books



previous page: The Mechanician, A Treatise On The Construction And Manipulation Of Tools | by Cameron Knight
  
page up: Mechanics and Engineering Books
  
next page: American Library Edition Of Workshop Receipts Vol2| by Ernest Spon

American Library Edition Of Workshop Receipts Vol1| by Ernest Spon



Workshop Receipts has been compiled with three purposes in view: to serve as a note-book to the small manufacturer; to supply the intelligent workman with information required to conduct a process, foreign perhaps to his habitual labour, but which it is necessary to practise at the time; and to impart to the scientific amateur a knowledge of many processes in the arts, trades and manufactures, which will, it is hoped, render his pursuits the more instructive and remunerative.

TitleAmerican Library Edition Of Workshop Receipts Vol1
AuthorErnest Spon
PublisherSpon & Chamberlain
Year1903
Copyright1903, Spon & Chamberlain
AmazonAmerican Library Edition Of Workshop Receipts

Being A Complete Technical Encyclopaedia In Five Volumes.

Vol I. - General: - Devoted To Receipts Formulas And Processes Used In The Arts, Trades And Manufactures

Edited by Ernest Spon, C.E, M.I.C.E, (Editor of the Supplement to Spons' Dictionary of Engineering, etc.)

Second Edition, Revised

-Preface To The Second Edition
The favourable reception of Workshop Receipts by the scientific public during the last twenty years has been most satisfactory to the Publishers, as it has proved to them that the book is a valuable a...
-Alcohol Barrels
Barrels or casks designed to be filled with alcohol, may be made tight by the application of the following solution: - Dissolve in a water bath 1 lb. of leather scraps and 1 oz. of oxalic acid, in 2 l...
-Alloy Recipes
Aluminium Bronze 100 parts copper and 10 aluminium, measured by weighing, when combined is a durable alloy, which may be forged and worked in the same manner as copper, and is the same colour as pale...
-Babbitt's Attrition Metal
Melt separately 4 lb. of copper, 12 lb. best quality tin, 8 lb. regulus of antimony, and 12 lb. more of tin while the composition is in a melted state. Pour the antimony into the tin, then mix with th...
-Melting Brass
The best plan of melting brass is to melt the copper in a black-lead crucible first, dry the zinc as much as possible, and immerse the whole of the zinc into the copper when the latter is not hotter t...
-Stereotype Metal
1 tin; 1 antimony; 4 lead. In using stereotype metal, brush the type with plumbago or a small quantity of oil, then place in a frame, and take a cast with plaster of Paris. The cast is dried in a very...
-Amber
Worling Amber in the rough is first split and cut rudely into the shape required by a leaden wheel worked with emery powder, or by a bow-saw having a wire for the blade, Tripoli or emery powder being...
-Aquafortis
Simple Or Single Distil 2 lb. of saltpetre and 1 lb. of copperas. Double Saltpetre, 6 lb., copperas, 6 lb. in its usual crystallised state, together with 3 lb. calcined to redness. Strong Coppera...
-Blacking
Paste Mix 1 part of ivory black, 1/2 treacle, 1/8 sweet oil, then add J oil of vitriol and 1/8 hydrochloric acid. Dilute each ingredient with three times its weight of water before mixing. Liquid (...
-How to Bleach Paper
(a) For bleaching rags, and other materials from which paper is at first fabricated, rags, when grey or coloured, are to be separated and ground in the paper-mill in the usual way, till brought to a s...
-How to Prevent Boiler Incrustations
The following remedies have been wed with varying success to prevent incrustation: - 1. Potatoes, 1/80 th of weight of water prevents adherence of scale. 2. 12 parts salt, 2 1/2 caustic soda, 1/8 ex...
-Bookbinding Process
Tools To bind a book well, certain tools are indispensable; but very few will go a good way; and a book may be put together very decently with the aid of no other tools than a shoemaker's hammer and ...
-Bookbinding Process. Part 2
A wedge-shaped cutting board is then placed on the left-hand side of the book, so as to stand with its thick edge considerably higher than the course the knife will take; another board is then placed ...
-Bookbinding Process. Part 3
After the ends are finished, which operation will be materially assisted by a paper knife having one pointed end, the corners must be attended to; the superfluous leather meeting at the angle must be ...
-Book Binding Without Tools
(a) All that need be provided is a little melted glue, some paste, a needle and stout thread, some white and some coloured papers, and a few other trifling items. Arrange the sheets to be bound in the...
-Marbling Paper And Book Edges
Wooden Trough This is made of inch deal, about 1} in. in depth and 1/2 in. in length and breadth larger than the sheets of paper that are to be marbled. This proportion between the size of the trough...
-Book Binding Colours
Red - vermilion, drop-lake, rose-pink, Venetian red, red ochre. Blue - indigo blue, Prussian blue, verditer. Orange - orange lead, orange orpimeat. Black - ivory, blue black. Yellow - Dutch pink, yell...
-Book Binding Patterns
(a) Throw on red till the solution is nearly covered, then some yellow, black, and green; add, if desired, a little purple with plenty of gall and water in it; twist the colours into any shape by mean...
-Bronzing #2
Brasswork (a) Take lampblack, about a thimbleful, and put it on a flat stone or smooth slate; add four or five spots of gold size, and well mix with a palette knife, making the whole about as thick a...
-Bronzing Copper Utensils
(a) If the article is not new take it to pieces, wiping off all the solder with a wisp of tow, and taking care not to let any of the metal in the fire; then twist a little tow on the end of a stick, a...
-Bronzing Gas Fittings
(a) Boil the work in strong lye, and scour it free from all grease or old lacquer; pickle it in diluted nitric acid till it is quite clean (not bright), then dip in strong acid, and rinse through four...
-Bronzing Powders
Cheap (a) Verdigris, 8 oz.; flowers of zinc or tutti powder, 4 oz..; borax and nitre, of each 2 oz.; corrosive sublimate, 2 drachms, made into a paste with oil, and melted together. Used in the commo...
-Browning Gun-Barrels
Chloride of antimony has been much used for browning gun-barrels, is excellent in its operation, and has been called, in consequence, browning salt. It is mixed to a thin creamy consistence with olive...
-Cameo Cutting
Take the common helmet, or the red helmet shell (those shells whose inner surface is pink or dark coloured are most suitable), cut them into squares with a lapidary's mill, round off the corners, and ...
-How to Make Candles
Animal Fat In its natural state, fat of animals is always associated with cellular tissue and other foreign matters, which must be separated before it can be used as candle stock. In dry melting, the...
-How to Make Candles. Continued
Preparing Wicks This is done by wick-mordants, by means of which they are rendered less combustible, especially those for stearine and composite candles. Compounds composed of solutions of ammoniac s...
-How to Make Catguts
Take the entrails of sheep, or any other animal, procured from the newly-killed carcase. Thoroughly clean them from all impurities and from attached fat, and wash them well in clean water; soak in sof...
-Cements
(ii: 62; v. 13.) Acid Proof Cement Make a concentrated solution of silicate of soda, and form a paste with powdered glass. This simple mixture will sometimess be found invaluable in the operations o...
-Glue. Manufactured Glue From Bones
The first process is to cleanse the bones by immersing them in a pit or cistern of water, where they remain about 12 hours; the water is then drawn off, and fresh water added to them; this operation i...
-Glue. Manufactured Glue From Bones. Part 2
Elastic Glue Dissolve glue by the aid of a water bath, evaporate till a thick fluid is obtained, add an equal weight of glycerine, continue the evaporation with stirring until the remaining water is ...
-Glue. Manufactured Glue From Bones. Part 3
By means of the caulking iron, and the piece of board or plate, stuff the moist material into the joint to a depth of 1 in. or so from the bottom, all round; now caulk it down with the iron and hammer...
-Crayons
Crayons consist essentially of a white paste as a basis, which is made in one of the following wars: - (a) Washed pipe-clay and washed chalk equal parts; mix them into a paste with sweet ale made hot...
-Drawings
Drawing Paper The following table contains the dimensions of every description of English drawing-paper. Inches Inches Demy.............. 20 by 15 ...
-Drawings. Continued
Inferior instruments will never wear satisfactorily, whereas those well made improve by use, and attain a peculiar working smoothness. The extra cost of purchasing the case and the nearly useless ...
-How to Draw Lettering
The title to a drawing should answer distinctly the four questions - What, Who, Where, and When - What, including the use and scale; Who, both as to designer or in-ventor, and draughtsman; Where, both...
-How to Draw Borders
For line drawings, the border should be a geometrical design, in lines, with curved or angular corners, or with combinations of straight or curved lines, forming geometrical corner-pieces. These borde...
-How to Draw Colours
For colouring drawings,, the most soluble, brilliant, and transparent water-colours are used; this particularly applies to plans and sections. The colour is not so much intended to represent that of t...
