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American Library Edition Of Workshop Receipts Vol2| by Ernest Spon



Devoted Mainly To Subjects Connected With Chemical Manufacture

TitleAmerican Library Edition Of Workshop Receipts Vol2
AuthorErnest Spon
PublisherSpon & Chamberlain
Year1903
Copyright1903, Spon & Chamberlain
AmazonAmerican Library Edition Of Workshop Receipts
-Preface. Vol 2
Encouraged by the remarkable success of the original' Workshop Receipts,' the author has ventured to produce a second series on the same pattern. In all branches of applied science - whether chemical...
-Acidimetry And Alkalimetry
These two terms may be conveniently described together, as the operations involved are intimately related, and the apparatus in some respects identical. Acidimetry is the measuring of acids, or det...
-Albumen
Albumen, an organic nutritive principle, is a constituent of all animal fluids and solids. The white of eggs contains 12 per cent, of albumen, and the fluid portion of blood [serum] 7 per cent. It occ...
-Albumen. Part 2
Campe recommends that the dishes and sieves for the separation of the serum should be in close proximity to the slaughter-houses, since the retarding of that separation is almost sure to be followed b...
-Albumen. Part 3
The well-known faint odour of blood always pervades an establishment of this kind, and is especially marked in the drying chamber; but it does not pass beyond it in any such way as to cause a nuisance...
-Egg-Albumen
Albumen may be prepared in a pure state from white of eggs,by the following method: - The white of eggs is beaten up well with water and filtered. To the filtrate is added a small quantity of sub-acet...
-Alcohol
Alcohol does not occur in nature, but is the product of the decomposition of glucose [uncrystallizable sugar], which, under the influence of certain nitrogenous substances called ferments, is split ...
-Root-Alcohol
A number of roots and tubers, including beet, potatoes, carrots, turnips, asphodel, madder, and chicory, have been availed of for the manufacture of alcohol, the most important being beets and potatoe...
-Alcohol Rectification
The product ofthe distillation of alcoholic liquors, termed low wine, does not usually contain alcohol in sufficient quantity to admit of its being employed for direct consumption. Besides this, it ...
-Alkaloids
The following are some of the general methods of preparing alkaloids: - (1) Base insoluble in water, non-volatile, and existing in the plant in an insoluble form. The bruised plant is boiled or macer...
-Aconitine
(1) This alkaloid is obtained from the leaves of the Aconi-tum Napellus. The leaves are infused in alcohol, and the solution is treated with milk of lime, which liberates the alkaloids in solution. To...
-Atropine
Atropine is an alkaloid extracted from the root of the deadly nightshade (Atropa Belladonna). The following, according to Cooley, are the principal recognized methods of preparing the alkaloid: - (1)...
-Berberine
Berberine exists in the root of the common barberry (Berberis vulgaris), in the calumba root of India (Menispermum palmaturri), and in the calumba wood of Ceylon (M. fene~ stratum). It is prepared as ...
-Brucine
Brucine is contained in Bructa antid senterica, St. Ignatius bean and Strychnos Nux vomica (along with strychnine). It is generally prepared from the latter plant, which is much cheaper. The powdered ...
-Calumbine
Calambine is prepared from calumba root (Menispermum pal-mat am) by the following methods: - (1) Digest the coarsely powdered root in water acidulated with acetic acid; express, filter, boil to J, ag...
-Cascarilline
Cascarilline may be prepared from the bark of Croton Cascarilla or C. Eleutheria by the following processes: - (1) The bark is exhausted with cold water by percolation, precipitated with lead acetate...
-Quinine, Etc
Of the alkaloids present in cinchona barks, the four possessing remedial value are, stated in order of merit, quinidine, quinine, cin-chonidine, and cinchonine. Their relative and total proportions ar...
-Quinine, Etc. Continued
The second method, adopted by Wood, in Sikkim, is much simpler: - The dry bark is crushed into small pieces - not powdered - and is put into casks, where it is macerated in the cold with very dilut...
-Baking Powders
The real value of baking-powders lies in their leavening power, or available gas. Dr. E. G. Love made an interesting examination of the brands sold in the United States, to test their comparative wort...
-Bitters
The term bitters is applied in the liquor trade to a class of compounds prepared by steeping vegetable bitters in weak spirit for somedays, with the addition of aromatic flavourings, syrup, and colo...
-Bleaching
Bleaching is the art of whitening or decolorizing substances. It may be conveniently divided into the following heads: - Bleaching Albumen Leon Maret is the inventor of a curious process of bleachin...
-Bleaching. Continued
Scouring And Bleaching Woven Silk Before scouring, the goods are singed with the gas flame (as in cotton bleaching). The scouring machine consists simply of a winch set over a wooden box or tub. As w...
-Bleaching Oils And Fats
Many plans of decolorizing oils are in vogue: - (a) Exposure to sunlight in large white glass bottles; the oil soon becomes colourless, but acquires an almost rancid flavour. (6) Agitation with 2 per ...
