-Crucible
This important instrument is used alike by the scientific metallurgist, the practical founder, and the amateur. The shape of the crucible and the material of which it is made vary very much, the selec...
-Diamond
Diamond-dust may be bought in most large cities ready prepared. It is not a very costly article, as it is made of waste pieces obtained in cutting jewels, and a little of it lasts a long time. Diam...
-Dubbing
This term is applied to various greasy compounds employed by curriers and shoemakers for softening and preserving leather. 1. Cuttings of sheepskins boiled in cod-oil. Said to be used by curriers. ...
-Ebony. Ebonizing
Although ebony is a synonym for blackness, there are several colors of this wood - yellow, red, and green, as well as black. The black variety, however, is always meant when ebony is spoken of. T...
-Eelskin
The skin of the eel, when properly prepared, is not excelled for toughness, pliability, and durability, by any other material, except perhaps the dried and well-worked pizzle of the bull, which in old...
-How To Transfer Engravings To Wood
Fine engravings, neatly transferred to a wooden surface, form as pretty an ornamentstion as can be wished, and mny often be utilized in the finishing of articles made of wood. The process is as follow...
-Fahlun Brilliants
Pieces of metal cast with plane facets in the form of crystals. They reflect the light so as to have a dark luster. The alloy of which they are made is composed of tin 29, lead 19. This alloy when mel...
-Fazie Metal
An alloy said to be composed of wrought iron, cast-iron, and brass. The bronze or brass and the cast and wrought-iron are melted separately; then mixed, and continually stirred even while being poured...
-Fluxes
Fluxes are very frequently required in cases of chemical action amongst metallic compounds at high temperatures, and often can not be dispensed with. Their use is to protect the substance from the ai...
-Furniture: Its Care And Renovation
Every house should have a few joiner's tools, a glue-pot, a paint-brush or two, and a box of nails, screws, and brads. With these few tools and other supplies, a handy boy or girl or housekeeper shou...
-How To Clean Marble
Mix the strongest soap-lees with quicklime to the consistency of milk; let it lie on the stone, etc., for twenty-four hours; then clean it off, and wash with soap and water, and it will appear as new....
-How To Clean Pictures
Wash them with a sponge or soft leather pad and water, and dry by rubbing with a silk handkerchief. When the picture is very dirty, take it out of its frame, procure a clean towel, and making it quite...
-How To Remove Taint Or Stains From Woodwork
Dissolve potash in water, making a strong solution. With this wash the surface of the work, allowing it to soak a few minutes. If the paint can not then be scraped off, give the wood another applicati...
-Lutes
The distinction between lutes and cements is not always very obvious. As a general rule, however, a lute is a cement used for connecting, temporarily, the parts of a piece of apparatus or for coating ...
-Lutes. Part 2
Lime Cement This is made of caustic lime mixed with white of egg, glue, blood, milk, or similar matters. See Parolic Cement. The lime should be freshly burned, slaked with just enough water to m...
-Lutes. Part 3
Coating For Glass Vessels 1. Dissolve one ounce of borax in a half pint of water, and add slaked lime to form a thin paste. Brush this over the retort, and let it dry gradually. Then apply a coatin...
-German Paste
This well known food for insectivorous birds is prepared as follows: Pea-meal, 2 lbs.; sweet almonds (blanched), 1 lb.; butter or lard, 1/4b.; moist sugar, 5 oz.; hay saffron, 1/2 dr. Beat to a smooth...
-Gumption, For Artists
This is employed by the artist as a vehicle to use with some of his colors. It is composed of either poppy, nut, or linseed oil, to which a drying quality has been given by soaking in it for some days...
-Gut, Silkworm
The raising of silkworms has recently become, in this country, a favorite pursuit with amateurs. The following method of utilizing these interesting insects and of producing an article that will alway...
-Gutta-Percha
This substance is frequently confounded by the ignorant with india-rubber, from which, however, it is entirely distinct. It is obtained by evaporating the juice of Isonandra gutta, a tall tree which g...