-How to Draw Shading
For shading, camel or sable hair brushes, called softeners, are generally used: these have a brush at each end of the handle, one being much larger than the other. The manner of using the softener f...
-Cutting Stencil Plates
The perforations are made through the metal, either by engraving, by etching with nitric acid diluted with about pne-third water, or, what is better, by both methods combined. If engraving only is emp...
-Using Stencil Plates
The brush requires to be squarely and equally cut, and to be kept moderately clean. If Indian ink is used, the largest surface of the cake should be taken to rub the moist brush upon, to get it equall...
-Removing Drawings From The Board
Make a pencil line round the paper with the T-square at a sufficient distance to clear the glued edge, and to cut the paper with a penknife, guided by a stout ruler. In no instance should the edge of ...
-Indelible Pencil Writing
(a) Lay the writing in a shallow dish, and pour skimmed milk upon it. Any 6pots not wet at first may have the milk placed upon them lightly with a feather. When the paper is wet all over with the milk...
-Mounting Engravings
Strain thin calico on a frame, then care-fully paste on the engraving so as to be free from creases; afterwards, when dry, give two coats of thin size (a piece the size of a small nut in a small cupfu...
-Uniting Parchment To Paper, Or Wood
(a) The surface of the parchment must first be moistened with. alcohol or brandy and pressed while still moist upon glue or paste. When two pieces of parchment are to be joined, both must be moistened...
-Copying with Tracing Paper
(a) Wash very thin paper with a mixture of: Spirits of turpentine, 6; rosin, 1; boiled nut oil, 1, parts by weight, applied with a soft sponge. (6) Brush over one side of a good, thin, unsize...
-Copying Drawings To A Reduced Scale
Following are methods of copying a drawing to a scale - th of the original scale by means of an easily-constructed geometrical diagram, which may be found useful to mechanical and architectural draugh...
-Dyeing Recipes
Though great changes have taken place in the dyeing industry owing to the introduction of the coal tar dyes, nevertheless in many places these are not procurable, and therefore the old-fashioned colou...
-Dyeing Recipes. Part 2
In all cases, if the vat smells slightly of lime, it is a proof that it has enough; if it smells very strongly of lime, give 1 1/2 lb. of potash, and 2 lb. madder; then, if it smells of lime instead o...
-Dyeing Recipes. Part 3
Red, Crimson Vat Boil 1 cwt. limawood; decant it in the same man ner as the last, and add 56 lb. crimson vat spirits; renovate with killed spirits, 7 Tw. Red, Limawood For 40 lb. 10 lb. sumach...
-Dyeing Recipes. Part 4
(d) Work 5 lb. silk in a mixture of 2 lb. fustic chips; 1 lb. quercitron bark; lift; then add 6 oz. verdigris, 6 oz. copperas; work for quarter of an hour, and hang up all night; wash and dye with a d...
-Dyeing Recipes. Part 5
Red: Claret Prepare with alum like the last; boil or scald. For 10 yards. Limawood, 1 1/4 lb.; logwood, 3 3/4 oz. Decant the clear of both liquors into a tub of sufficient size; ente, and winch for 3...
-Dyeing Recipes. Part 6
Silk Spirits, (A) Nitro-Sulphate Of Iron 2 gal. of 30 lb. double aquafortis, 24 lb. copperas. Put the aquafortis into a leaden or stoneware pot; place it near a fire, and add the copperas at 3 or 4 t...
-Dyeing Recipes. Part 7
Peach For 50 lb. Drench 8 1/2 lb. cudbear with a little hot water; boil or scald it in 3 or 4 gallons; decant the clear liquor into a boiler containing 100 gallons water; enter cold; bring to the boi...
-Engraving
Copper Engraving on copper is performed by cutting lines representing the subject on a copper plate by means of a steel instrument, called a graver, or burin, ending in an unequal-sided pyramidal poi...
-Engraving. Continued
Lithography The following are the principles on which the art of lithography depends; - the facility with which calcareous stones imbibe water; the great disposition they have to adhere to resinous a...
-Engraving on Steel
Engraving on steel is the same as copper-plate engraving, except in certain modifications in the use of the acids; therefore, so far as the process is concerned, no particular description is necessary...
-Wood Engravers' Lamp
A clear and steady light, directed immediately upon the block to be cut, is a most important point, and in working by lamplight it is necessary to protect the eyes from its heat and glare. The lamp sh...
-Engraving Tools
These consist of gravers, tint-tools, gouges or scoopers, flat tools or chisels, and a sharp-edged scraper, something like a copper-plate engravers' burnisher which is used for lowering the block. Of ...
-Engraving Tools. Continued
The gravers and tint-tools used for engraving on a plane surface are straight at the point, as are here represented, Figs. 14 and 15; but for engraving on a block rendered concave in certain parts by ...
-Etching
The apparatus consists of copper plates, etching needles, hand-rest, etching-ground, dabber, oil-rubber, rotten-stone, smoking taper, engraver's shade, bordering wax, stopping-out varnish, tracing-pap...
-Etching. Part 2
Tracing And Tracing Paper Tracing can be conveniently effected by using sheets of transparent gelatine, similar to that made for Heliotype purposes, and placing it over the drawing, which can be seen...
-Etching. Part 3
Transferring In the absence of an etching board, place the copper plate on a thick piece of brown paper larger than the plate; make two ribs of the same paper, doubled four or more times, and about a...
-Etching. Part 4
Cleaning Off Great care must be taken that the plate is perfectly dry; if it is not, it may be placed before the fire, but not close enough to melt the wax. Having carefully wiped the canvas, lay the...
-Etching. Part 5
The shade must be between the plate and the light, in order to be able to see the marks of the burnisher; fine charcoal and oil will remove these marks, and the oil-rubber will clear away the charcoal...
-Etching. Part 6
Place a small quantity of gunpowder in a silver spoon; pour over it some of the spirit; light the spirit, and let it burn to the powder. If the powder takes fire and explodes, the spirit is good, and ...
-Etching. Part 7
On this tint the oil-rubber should be very carefully used. The plate being quite clean, and placed under the shade, it will be found that the tints or bitings are rather sharper against each other tha...
-Hamerton's Brush Etching Process
This process consists in the employment of a pigment which is strongly attacked by acid. Clean the plate thoroughly with whiting and turpentine. Remove the whiting by rubbing the plate with bread; aft...
-Hamerton's Negative Etching Process
This process avoids stopping-out altogether, and the progress of the work may be judged of with tolerable certainty. The ground is a solution of beeswax in turpentine. Decant the solution till no sedi...
-Hamerton's Positive Etching Process
By this process the work is distinctly seen during operation; black on a white or silvered ground, without any deceptive glitter, and exactly as it is to be seen in the print. Clean the copper plate, ...
-Etching From Nature
Etching is the only kind of engraving which can conveniently be done directly from nature. The choice of subjects is the most important point, as, although etching is admirably adapted for trees and v...
-Ornamenting Glass
This method of ornamenting glass is so simple that most people, when they hare it first explained to them, will hardly believe that such simple means can produce such marvellous results. It is done by...
-Glass Etching and Embossing
(a) The ordinary embossing one sees on shop-doors, etc, is almost always done on plate-glass. A drawing on paper is first made; then by placing a piece of transfer paper (this can be bought at any a...
-How to Make Glass Windows
Crown glass is made in circular disks blown by hand; these disks are about 4 ft. diameter, and the glass averages about 1/15 in. thick. Owing to the mode of manufacture, there is a thick boss in the c...
-House Graining
Grounds These are generally applied by the house painter, ready for the grainer. When the grounds are finished to the tint required for the woods to be imitated, they must be left to get quite dry; t...
-House Graining. Continued
Oak In Oil Vandyke brown and raw sienna for dark oak, or finely-ground burnt umber and raw sienna for a lighter tint, mixed with equal parts of turpentine and linseed oil. Add patent driers. Lay this...
-Graining Roller
This tool consists of a roller of wood or metal mounted on a spindle, to which are attached a frame and a handle. Around the wooden roller is a wrapper of leather, on which is cut or stamped an imitat...
-Overgraining
(a) This operation is performed in the same manner whether the work has been oil grained or spirit grained. In overgraining, watercolours are used; and, in order to make them adhere to the underlying ...
-Marbling
Black And Goll Marble Ground, deep ivory black. Put on veins of white-lead, yellow ochre, and burnt and raw sienna, with a camel-hair brush. The spaces between the veins must be glazed over with a th...
-Gun Powder
Pulverising The required quantities of sulphur and charcoal are thoroughly pulverised, and intimately mixed, by being rolled for about four hours in a cast-iron drum, with numerous small brass balls,...