-Bleaching Paper Pulp
(1) The washed substances are put into a weak bath containing 6 1/4 to 8 lb. bleaching powder per 22 gal.; after 6 to 12 hours they are washed and boiled for 2 to 4 hours with carbonate of soda (1 oz....
-Bleaching Animal Fibres
(1) Animal fibres which have to be bleached with peroxide of hydrogen must first be subjected to a treatment which renders them fit to be perfectly soaked with the solution. All fat, suet, and unclean...
-Bleaching Feathers
(l)The feathers are put into a bath of permanganate of potash, containing 4 to 5 parts permanganate to 1000 of water; a solution of sulphate of magnesia of the same strength is added, and it is heated...
-Bleaching Hair
(1) The hair is left for 12 hours in a solution of 3 parts carbonate of ammonia in 100 water at 86 F. (30 C), then washed, wasned again in soap, and completely scoured with another solution ...
-Bleaching Jute
(1) The question of bleaching jute without injury has been studied for a long time. All bleachers have boasted of being able to bleach it as well as, or even better, than linen and hemp, but all have ...
-Bleaching Rags
The bleaching of rags may be conducted like that of Esparto (see p. 31). In addition, the methods of gas-bleaching and sour-bleaching are sometimes resorted to. The former, on account of the great inc...
-Bleaching Shellac
(1) By exposure in thin threads to the atmosphere. (2) 1 lb. of shellac is dissolved in 4 lb. of very strong alcohol, 1 lb. of bleaching powder - containing at least 20 per cent, bleaching chlorine -...
-Bleaching Silk
(1) Lyons process. The bleach is an aqua regia, prepared by mixipg 5 parts of muriatic acid with 1 of nitric acid. Before being used, the mix-tare is left for at least 4 or 5 days at a gentle heat, ab...
-Bleaching Sponge
(1) Saturate in a quart of buttermilk for 24 hours, and rub between the hands. (2) Soak in dilute muriatic acid (1 acid to 1} water) for 12 hours, wash well with water, to remove lime, then immerse it...
-Bleaching Starch
Potato starch is largely bleached by the application of sulphuric acid, this being absolutely requisite when the potatoes are at all decayed. After the use of the sulphuric acid, any remaining traces ...
-Bleaching Straw
On a small scale, with such an article as a straw hat, a bonnet, a basket, etc, the following method may be followed: - (1) The straw, having been well washed with weak soda lye, is rinsed in plenty o...
-Bleaching Wax
(1) Melt the wax in a jar, and put into it powdered nitrate of soda (Chili saltpetre) in the proportion of 1 oz. to the lb. of wax; afterwards add, by degrees, 2 oz. to the lb. of sulphuric acid, dilu...
-Boiler Incrustations
This subject, of such important interest to all users of steam, has been ably discussed by Rowan, in a paper read before the British Association in 1876. Crace Calvert's previous experiments showed t...
-Boiler Incrustations. Part 2
Rowan quotes the cases mentioned by Miller, in one of which a set of boilers worked for 4 years with sea-water, using the injection condenser, exhibited no signs of damage either from incrustation or ...
-Boiler Incrustations. Part 3
Chlorides of sodium, between 302 and 320 F. (150 to 160 C). When the water contains only carbonates of lime, it suffices to heat to a temperature of about 212 F. (100 C)...
-Boiler Incrustations. Part 4
Fig. 9. Fig. 11. in contact with the iron boiler plate, is probably electrical, and, if hydrogen be evolved in small bubbles, it would be sufficient to account for the deposit being non-...
-Boiler Incrustations. Part 5
Table A. - Waters Obtained From Rivers And Loch River. Loch. River. River. Total Slaine Matter.... gr gr. gr. gr. 2.56 1.28 4....
-Saline Anti-Incrustators
The most common substance in this class is soda ash, or the more pure soda crystals. These two substances are regularly sold at very large profits to manufacturers, and receive very many names in the ...
-Fatty Anti-Incrustators
Tallow is most usually employed, but the coarser and low class oils also occasionally find their way into the market. These substances cannot be too strongly condemned, as they are without doubt most ...
-Paraffin And Paraffin Anti-Incrustation Products
Paraffin oil, when introduced into boilers, causes the deposit thrown down by the water to take the form of a soft mass of rounded particles, easily removable by the frequent use of the blowcock. It i...
-Other Organic Anti-Incrustation Compositions
Peat or moss has been used in many cases with the best results, whilst with some waters potatoes act well. The residue in the boiler is soft, and the blowcock should be frequently used. Many other org...
-Other Organic Anti-Incrustation Compositions. Part 2
Table T. - Incrustations From Boilers. Heaters Used Before Heaters in use. After Heaters in work. (No. Soda.) Calcic Carbonate 30.89 1.36 Calcic Sulphate ...
-Other Organic Anti-Incrustation Compositions. Part 3
Times of March 17,1864, by Peter Spence of the Manchester Alum Works, who says - For every boiler, 2 lb. of soda ash (an article easily procured at 1 1 1/4d. per lb.) is every day given to the stoker...
-Lutes and Cements
The term cement is here used to denote only adhesive substances or compounds, and does not include building cement; lutes are bodies employed to make tight joints without really effecting a tenaciou...