-Care Of The Hands
Clean, soft, well-formed hands and Augers are indispensable, not only to those who would make a good appearance in society, but to those who desire to excel in fine work. The engraver, the watchmaker,...
-Harness
Great errors are frequently committed in the care of harness, and it often happens that from ignorance or want of thought much injury is done. This arises principally from the fact that there are two ...
-Icehouses
An icehouse of some kind or another is indispensable to every country-house where ice is not delivered by the regular dealers, or where it can not be obtained when wanted. There should be no regula...
-Night Lights
The convenience of having at command a small light which will burn all night and give sufficient light to enable the watcher to perform the usual offices of the sickroom has led to numerous inventions...
-Magic Lantern Pictures
For all the better class of pictures nothing can equal good photographs on glass; and now that amateur photographic apparatus has come into such general use, the use of the magic lantern, both for amu...
-Methylated Spirit
This liquid is frequently named in English recipes, and sometimes puzzles the American reader. Wherever methylated spirit is to be used, alcohol of 95 p. c. may be substituted for it. The term is appl...
-Moire Metallique
This method of ornamenting tin goods was at one time very fashionable; but like many other good things it has fallen somewhat into disfavor, probably owing to the cheap look given by inferior work. ...
-Nails
It is estimated that there are over 4,000 different kinds and sizes of nails in market. Amongst the most important of these are: 1,common cut-nails; 2,finishing-nails,which are more slender and have n...
-Nails. Continued
These facts will enable us to determine approximately the number of nails required for any piece of work. The following table, which gives the denomination of the nail, its length, and the number cont...
-Boat-Spikes
Length. No. to lb. 3 inches, . . . 175 4 . . . 1257 5 ... . 7.2 6...
-Ship-Spikes
Length. No. to lb. 4 inches, . . . 8 5 ... . 437 6 ... . 4.2 7 .....
-Nine Oils
Readers of Dickens can not fail to remember the bottle of Nine Oils which Sissy Jupe got for her father, and kept so long waiting for his return. This favorite old remedy has disappeared from modern...
-Luminous Enamel
Five parts of the ordinary luminous powder prepared from oyster-shells as previously directed; ten of fluor-spar, cryolite, or other similar fluoride; one of barium borate; powdered, mixed, made into ...
-Luminous Paper
Take 50 parts of luminous powder, prepared as previously directed, 4 parts bichromate of potash, and 4 of gelatine. These are to be thoroughly dried, and mixed by grinding. One part of the resulting p...
-Paint For Iron Exposed To The Weather
The late John C. Trautwine, who was one of our most experienced engineers, tells us that the best paints for preserving iron exposed to the weather, are prepared from the pulverized oxides of iron, su...
-Painters' Cream
This is a mixture used by painters to cover their work when they are obliged to leave it for some time. It may be washed off with a sponge and water, so as to leave the painting in the exact state in ...
-Repairing Paintings
In Europe the art of repairing and revarnishing, or, as it is called, restoring pictures, is quite a business; and as this country grows, the business will no doubt become more general and lucrative...
-Pith For Cleaning
Kemlo says the stalk of the common mullein affords the best pith for cleaning watch-pinions. It may be found in old fields and by-places all over the country. Winter, when the stalk is dry, is the bes...
-Plaster Casts
The methods of making ordinary plaster casts are well known; but there are a few special methods of treating this substance which it may be well to describe. The material employed is plaster of Paris,...
-Porcelain Finish
White paint, suitable for reflectors, may be made by mixing dry white zinc carbonate with silicate of potash liquid. After each coat artificial heat should be employed to hasten the drying. ...
-Putty
The term putty is applied to three very different articles. The mason or plasterer gives this name to a finely divided and smooth paste of slaked lime, used for filling cracks, finishing off delicate ...
-Rangoon Oil
This material is frequently alluded to in industrial works and journals published in Great Britain. It is simply petroleum obtained from Rangoon, in Burmah. The crude product is known as Rangoon tar; ...
-Razor-Strops
The following article, which we extract from Trade Secrets, contains the pith of the accessible information on this subject: - A good razor-strop is indispensable, not only to the barber and to t...