-Iron And Steel Tempering
Casehardening Iron Procure a quantity of old boots, burn these until they become charred, beat off the black and charred portion with a hammer, until sufficient powdered carbon is obtained; then plac...
-Ivory
Artificial Make isinglass and brandy into a paste, with powdered egg-shell, very finely ground. Give it any desired colour; oil the mould, into which the paste must be poured warm. Leave the paste in...
-Lathing And Plastering
The plaster used for covering the walls of buildings is a mortar composed of lime or cement and sand, mixed in various proportions, generally with a little hair or some such material to. give it elast...
-Marble Working
Marbles are generally cut up in the same direction in which they are quarried; this is known as sawing with the grain. Sometimes it is necessary to cut them against the grain, which renders them more ...
-Veneering On Metals
As these possess, a smooth surface, the substance which should fasten them to the marble cannot incorporate itself with them intimately enough to join both and render them inseparable. It is therefore...
-Mastic For Repairs
Mastic for stop-ping up holes, leakages, or cracks in marbles, is made with gum lac, coloured, as nearly as possible, to imitate the marble upon which it is used. Sometimes the gum is mixed with marbl...
-Stuccoes
Stucco is a composition of slaked lime, chalk, and pulverised white marble tempered in water, designed to imitate different marbles used in the interior of buildings or monuments. Calcined plaster of ...
-Colouring Marble In Imitation of Mosaic Work
Colours Solution of nitrate of silver penetrates marble deeply, communicating to it a deep red colour. Solution of nitro-muriate of gold produces a very fine violet colour. Solution of verdigris pene...
-Cleansing Marble
Scraping marble which has been blackened or turned green by air and damp is dangerous to the design; whatever precautions may be taken, the work is always scratched more or less, and it is impossible ...
-Mother-Of-Pearl
Mother-of-pearl is the inner coat of several kinds of oyster shells, some of which secrete this layer of sufficient thickness to render the shell an object of manufacture. The beautiful tints of the l...
-Painting
Purple (a) 20 parts prepared purple, 2 1/2 enamel flux (2), 1 white enamel. (6) 20 parts prepared purple, 10 blue, 5 1/2 enamel flux (2), ] white enamel. Rose Colour 20 parts prepared rose colour...
-Paint Brushes
To paint with effect, it is of the first consequence to have the brushes well selected, and of the best quality that can be procured. They are of various kinds: - of hog-hair, sable, badger, fitch, an...
-Cancels
This is the general material used for painting. It is kept prepared in rolls of various widths, and is sold also strained on frames of any required size. The ground or preparation of the canvas should...
-Grounds
Much diversity of opinion has existed respecting the colour of the surface of the prepared canvas. It is a subject of considerable importance, for it is impossible to paint a richly-coloured picture, ...
-Oils
Linseed, poppy, and nut oils are the fixed oils used as vehicles; turpentine and occasionally spike-lavender are the essential oils so used. Of the fixed oils, linseed is in most common use. It should...
-Megilps
The vehicles known by this name are in great favour with artists. They possess a gelatinous texture, which enables them, while flowing freely from the pencil, yet to keep their place in painting and g...
-Glazing
A glaze is a thin transparent film of colour, laid upon another colour to modify the tone, or to aid the effect of the latter; the work thereby appearing distinctly through the superimposed layer of g...
-Impasting
In oil painting, the shadows or dark portions of the picture are painted thinly, while the lights are laid on or impasted with a full pencil and a stiff colour. In the lights of the foreground, and of...
-Scumbling
Scumbling, the opposite process to that of glazing, is done by going lightly over the work with an opaque tint, generally produced by an admixture of white. For this purpose a hog-hair brush is employ...
-Lining Old Paintings
(a) Take a piece of unbleached calico, strain upon a frame, and size it with weak size. When dry, take 1/4 oz. spirits of turpentine, 1 dr. camphor, dissolve in it 4 oz. cold-drawn linseed oil, 2 oz. ...
-Preserving A Scaling Or Cracked Painting
The preparation is a mixture of equal parts of linseed oil and methylated chloroform, which is poured oyer the painting if the colours are too brittle to bear the friction of a soft brush. After remai...
-Harmony Of Colours
Harmony of colour is produced by an equable use and distribution of the primary colours, whether used simply as such, or united in various proportions in their compounds. Harmony is recognised in a pi...
-Plaster
Five coats are generally requisite to paint plaster well; but where it is not of a very absorbent nature, four are found to answer. The first is composed of white-lead, diluted with linseed-oil, to ra...
-Sign Boards
Sign or pattern boards ought to be chosen of old well-seasoned wood; oak or mahogany is much the best, but many are made of pine, which ought to be sound, straight, close-grained, well dried, and made...
-Transparent Painting On Linen
The colours used in transparent painting are mixed with megilp as a vehicle, except in the case of very light colours, when turpentine and copal varnish must be used. The material upon which transpare...
-Transparent Painting On Paper
The same colours as those of landscape painting are used for transparencies, and the processes are also the same; only it is requisite to be very attentive in washing in the tints with the utmost poss...
-Water Colour
The practice of the art consists of sketching the outline, of tinting or shading with sepia, bistre, or india-ink; and of the application of the pigments, in three or more successive stages, to the at...
-Pencils Or Brushes
The hair pencils or brushes used in water-colour painting are made of camel-hair and of fitch or sable. The best are those known as soft brown or black sables; those made of red sable are not so usefu...
-Enamelled Paper
Enamelled - 1 lb. of parchment cuttings, 1/4 lb. of isinglass, and 1/4 lb. of gum arabic, in 4 gal. of water, are boiled in an iron kettle until the solution is reduced to 12 quarts; it is then remove...
-Ivory Paper
The properties which render ivory so desirable for artists are, the evenness and fineness of its grain, its allowing all water colours laid on its surface to be washed out with a soft wet brush, and t...
-Lithographic Transfer
Make strong separate solutions in hot water of gum arabic 2 parts by weight, starch 6, alum 1. Mix, and whilst moderately hot, give the paper two or three coats with a brush, allowing each coat to dry...
-Manifold Writing
The white paper is only very fine thin writing paper. The black, is soft paper, prepared by being smeared with a composition of grease and plumbago or lampblack: this mixture is allowed to remain on f...
-Staining
Crimson A very fine crimson stain may be given to paper by a tincture of Indian lake, which may be made by infusing the lake some days in spirits of wine, and then pouring off the tincture from the d...
-Paper-Hanging
If the walls are quite new and smoothly finished, the only preparation usually necessary is to lay on a turncoat of weak size, the use of the size being to make a surface to which the paper will stick...
-Papier-Mache
Two modes of making articles of papier-mache are adopted: either by gluing or pasting different thicknesses of paper together, or by mixing the substance of the paper into a pulp, and pressing it into...
-Parchment Staining
Blue (a) Dissolve verdigris in vinegar, and brush over with the hot solution till it becomes a perfect green, then well brush over with a solution of pearlash, 2 oz. to the pint, until it becomes a g...
-Pavements
Asphalt pavements are laid as follows; A foundation is formed of cement or lime concrete, varying from 6 to 9 inches in thickness, according to the traffic. The mineral rock in its natural state, and ...
-Photography
Operating Boom This should be in an elevated position, the south side entirely closed, the north side being glazed with tolerably thick glass, as free from colour as possible, but preferably of a blu...
-Best Light For Dark Room
About 200 experiments were performed during six days on the following kinds of glass and combinations thereof: - Ruby red (flashed); orange; green, with faint tint of yellow; green, very deep and pure...
-Developing Without A Dark-Room
The apparatus consists of a metallic case at (Fig. 51), only slightly larger than the plate for which it is intended, which can be closed light-tight by means of the lid b. It is furnished with two tu...
-Camera
This consists of 2 square wooden boxes, the one sliding like a telescope, within the other. On the front of this is screwed an arrangement of lenses, capable of adjustment; and at the other end is a m...
-Home-Made Camera
The camera described below is a best double cxten-sioh, and has reversing back, swing back, rising, falling, and swinging front, conical bellows, focusing screen with double-jointed hinges. The 15 x...
-Zenseg Lenses
There are two descriptions of lenses in use. The single lens is used for views and photographs of inanimate subjects. This lens requires a longer exposure of the plate than the double lens, but the re...
-Zenseg Lenses. Part 2
The next step is cementing. This is a delicate process, for although in each part of the work heat has been used, a much higher degree is required, and the danger of cracking the lenses is increased. ...
-Zenseg Lenses. Part 3
It may be found that the amount of spherical aberration is so great that no amount of changing will bring it to the proper standard. One means of partially overcoming it would be the decrease in the s...
-Snap-Shots
The following table gives the conditions under which a reasonable degree of sharpness can be ensured without focusing. To those who are using detective cameras, or taking snap shots, the table will...
-Arranging Lenses In Portrait Combination
The lenses in a portrait combination are occasionally removed from their cells for the purpose of cleaning. When the lenses are taken out of their cells, they may be variously transposed, and thus ren...
-Focus
An object is said to be in focus when its image is clearly and sharply reflected on the ground-glass screen at the back of the camera. The ground glass usually has the sizes of the various plates mark...
-Glass Frame
This is always sold with the camera; it consists of a wooden frame, with two shutters, the one opens on hinges, and allows the plate, which has just been removed from the nitrate of silver bath, to be...
-Cleaning The Glasses
The glasses for photography are sold in certain fixed sizes. When new, the sharp edges must be smoothed over with a corundum file; then carefully wash, rub with a soft rag, finish with chamois leather...
-Shutter
The shutter to be described can be very easily made, and has some advantages over most shutters. It allows more light to pass through during an exposure. For instance, suppose a shutter is timed to ta...
-Argentometer
This very useful instrument is for ascertaining the strength of the silver nitrate solution, which becomes weakened to a certain extent, after the immersion of every plate. To use the argentometer, fi...
-Artificial Light
Negatives may be obtained by the aid of light given by burning magnesium wire, care being taken that the direct light does not fall on the lens, and that the object is well illuminated. Transparent po...
-Transparent Positives
These are taken from negatives, and may be obtained of the same size, or larger, or smaller than the original, as desired. For copies of the same size as the negative, the operation can be effected by...
-Copying Camera
This is a kind of double-bodied camera, one part of which * is provided with holders for the negatives, and has no lens; the other portion has a lens which can be moved so as to approach or recede fro...
-Working with Negatives
Enlarging Negatives The negative to be enlarged must be absolutely perfect as regards definition, slightly dense, and full of detail, possessing as little granularity as possible. From the negative, ...
-Working with Negatives. Part 2
If the latter method be adopted, a flange must be soldered to the top of the lamp, the body being slipped over this flange. It will not be amiss to insert a small piece of ruby glass in the side of th...
-Working with Negatives. Part 3
Yellow Stains Every photographer is familiar with a yellow stain in the negative, caused by taking the plate from the fixing bath before it is thoroughly fixed. Belitski, the well-known photo-chemist...
-The Salting Bath
Albumen, 1 oz.; water, 16 oz. Place in a bottle with some broken glass, and shake vigorously until all the flocculent matter is thoroughly cut up; then add 10 gr. of ammonia chloride to every ounce of...
-The Toning Bath
Make up a stock solution as follows: - Water, 7 1/2 oz.; chloride of gold and sodium, 15 gr. Take 1/2 oz. of this solution and immerse a piece of litmus paper in it, which will turn red; now add, gra...
-Automatic Apparatus For Washing Negatives
Fig. 71 represents an automatic apparatus devised by Gorceix for washing photographic negatives. It consists of two triangular prismatic troughs, placed back to back, oscillating on a rod passing thro...
-Conversion Of Gold Into Terchloride
Put into a long wine-glass or thin narrow tumbler 2 fl. dr. of nitric acid to 1 oz. of hydrochloric acid - that is, the first acid is in the proportion of 1 to 4 parts of the latter. If the acids are ...
-Silver Nitrate
The chemical formula for silver nitrate (known to chemists as argentic nitrate) is AgNO3. It is one of the most important salts of silver. It is readily made by dissolving the metal in moderate dilute...
-Taking Portraits Indoors Without A Skylight
Any one who is skilful in outdoor photography can make a better portrait in an ordinary room than can be made in the open air. In fact, there is no reason why as perfect a portrait cannot be made in a...
-Stereoscopic Views
The appearance of high relief given by the stereoscope, is obtained by placing side by side two prints representing the same object, but photographed from slightly different positions, whilst the glas...
-Stripping Films
(a) One of the German photographic papers gives the following as a good method of stripping the film from the glass plate, but it is necessary to be cautious with the hydrofluoric acid - which should ...
-Stripping Films. Part 2
So far as the mere application of the gelatine solution is concerned, the process is simple enough, and varies not at all, whether the negative be one of collodion or gelatine; but, actually, the trea...
-Stripping Films. Part 3
But if this method of working be not available, it is quite possible to form a stripping skin by coating a collodionised glass with the bichromatised gelatine; expose, wash, decolorise, and then, afte...
-Hydroquinone
The use of hydro-quinone is becoming more extensive. Hydroquinone with sulphite and soda has recently been strongly recommended for gelatine plates, and Vogel says that he now uses hydroquinone to the...
-Flash Light
In times past, some fault has been found with flash-light pictures on account of the so lions expression of the subject, caused by the expected explosion of the powder, or the closed eyes, which are c...
-Trays
Among the items of expense in the list of the amateur photographer's supplies will be found trays for developing, fixing, intensifying, toning, etc., and the temptation is often great to make one or t...
-Dealing with Fading Prints
The fading of silver prints on albumenised paper is an interesting matter, but one about which we know very little. Those who have given the subject any attention have been struck with the singular fa...
-Reducing Intensity Of Negatives
The cliches may be too intense, either from yellow fog, over-development, or local opacities. We have nothing to say on the means employed to remove yellow fog - they do not alter the character of the...
-Ghost Or Shadow Pictures
The majority of amateur photographers are not aware of the entertaining and amusing results that may be obtained apart from the ordinary routine. One very striking picture that may be made is a man s...
-Acid Sulphite
For some time past German photographers have been speak ing very highly of the merits of solution of acid sodium sulphite as an addition to the fixing bath. When pyrogallol was first used for...
-Pinhole Photographs
Very good photographs indeed can be taken without the use of a lens by means of a pinhole, and Earp says that, with respect to the opening, it will be found that a fine needle heated to redness, and j...
-Softening Pictures
The likenesses produced by photograph have, in many cases, a harshness which is extremely disagreeable. The camera will tell the truth, but its effects may be toned down so as to give the features som...
-Copying Pictures
Pictures and engravings can be easily reproduced by photography. If framed, the glass must be removed, or the reflected light will interfere with the image formed by the lens. The picture must be plac...
-Mounting Photographs
(a) An appliance calculated to be useful, especially to amateurs, when mounting photographs upon cards to show a definite margin, has been brought forward by Starnes. Two pieces of card a b (Fig. 77) ...
-Mounting Photographs. Continued
So exceedingly expeditious is the process, that many dozens of prints could be mounted within the time it has taken to write this brief description. It may be mentioned that the press rollers should b...
-Glass Cutting Board
A(Fig. 79) is a flat board, on the edges of which are screwed the projecting pieces, b, c, d. e is a piece of wood bearing against the ends of b c, and which forms the straight edge for the cutter or ...
-Sacking Machine
Have a water wheel in the sink, supported on two standards, a. On this wheel, 5, is fixed a crank, c, connected to a bell crank, d, supported by a bearing, c, which is, in its turn, connected to the c...
-Coating Paper With Gelatine Emulsions
The difficulties in the process can be overcome by any careful, cleanly manipulator; and amateurs who will follow the directions carefully and intelligently, will have no difficulty in turning out fin...
-Collodio-Chloride Positive Printing Paper
The advantage of this paper over the ordinary silver paper is that it is 5-6 times more rapid, is more brilliant, and very readily toned to any desirable colour. Any suitable paper of a firm texture c...
-Sulphocyanide Solution
Ammonium sulpbocyanide, 10-20gr.; water, 500cc. (15 1/2 oz.). The gold solution is now added to the above, when a red precipitate will occur, which, however, redissolves in a few days. When perfectly...
-Silver Prints On Bough Drawing Paper
Cut rough drawing paper into convenient sizes, and coat each piece on one side, by floating, with a warm solution of gelatine, made by dissolving sheet gelatine in the proportion of 4 gr. to 1 oz. of ...
-Relief Or Printing Plates
Joyce Process Take a smooth metallic plate, covered with a thin coating of clay, plaster, or equivalent material applied In a plastic state. Employ a mixture of ground potters' clay and plaster of P...
-Relief Or Printing Plates. Continued
The above method of mixing and baking is not the only one that can be used. The essential points are first to introduce the bond in the form of a solution into the body of the coating, and then to dry...
-Photo. Printing Plates
The drawing intended for reproduction is pinned on a board and placed squarely before a copying camera in a good, even light. The lens used for this purpose must be capable of giving a perfectly sharp...
-Gelatine Argentic-Bromide Emulsions And Plates
The formulae, apparatus, and mode of working described are those which experience has found to be useful and practical. Any person, by following these directions, may succeed in making for him...
-Gelatine Argentic-Bromide Emulsions And Plates. Part 2
The cover i (Fig. 81) of the boiler is now put on, and the flask is left in for 20 minutes, the cover being removed every 6-7 minutes, so the flask may be shaken each time for 20-30 seconds during the...