-Smoke-Stains
To remove smoky stains from walls brush them with a broom; then wash them over with strong pearlash water, and immediately rinse them with clean water before the pearlash is dry. When dry, give the wa...
-Spence's Metal
Great hopes were at one time entertained in regard to this mixture; but of late it seems to have lost favor. It is, however, a really valuable preparation for some purposes. It is prepared by melting ...
-Sponges
The sponge is one of the most useful articles in the household and in the arts, and it is well to know both how to choose it and how to care for it. The best sponges come from the Mediterranean, and a...
-Sulphur Casta
Sulphur is a favorite material with which to make easts of coins and similar articles. The process is as follows: - Prepare the coin or other body of which the mold is to be made, by slightly oilin...
-Thatched Roofs
Good straw makes a most excellent covering for buildings in the country; and as timber is becoming more valuable and slate can only be obtained from considerable distances, it is probable that straw w...
-Tiers-Argent
This alloy?s so called because it is supposed to consist of one third silver. According to the analyses of Dr. Winkler its composition is: copper, 59.06; silver, 2756; zinc, 957; nickel, 3.42. This al...
-Veneering
The softest woods should be chosen for veneering upon, - such as common cedar or yellow pine. Perhaps the best of all for the purpose is arrow board, twelve foot lengths of which can be had of perfe...
-Waterproofing Leather with Paraffin
A few years ago a patent was taken out by Dr. Stenhouse for employing paraffin as a means of rendering leather waterproof, as well as the various textile and felted fabrics; and since then additional ...
-Water-Tight Walls
The interior walls of the gate-houses of the Croton Reservoir in Central Park, New York, have been successfully treated according to the Sylvester process, which is fully described in a paper read by ...
-Wax-Milk
This is a partly saponified emulsion of wax, which has been sold extensively as a furniture polish. It may be prepared from ordinary beeswax, but the cheaper Japanese wax answers quite as well. Boil o...
-White Metal
This term has been applied to a large number of alloys of very varying composition. (See Copper, Blanched; Albata; Tutania, and others.) An alloy which is very generally known in the arts as white me...
-Wood
Probably the oldest timber in the world which has been subjected to the use of man is that which is found in the ancient temples of Egypt. It is found in connection with stone-work which is known to b...
-Polishing With Charcoal
The following method of polishing wood with charcoal is now much used by French cabinetmakers, and produces that well-known beautiful dead black color, with sharp clear edges and a smooth surface, whi...
-Stains For Wood
Leo, of Bensheim, Germany, recommends the following stains for oak, pine, beech, poplar, etc. 1. Yellow Stain Wash over with a hot, concentrated solution of picric acid, and when dry, polish...
-The Steel Square Pocket Book
A PRACTICAL AND HANDY TREATISE GIVING THE BEST METHODS OF USING THE CARPENTER'S STEEL SQUARE By D. L. STODDARD 160 PAGES (3x5 inches) 150 ILLUSTRATIONS Handsomely Bound in Cloth. ...
-How To Mix Paints
A SIMPLE TREATISE PREPARED TO MEET THE WANTS OF THE PRACTICAL PAINTER By C. GODFREY 64 PAGES (5x7 inches) Fully Illustrated. Handsomely Bound In Cloth. Price, 50 Cents. Sen...
-Short Cuts In Carpentry
A COLLECTION OF NEW AND IMPROVED METHODS OF LAYING OUT AND ERECTING CARPENTERS' AND JOINERS' WORK By ALBERT FAIR 80 PAGES (5x7 inches) 75 ILLUSTRATIONS Handsomely bound in Cloth. PRICE, 50...
-How To Read Plans
A VALUABLE NEW BOOK By Charles G. Peker. 60 PAGES (5x7 Inches) 43 DRAWINGS IN TEXT 8 LARGE FOLDING PLATES Handsomely Bound in Cloth. PRICE, 50 CENTS Seat pest paid on receipt of p...









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