-Gelatine Argentic-Bromide Emulsions And Plates. Part 3
Fig. 88. In the construction of the press, c (Fig. 83) is a block of hard wood, 8 in. square by 5 in. deep, having a hole 6 in. diameter, bored through and highly polished, d is a hard wood board ...
-Gelatine Argentic-Bromide Emulsions And Plates. Part 4
After coating as described, the plate is removed from the screw eye supports and held as level as possible with the hands (see Fig. 89), the thumbs being up, so they will not come in contact with emul...
-Colour-Sensitive Collodion Emulsion
Albert's collodion emulsion contains the same modification of silver bromide as the ordinary well known collodion emulsion - that is to say, a white silver bromide, sensitive to the violet and indigo ...
-Platinotype
Probably all photographers are sufficiently familiar with this process to know that in printing the platinotype paper the image which appears is not brown or purple, but of a faint greyish-yellow colo...
-Sensitising The Paper
For coating, Hives or Saxe paper may be used, either glossy or with a matt surface. Solutions of gum arabic and of arrowroot have been found the best vehicular substances for the sensitising liquid, ...
-Views And Landscapes
In taking views, the process is exactly the same as in the case of portraits, except that the exposure is very much less. Views can be taken with the ordinary portrait lens, although distant objects a...
-Photographic News-Letters
To procure these minute photographs, an ordinary negative must be taken, great care being necessary to obtain a negative that is perfectly clear at the edges, as well as in the centre. This operation ...
-Nature Printing
There are two methods employed for obtaining facsimiles of ferns, leaves, sea-weeds, one suited to the amateur, the other for commercial purposes. (a) For the former the requisites are small quantiti...
-Photography On Silk
(a) Pour 20 oz. boiling water on 100 gr. ammonium chloride and 60 gr. Iceland moss. When nearly cold, filter, and immerse the silk in it for 15 minutes. To sensitise, immerse the silk in a 20-gr. solu...
-Autotype Or Carbon Printing
Johnson's process is adapted to supply the place of albumenised paper and silver, gold, and hypo, solutions; the manipulations are more simple than silver printing, and less skill is required for prod...
-Colouring Carbon Prints
Carbon photographs admit of colouring in oil, water, or powder colours, without risk of damage; the manipulation is easier than that upon albumenised silver prints. Powder colours adhere very readily ...
-Photo-Micrographs, Or Photographs For Microscopic Slides
The lens being removed from an ordinary 1/4-plate camera, a mahogany cone, blackened inside, and about 2 in. deep, is substituted, made to fit tightly into the flange of the camera, and having an open...
-Photo-Micrographic Camera
The student frequently finds in the course of his observation upon living and other tissues, features that are vital towards proving the truth of his researches, but so evanescent, that the lapse of a...
-Landscapes By Moonlight
Owing to the extremely feeble actinic force of moonlight, it is impossible to obtain instantaneous views by its aid, and a fully-exposed negative can be obtained only by large apertures of lenses of g...
-Electro-Phototypy
The process to be described only needs the experience gained in everyday work to render it a letterpress block process of high quality. The process is simply a means, of direct electrotypy on a relief...
-Photo-Lithographic Transfers
The usual method of making photo-lithographic transfers is upon gelatine made sensitive with potassium bichromate. This is quite sensitive enough to daylight, or to electric light; but if transfers ar...
-Photo-Lithographic Transfers. Continued
The glass plate, together with the paper on it, is now placed in a darkened, not too warm room, and dried spontaneously; after 6-12 hours it will be dried. This may be ascertained by touching the back...
-Photo-Zincography
For transferring photo-litho copies to zinc plates Albert gives the following method: - The copy is printed, developed with fatty ink, and dried as usual. The drawing is afterwards dusted in with a fi...
-Swain's Photo-Zinco Works
At his photo-zincographic works in Farringdon Street, the clean zinc plates are first coated with diluted albumen, and then with a solution of albumen in water, to which some potash bichromate is adde...
-Colour Photography
Ives recently explained and illustrated some improvements he has made in the means of operating the process, by which it is rendered comparatively simple and capable of immediately profitable commerci...
-Photography In Aniline Colours
The recent discovery by Cross, Bevan, and Green of a new process of colour-photography is not a method of photographing in natural colours, but one which gives a means of producing prints in a great v...
-Photography In Aniline Colours. Part 2
As the light falls upon the uncovered part of the diazo-primulined silk, it destroys the colour, and when that action has proceeded sufficiently far, the silk is taken out of the frame, the image of t...
-Photography In Aniline Colours. Part 3
The following are some examples of mixtures with which the paper or fabric is treated: - 1. - Toluoldiazosulphonate of soda...... 25 grm. Beta-naphthol ., .. 25 Caustic soda .. .. 8 ...
-Plating. Cleansing Copper And Its Alloys
The first and most important operation in all branches of the deposition of one metal upon another, is to effect a thorough and chemical cleansing of the surface of the metal upon which the coating is...
-Plating. Cleansing Copper And Its Alloys. Continued
When the vapours have disappeared, the pieces, even after washing, remain of a dull black, on account of the formation of a basic copper salt which is not soluble in water. This last mode of operating...
-Cleansing Lead And Tin
Tin, lead, and the alloys of these metals are much more difficult to cleanse than zinc. A rapid scouring with potash lye and a rubbing with a hard substance are the only means of effecting this. The o...
-Cleansing Silver
Mechanical agents will not, like acids, act simultaneously on every part of the object, and it is impossible to entirely prevent the action of air, steam, gases, and acid fumes. Heat the object to a d...
-Cleansing Steel
Polished articles of steel or iron must be first cleansed in a boiling solution of caustic lye, and rubbed with pumice dust, which scratches the polish slightly, and thus produces a better hold for th...
-Cleansing Zinc
Zinc is cleansed by being passed through a boiling solution of caustic lye, without remaining too long in it, because it may be corroded, and even dissolved; after rinsing, it is plunged for a few min...
-Using Batteries
Bringing Into Action Batteries will furnish electricity when the circuit is closed, that is to say, when the conducting wires starting, one from the carbon, and the other from the zinc, are put into ...
-Using Batteries. Part 2
In this apparatus the surface of the carbon is much greater than that of the zinc; this is a wrong disposition, since, generally, the intensity of the current is in direct ratio with the surface of th...
-Using Batteries. Part 3
The copper sulphate contained in the balloon is dissolved in the water around it, and as this solution is denser than water it falls into the porous cells through one of the notches of the cork, while...
-Using Batteries. Part 4
Three pieces of -3/8 in. brass or copper rod should be procured, long enough to reach across the vat. These are termed slinging rods, from which the anodes and articles to be plated are hung. Suitable...
-Solutions For Baths
(a) The ordinary potassium cyanide is often preferred to the pure article, on account of its lower price; but the real value and dissolving property of ordinary cyanide are very variable. The followin...
-Bronzing
Bronzing is the process of giving a bronze-like or antique metallic appearance to surfaces. Antique Bronze Dissolve in 20 parts by weight of ordinary strong vinegar 3 parts of carbonate or hydrochlo...
-Bronzing. Continued
In the majority of the methods employed, the actual proportions of the ingredients are not stated, or when stated are not to be relied upon; in every case a trial should be made on clean pieces of cop...
-Copper Deposits
These are produced either by simple dipping or by galvanic methods. Dipping Copper deposits by dipping are seldom practised except upon iron, and are generally wanting in lasting qualities, since, f...
-Gilding
The application of a gold coating on various substances is performed by three separate methods, viz. by amalgamation, by dipping, and by cementing. Amalgamation Gold Amalgam (a) In the centre of a ...
-Gilding In Colours
The principal colours of gold for gilding are red, green, and yellow. These should be. kept in different amalgams. The part which is to remain of the first colour, is to be stopped off with a composit...
-Gilding With A Dead Lustre
(a) By the slow deposit of a large proportion of gold. This gilding is very durable, but dull and earthy in appearance, and is costly. (6) By acids; giving a dead lustre to the metallic surface, befo...
-Gilding With A Partly Dead, Partly Bright Lustre
(a) Gild those parts with the amalgam which are intended for a dead lustre, and heat, scratch-brush, and reheat to the orange-yellow colour. Then, with the battery, give a sufficiently strong gold dep...
-Covering Copper Bars With Gold, So As To Be Roiled Out Into Sheets
First prepare ingots or pieces of copper or brass, in convenient lengths and sizes. Then cleanse them from impurity, and make their surfaces level. Prepare plates of pure gold, or gold mixed with a po...
-Covering Copper Bars With Gold, So As To Be Roiled Out Into Sheets. Part 2
When the bath is not in use, the gold anode must be remo ed from it, otherwise it will be dissolved. If the anode were partly immersed in the bath, it would be rapidly cut at the level of the liquid; ...
-Covering Copper Bars With Gold, So As To Be Roiled Out Into Sheets. Part 3
The hot electrogilding baths for small quantities of liquor are kept in porcelain dishes, but for large baths use enamelled cast-iron kettles. The temperature may vary from 120-175 F. Small ...
-Covering Copper Bars With Gold, So As To Be Roiled Out Into Sheets. Part 4
If the liquor becomes violet, it is an indication that there is too little hydrocyanic acid; add it, drop by drop, until the liquor becomes colourless. An excess of this acid is objectionable, but the...
-Gilding Colouring
If the gilding is dull and irregular in colour, melt together in their water of crystallisation, at about 212 F., equal parts - of iron, zinc, alumina, and potash sulphates, and saltpetre. Cover ...
-Gilding Colouring. Continued
Dead Lustre Gilding, equal in appearance to the. best mercury gilding, is obtained - (a) With silver. An electro-silvered bath is prepared by dissolving in 2 1/5 gal. water, 5 1/4 oz. fused silver nit...
-Preserving Flowers And Insects
At a recent meeting of the Physical Society, Berlin, Prof. Christiani exhibited as samples of a new method of preservation a series of organic bodies coated galvanoplas-tically. A mulberry leaf, a cra...
-Silvering
Silver By Dipping The silver articles, previously cleansed and scratch-brushed, are boiled for about 1/2 hour in the gold bath of pyrophosphate, to which add a few drops of sulphurous acid, or, prefe...
-Gilding Steel
(a) Dissolve any quantity of gold or platinum in nitro-muriaticacid, until no effervescence is occasioned by the application of heat. Evaporate the solution thus formed to dryness in a gentle heat, an...
-Graining
A thin paste made of one of the graining powders and water is spread by means of a spatula upon the watch parts held upon the cork. The cork itself is placed upon an earthenware dish, to which a rotat...
-Gilding By Cements
Wood, leather, paper, and similar substances, are gilt by fastening on leaves of gold by means of some cement. The necessary materials are a cushion, knife, and tip, a large, short and thick camel-hai...
-Gilding. Gold Size
Yellow ochre, 1 part; copal varnish, 2; linseed oil, 3; turpentine, 4; boiled oil, 5. Mix. The ochre must be reduced to the finest powder, and ground with a little of the oil before mixing. Bronzing ...
-Burnished, or Water Gilding
Burnished, or Water Gilding, will not bear being wetted, and is only fit for work to be always kept within doors. For this gilding the wood is first covered with 4 or 5 coats of whiting and size; and ...
-Oil Gilding On Wood
The gilding on wood, called oil gold, cannot be burnished, and is always of the natural colour of unwrought gold. It has the advantage that it may be washed and cleaned with water, which burnished gol...
-Gilding Glass And Porcelain
(a) Drinking and other glasses are sometimes gilt on their edges. This is done either by an adhesive varnish or by heat. The varnish is prepared by dissolving in boiled linseed oil an equal weight eit...
-Gilding Leather
In order to impress gilt figures, letters, and other marks upon leather, as on the covers of books and edgings for doors, the leather must first be dusted over with very finely-powdered dried white of...
-Gilding Paint
The paint must first be thoroughly dry. The letters must be written on the paint with gold size, and allowed to get a little dry, or else the writing will appear drill. Now press the gold leaf on the ...
-Gilding Picture Frames
Suppose that we have a plain picture frame; it is made by the joiner into a 12 ft. length of moulding, and in that state it passes into the hands of the gilder. He first gives it a priming of hot size...
-Gilding Picture Frames. Part 2
When the gilder has made his decision as to the number of lays that will be required, he selects one lay, and proceeds with it through the whole length of the moulding before he begins another portion...
-Gilding Picture Frames. Part 3
Cleaning Gilt Frames Gilt frames may be cleaned by simply washing them with a small sponge, wet with urine, hot spirits of wine, or oil of turpentine, not too wet, but sufficiently to take off the di...
-Gilding Pottery
An air-tight kiln is required, which must be lime-washed every time it is used. On a small scale a retort would do well, made of Stourbridge clay, and fixed in brickwork, with access for drawing trial...
-Gilding Signs Or Letters
The following method is adapted for working in the open air, when the ordinary process with the cushion is rendered difficult if there is much wind to blow the gold leaf about. Take a sheet of tissue ...
-Gilding Writings
(a) For illumination on a large scale, ordinary gilders' size can be used on stout paper. For fine work or water-matt, gold size is useful, but not easy to bring to a smooth surface. Clear gum arabic,...
-Dissolving Gold Fron Gilt Articles
(a) Iron and steel articles are ungilt, without any injury to themselves, by dipping them into a bath of 10 parts potassium cyanide and 100 of water, and connecting them with the positive pole of a ba...
-Lead Deposits
(a) Electro-metallurgists do not write in favour of the electro-deposition of lead, viewing it from a commercial point of view. But some persons view the operation with interest, as a means of coating...
-Mercury Deposits
These are exclusively applied on glass, for making mirrors, but the method is almost obsolete, giving place to silver, sec p. 341. The substance employed to make the mercury or quicksilver adhere to t...
-Nickel Deposits
(a) Nickel deposited by the wet way is white, with a slightly yellow tinge, having a dull pearl-grey dead lustre; it is obtained by dissolving nickel nitrate in its own weight of ammonia, and diluting...
-Sulphate
Dissolve 135 grm. pure nickel in sulphuric acid diluted with twice its weight of water, and heat until the metal is dissolved. Add water and neutralise with ammonia. Dissolve separately 70 grm. ammoni...
-Sulphate. Part 2
If the copper has not been removed, it will deposit on the anodes when the bath is at rest. It should then be removed by scouring. Copper produces a reddish tinge, which is by no means unpleasant com...
-Sulphate. Part 3
It is rather brittle in comparison with pure sheet-zinc I cannot explain this brittleriess in any other way than due to amalgamation. The alloys of mercury with solid metals, called amalgams, exhibit ...
-Sulphate. Part 4
To remove the copper from the nickel salt, the latter is first dissolved in water and acidulated by a few drops of sulphuric acid (commercial nickel sulphate is generally acid), then a current of hydr...
-Platinum Deposits
(a) Copper and its alloys only will receive a satisfactory platinum deposit; iron, zinc, lead, or tin, coated with this metal, even after a previous coppering, give but defective results. The platinum...
-Platinum Deposits. Part 2
Thus far, of all the methods that have been proposed for electro-plating with platinum, three only appear to have sufficient merit to deserve special notice; these are: - 1. Roselcur-Lanaux method, b...
-Platinum Deposits. Part 3
The carbon plate was then suspended as the anode in moderately dilute hydrochloric acid, a platinum plate serving as the cathode. The acid bath was gently heated, and a current of moderate strength wa...
-Platinum Deposits. Part 4
Of the salts that may be formed from platinic hydrate by solution in acids (and in part by suitable combination with the corresponding alkaline compounds to form double salts), three only may be named...
-Directions For Preparing The Electroplating Baths
For the alkaline platinate bath, the following directions may suffice: - Platinic hydrate, 2 oz.; caustic potassa (or soda), 8oz.; distilled water, 1 gal. Dissolve one half of the caustic potassa in 1...
-Silver Deposits
The silver found in the trade, even under the name of virgin silver, retains traces of copper; Silver is purified by several methods: - (a) The impure metal is dissolved by nitric acid, and the soluti...
-Cold Silvering
(a) 2 dr. tartar, 2 dr. common salt, 1/2 dr. alum, and 20 gr. silver, precipitated from the nitrous acid by copper. Make into a paste with a little water. This is to be rubbed on the surface to be sil...
-Cold Silvering. Continued
Hot Silvering (a) Dissolve 1 oz. silver in nitric acid; add a small quantity of salt; then wash it and add sal ammoniac, or 6 oz. salt and white vitriol; also 1/4 oz. corrosive sublimate; rub them to...
-Whitening With Silver In A Pot
This operation is still employed for whitening small wares for which durability is of secondary importance, and which simply require the whiteness of silver; such as hooks and eyes, or buttons. This w...
-Silvering Powder
(a) Take 40 gr. silver dust; cream of tartar, 3 dr.; common salt, 2 dr.; and 40 gr. powder of alum. Polish any silver articles with this powder and a soft leather. (6) Silver nitrate, 30 gr.; common ...
-Silvering Powder. Part 2
Electroplating Bath Water, 2 1/5 gal.; potassium cyanide, pure, 17 1/2 oz.; pure silver for cyanide, 8 3/4 oz. The composition of commercial potassium cyanide is exceedingly irregular. The pure, or N...
-Silvering Powder. Part 3
The remedy consists in adding to the bath only enough silver salt and no more, so that a piece of copper will not become sensibly silvered in it, without the aid of electricity. The cold electro-silve...
-Burnishing
By burnishing, the roughness of an object is flattened down until the surface is smooth and polished, like a looking-glass. Burnishing is an important operation for electro-deposits which consist of a...
-Burnishing. Part 2
Oxidised Silver (a) This is not an oxidation, but a combination with sulphur or chlorine. Sulphur, soluble sulphides, and hydrosulphuric acid blacken silver, and insoluble silver salts, and particula...
-Burnishing. Part 3
Silvering Clock Dials Rub the dial with a mixture of silver chloride, tartar, and sea-salt, and afterwards rub off the saline matter with water. This silvering is not durable, but it may be improved ...
-Burnishing. Part 4
(D) Large Mirrors For Photography Dissolve 150 gr. silver nitrate in 6 oz. distilled water, and to this add ammonia, drop by drop, until the precipitate at first thrown down is redissolved. Now, ! ha...
-Burnishing. Part 5
In a few minutes the solution will turn brown, then nearly black, and a silver film will be seen to form on the glass surface, and gradually spread over it. This takes place more rapidly if the soluti...
-Burnishing. Part 6
While a student, several years ago in the laboratory of Baron von Liebig, in Munich, I assisted in conducting a series of experiments looking to the manufacture of silvered mirrors on a large commerci...
-Burnishing. Part 7
Having selected a suitable dish to contain the liquid, in which the mirror can be placed face downwards with about 1/2-3/4 in. of liquid underneath, find on the basis of 1 of silver-nitrate solution t...
-Burnishing. Part 8
My own experience is not singular in this respect, for Mr. Brashear relates a similar occurrence. The silver film is not always of the same quality, and experiments are needed to get more information...
-Silvering Iron
(a) 15 grm. silver nitrate are dissolved in 250 grm.water, and 30 grm. potassium cyanide are added; when the solution is complete, the liquid is poured into 750 grm. water, in which 15 grm. common sal...
-Plated Silver Reflectors
A bath made of water, 1 3/4 pint; silver nitrate, 2 oz.; potassium cyanide, 10 1/2 oz. Add sufficient Spanish white, or levigated chalk, in fine powder, to produce a thin paste, which is kept in a wel...
-Desilvering
(a) The following liquid will dissolve silver without attacking copper, brass, or German silver, so as to remove the silver from silvered objects, plated ware, etc. It is a mixture of 1 part nitric ac...
-Tin Deposits
Tinning By Double Affinity The bath is composed of (a) Distilled water, 66 gal.; cream tartar, 6 1/2 lb.; tin protochloride, 10 1/2 oz. The powdered cream of tartar is dissolved in 44 gal. warm water...
-Argentine
Argentine is a name given to tin precipitated by galvanic action from its solution. This material is usually obtained by immersing plates of zinc in a solution of tin containing 6 grm. (about 90 gr.) ...
-Retinning Old Copper Pans
When all the repairing is complete, the bruises are taken out, and the bottoms of the stew-pans and saucepans are laid flat or made level, the preparation for retinning properly begins. Commence with ...
-Tinning Brass Wire
Have two baths, one containing the molten tin, kept at a proper temperature, the other a saturated solution of zinc chloride. Immerse the coil of brass wire in a boiling solution of caustic potash, an...
-Tinning Iron
(a) Iron which is to be tinned must be previously steeped in acid materials, such as sour whey or distillers' wash; then scoured and dipped in melted tin, having been first rubbed over with a solution...
-Tin Plate
Tin plate can be classified, according to the iron used, as follows: Charcoal plate, puddled iron, coke plate, and steel plate. In a few works sheet iron is still made of iron refined with charcoal. O...
-Tinning Zinc
The proportions of the bath are as follows: - Distilled water, 66 gal.; soda pyrophosphate, 11 lb.; fused tin protochloride, 35 oz. A thin tinning is obtained by simple dipping, and one of any thickne...
-Coating Brass And Copper
It is not often that it is necessary to coat either brass or copper with zinc, the ordinary silvering (i. e., washing with tin) answering most effectually under all ordinary circumstances. Still, a ...
-Galvanising Iron
Sheet iron, iron castings, and the like, are first cleaned and scoured by immersion in a bath of water, acidulated with sulphuric acid, heated in a leaden vessel, or used cold in a wooden one, to remo...
-Galvanoplasm. Thick Deposits
Galvanoplasm consists of deposits with sufficient thickness to form a resisting body, which may be separated from the objects serving as moulds, and which will preserve the shape and dimensions of the...
-Galvanoplasm. Thick Deposits. Continued
Porous Cells Pipeclay, pasteboard, bladder, gold-beater's skin, parchment, sail-cloth, and certain kinds of wood may be employed, but nothing equals porcelain clay, submitted to a certain heat, which...
-Dead Lustre Gilding By Galvanoplastic Deposit
Adhering galvanoplastic deposits give a very cheap and handsome gilding with a dead lustre, which, although not equal in durability, has the appearance of that obtained with mercury. Having cleansed t...
-Metallisation
This coat should be so thin as not to alter the shape or the minutest parts of the model. Plumbago (graphite) is generally preferred, and in most cases its conducting power is sufficient; it may be a...
-Metallisation. Part 2
Plaster Of Paris Moulds After the original model, say a medal, has been thoroughly rubbed with soap or plumbago, wrap round the rim a piece of stout paper, or thin lead foil, and bind it in such a ma...
-Metallisation. Part 3
Moulding With Gutta-Percha Guttapercha is entirely insoluble in water, in weak acids, and in the solution of copper sulphate. After purification in boiling water, plates of various thicknesses or lum...
-Metallisation. Part 4
But the execution of the process is not easy, as it is very difficult to ascertain that the skeleton anode is nowhere in contact with the enclosing mould; to avoid such contact, wrap all the external ...
-Polishing Materials
Crocus Put tin, as pure as possible, into a glass vessel - a wineglass does very well when making small quantities - and pour in sufficient nitric acid to cover it. Great heat is evolved, and care mu...
-Polishing Wheels
Emery Wheels (a) Can be made with shellac powdered fine, and a small portion of rosin, a piece about the size of a walnut to 1 oz. shellac, and a piece of old vulcanised rubber about the same size, w...
-Surface Burnishing
To burnish an article is to polish it, by removing the small roughness upon its surface; and this is performed by a burnisher. This mode of polishing is the most expeditious, and gives the greatest lu...
-French Polishing
As in varnishing, a warm, dry atmosphere is essential, and all draughts of cold air from door or window must be avoided. Pour a little linseed oil into a cup and some polish into another; take a piec...
-Polishing Fretwork
The wood is first well smoothed with fine glass paper, then covered with a thin coating of size, made from transparent glue, to prevent the varnish from sinking into the wood. When dry, pour some varn...
-Polishing Horn And Ivory
Ivory and bone admit of being turned very smooth, or when filed may afterwards be scraped so as to present a good surface. They may be polished by rubbing first with fine glass-paper, and then with a ...
-Polishing Polishing In The Lathe
Good work does not require much polishing, for the beauty of it depends more on being executed with tools properly ground, set, and in good order; the work performed by such tools will have its surfac...
-Polishing Hard Woods
These, from their nature, are readily turned very smooth; flue glass paper will suffice to give them a very perfect surface; a little linseed oil may then be rubbed on, and a portion of the turnings o...
-Polishing Metals
The polishing of metals differs according to their kind, but here are some general principles common to all, of which it may be useful to have a clear idea. All polishing is begun in the first instanc...
-Polishing Plaster Casts
(a) Put into 4 lb. clear water 1 oz. pure curd soap, grated and dissolved in a well-glazed earthen vessel - then add 1 oz. white beeswax, cut into thin slices; when the whole is incorporated it is fit...
-Polishing Shells
(a) Marine shells are cleaned by rubbing with a rag dipped in common hydrochloric acid till the outer dull skin is removed, washing in warm water, drying in hot saw-dust, and polishing with chamois le...
-Polishing Vulcanite
(a) Remove scratches with a smooth wet water of Ayr stone, and then polish in the lathe with fine pumice and a stiff brush. After washing the pumice off, polish it with whiting and soil brush. (6) Th...
-Pottery
Bodies English porcelain and earthenware are made from the following bodies, which are prepared by soaking the clays in a large vessel of water, and, when of the consistence of slip, passing them thr...
-Pottery. Continued
Jasper 10 parts chalk, 10 blue clay, 5 bones, 2 flint, 1 1/4 blue calx. All the materials should be ground together, as much depends on the different articles being well united, which adds greatly to...
-Enamels And Fluxes
The enamels, after being finely ground, should be thoroughly dried; then mixed up with turpentine, and used like other colours with a pencil; after which fused again, and vitrified by fire. Spirits of...
-Enamels And Fluxes. Part 2
How To Refine Regulus Of Zaffre 50 parts regulus of zaffre, 6 potash, 3 sand, pulverise and well mix, then put in crucibles holding about 1 1/2 lb. each, and fire in a reverberatory furnace, commenci...
-Enamels And Fluxes. Part 3
Orange Enamel 1 part orange under glaze, 2 enamel flux (a), 1 enamel flux (d). Platisum Lustre Dissolve platina as for silver lustre. Let the solution fall into a large vessel of water at the temp...
-Glazes
Alkaline 30 parts borax, 30 flint, 18 Cornish stone, 2 tin oxide. The materials must be calcined, and particular caution observed in the course of chipping from the seggars, that not the least partic...
-Stains For Pottery
In preparing these stains the ingredients must be ground remarkably fine, and then so perfectly dried as not to leave the least humidity, after which they must be ground again with oil prepared for th...
-Printers' Rollers
(a) To 8 lb. transparent glue add as much rain or river water as will just cover it, and occasionally stir it during 7 or 8 hours. After standing for 24 hours, and all the water is absorbed, submit it...
-Recovering Waste Metal
The recovery of metal from waste solutions and scraps is usually a very simple matter and generally affords more than sufficient profit to pay for the trouble and expense incurred. Copper Salts Coll...
-Recovering Gold
(a) All the liquids which contain gold, except those in which there is a cyauide, are strongly acidulated by sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, unless they are already acid, and then largely diluted with...
-Recovering Platinum
(a) Render any kind of platinum bath acid by hydrochloric acid, unless it is already so, and then plunge cleansed iron into it. The platinum is reduced to a black powder, wash, and calcine to a white ...
-Recovering Silver
It is a fact that only about 5 per cent. of the gold and silver used in producing a photograph remains on the finished picture; the balance is lost, and below are given a few short and simple methods ...
-Recovering Silver. Part 2
In case all the mercury should disappear at the end of the process, a little more may be added to the watery solution to ascertain whether it still contains silver. (l) A method of reducing silver ch...
-Recovering Silver. Part 3
(g) The residues almost always exist as silver chloride. Wash by decanta-tion, with plenty of water, in a capacious vessel which can be shaken, the mass - filter-paper and all - till free from copper,...
-Recovering Silver. Part 4
The battery in which the reduction is effected is constructed on precisely the same principles as the silver chloride battery of Warren de la Rue, and one form of this, as is well known, consists of a...
-Recovering Tin
(a) The tin-clippings are put into a drum, consisting of stout copper-sheeting, and provided with holes 3/8 in. diameter and 2 in. apart. It holds about 1000 lb. of clippings. It is first made to rota...
-Recovering Tin. Part 2
No doubt could exist as to the best source for the production of such a strong current as that required, the difficulty was to select the dynamo machine which would be most suitable for the purpose. T...
-Recovering Tin. Part 3
One of Crompton's indicators, registering up to 250 amperes, was obtained for measuring the strength of the current, and detecting flaws or breakages in the same. Some such instrument is invaluable fo...
-Rubber
Rubber Solvents Benzine is an excellent solvent for caoutchouc and gutta-percha. Caoutchouc or rubber, may also be dissolved in ether, carbon sulphide, naphtha, spirit of turpentine, and chloroform. ...
-Rust
How To Prevent Rusting (a) Boiled lin-seed oil will keep polished tools from rusting if it is allowed to dry on them. Common sperm oil will prevent them from rusting for a short period. A coat of cop...
-Manufacture Of Varnishes
The building in which varnish is made ought to be quite detached from any other building whatever, and have a door-way in the centre with folding doors made to lift off the hinges. Let the roof of the...
-Manufacture Of Varnishes. Part 2
Fig. 7. Kindle a fire in the furnace underneath, and manage the fire so that the oil shall gradually but slowly increase in heat for the first two hours; then increase the heat to a gentle simmer,...
-Manufacture Of Varnishes. Part 3
Spirits Of Turpentine That which is used for mixing varnish ought to be procured and chosen as pure, strong and free from acid as possible. Some turpentine being drawn from green trees abounds with a...
-Manufacture Of Varnishes. Part 4
Wainscot Varnish 8 lbs. of 2nd sorted gum anime, 3 gallons of clarified oil, 1/4 lb. of litharge, 1/4 lb. of dried copperas, 1/4 lb. of dried sugar of lead, 5 1/2 gallons of turpentine;, to be all we...
-Manufacture Of Varnishes. Part 5
Black Japan is made after the manner of the gold size. Put 6 gallons of raw linseed oil into the set pot; boil it with a very slow fire. Have a 10-gallon cast-iron pot, with two handles or ears: this ...
-Manufacture Of Varnishes. Part 6
Varnish For Coloured Drawings Canada balsam, 1 oz.; spirits of turpentine, 2 oz. Mix them together. Before this composition is applied, the drawing or priut should be sized with a solution of isingla...
-Manufacture Of Varnishes. Part 7
Mahogany Varnish Put in a bottle 2 oz. gum sandarach, 1 oz. shellac, 1/2 oz. gum bengamin, 1 oz. Venice turpentine, and a pint of spirits of wine, Colour red, with dragon's blood, or yellow with saff...
-Manufacture Of Varnishes. Part 8
Varnish For Waterproof Goods Let a 1/4 lb. of india-rubber, in small pieces, soften in 1/2 lb. of oil of turpentine, then add 2 lbs. of boiled oil, and boil for 2 hours over a slow fire. When dissolv...
-Manufacture Of Varnishes. Part 9
India-Rubber Varnish 1. 2 oz. india-rubber, finely divided, placed in a phial, and digested in a sand bath, with 1/4 lb. of camphene, and 1/4 oz. of naphtha. When dissolved add 1 oz. of copal varnish...
-Soaps
When fats or oils are heated with caustic leys, a combination of fatty acids with alkali is formed; this is designated saponification. Soaps are divided into hard and soft, the former having soda, and...
-Soaps. Part 2
Horse Fat The soap made from horse fat, after several successive boilings, is white and firm; but owing to its peculiar odour it can only be advantageously employed in the preparation of palm and ros...
-Soaps. Part 3
In estimating the amount of carbonated alkali, it is requisite to determine, first, the actual amount of alkali existing in the soda or potash, and this being ascertained, the quantity of carbonated a...
-Soaps. Part 4
Kettles These are made of wood, wrought iron, cast iron, or bricks, lined with glazed stone. Their dimensions vary, but the larger the kettle the better, as much labour, fuel, and ley are thus saved....
-Soaps. Part 5
Cutting Up The Pan This is done by stirring into the ingredients of the soap-kettle either soda ley containing salt, or a solution of salt, or dry salt. The separation is founded upon the insolubilit...
-Soaps. Part 6
Saponification by Agitation. Howes. - Twenty gallons of ley, of 1/125 sp. gr., are employed for every 100 lbs. of tallow. The apparatus consists of a cylinder 6 feet in diameter and 12 feet in length,...
-Soaps. Part 7
Boil this mass from 10 to 12 hours, adding every hour 5 galls, of ley of 25. 4 or 5 hours' boiling will often be sufficient to saturate the soap; this being accomplished, extinguish the fire, lea...
-Soaps. Part 8
Toilet Soaps In the manufacture of fancy soaps the same crude materials are employed as for the common soaps, but they are in a more refined state, and the superior fats, as hog fat, cocoanut oil, an...
-Soap Ponders
These always contain, besides powdered dried soap, a large percentage of sodium carbonate, generally in the form of dried soda crystals. They may be prepared in several ways, thus: - (a) Anhydrous so...
-Perfuming Soaps
Perfuming is generally done when the paste is in the frame, as if added in the pan when the soap is hot, most of the essential oils would be volatilised. It is best to mix the colours and the perfumes...
-Shaving Soaps
Shaving Paste 1. White soft soap, 4 oz.; finest honey soap, 2 oz.; olive oil, 1 oz.; water, 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls; carbonate of soda, 1 dram. Melt together and form a paste, adding a little proof-spi...
-Disinfectant Soaps
In few ways can disinfectants be so agreeably applied to the skin as when incorporated with soap. One of the last introduced, though probably one of the most efficacious, is thymol soap - first made b...
-Manufacturers' Soaps
The various kinds of household soaps having now been described, a few remarks will be made upon the soda soaps suitable for various manufacturing purposes. Most of these are dissolved in water for use...









TOP
previous page: The Mechanician, A Treatise On The Construction And Manipulation Of Tools | by Cameron Knight
  
page up: Mechanics and Engineering Books
  
next page: American Library Edition Of Workshop Receipts Vol2| by Ernest Spon