-Lutes and Cements. Part 2
3. The third point is the necessity for cleanliness, both in the preparation and in the application of the cements. It may be safely laid down as a positive rule that every extraneous substance that i...
-Lutes and Cements. Part 3
This lute is proof against the attacks of nitric and hydrochloric acid vapours. Alabaster Cements for uniting pieces of alabaster, marble, Derbyshire spar, and other kinds of white stone, are in fre...
-Lutes and Cements. Part 4
Add boiled oil 1 part. Apply warm. Architectural Architectural cement is a kind of papier-mache, and is used for making entire models, busts, ornaments, etc, rather than for uniting the parts of any...
-Lutes and Cements. Part 5
Brimstone Roll sulphur is frequently used alone as a cement for fastening iron bars in holes drilled in stone. The addition of brickdust, sand or resin, lessens its liability to crack. When the yello...
-Lutes and Cements. Part 6
Crucible A mixture of powdered clay and brickdust, made up with water, or a solution of borax. Used to join crucibles which are exposed to a strong heat. When mixed up with borax solution, the lute b...
-Lutes and Cements. Part 7
Wollaaton's This is a very valuable cement for large objects, such as shells, fossils, etc.: Beeswax, 1 oz.; resin, 4 oz.; powdered plaster-of-Paris, 5 oz. Melt together. To use, warm the edges of th...
-Glue
(1) Glue is, undoubtedly, the most important cement used in the arts. It serves to unite wood, paper, and almost all organic materials. The carpenter, the cabinet maker, the bookbinder, the hatter, an...
-Glue. Continued
Glue which exhibits a bad odour when moistened should be rejected and used only for making size, and for uniting the coarser varieties of articles; and when the glue-pot begins to exhibit any signs of...
-Fish Glue
(1) An attempt has been made to prepare glue from the skins and refuse of fish, in the same way that ordinary glue is prepared from the skins and offal of land animals. Such glue has been made in larg...
-Liquid Glue
Various attempts have, as already stated, been made, with the intention of retaining the glue in a liquid form, and of thus avoiding the inconvenience attending the use of a cement which requires to b...
-Mouth Or Lip Glue
Mouth glue forms a very convenient portable cement of considerable adhesiveness. For some purposes, especially for attaching drawing-paper to a board, it is the most convenient form, but for ordinary ...
-Glycerine Cement
(1) In 1869, Hirzel obtained, by triturating litharge with glycerine, a mass which he found useful as a cement for vessels containing benzol, ethereal oils, etc, as it possessed the property of soon h...
-Gum Tragacanth
(1) Known amongst mechanics as gum dragon and gum drag. It comes in irregular-shaped fragments, varying in size from that of a small pea to a hazel nut or larger. It is yellowish-white, and sometimes ...
-India Rubber
(1) Pieces of india-rubber may be readily united by means of the pasty mass obtained by acting upon pure rubber by its appropriate solvents. These are: Sulphuric ether, coal-tar naphtha,.bisulphide of...
-Iron Filings Or Borings Cement
Iron filings or borings, when mixed with sulphur, sal ammoniac, etc, expand and form a compact mass which makes a very firm steam-tight joint if properly applied. Concerning this cement, Dr. Ure says:...
-Labels
(1) The usual adhesive coating for gum tickets, is the cheaper varieties of gum arable dissolved in water, applied with a brush and dried. (2) Mix dextrine with water, and add a drop or two of glyce...
-Lead Cement
(1) Simply pure white lead ground in oil, and used very thick, is an excellent cement for mending broken crockery ware; but it takes a very long time to harden sufficiently. The best plan is to place ...
-Leather Cement
(1) One says, that after an experience of 15 years he has found nothing to equal the following: Common glue and isinglass, equal parts, soaked for 10 hours in just enough water to cover them. Bring gr...
-Marine Glue
Marine glue is probably the strongest cement known, and when well made and properly applied, it is capable of uniting wood, metal, glass, leather, etc, with a strength and durability that is astonishi...
-Masons' Cement
(1) 20 lb. clean river sand, 2 lb. litharge, 1 lb. quicklime, sufficient linseed oil to form a thin paste. Used for joining fragments of stone. (2) Gad's. 3 parts well-dried and powdered clay, 1 of ir...
-Meerschaum Cement
(1) The best cement for joining pieces of meerschaum, is Egg Cement, which see. (2) Garlic, crushed to form a sort of dough, is rubbed over the surfaces of the meerschaum to be united; the latter are ...
-Microscopical Cement
Dr. H. Wood describes a new cement invented by Dr. J. 6. Hunt, which seems likely to be generally useful, and in some cases extremely valuable. It is prepared as follows: - Take dammar gum, any quanti...
-Milk Cement
This cement is not so generally known as it ought to be. It is the simplest and best domestic cement for repairing china and crockery. The process consists simply in tying the parts firmly together an...
-Paste
Next to glue, paste is the most extensively used, and the most valuable cement that we have. For ordinary purposes it consists simply of flour, made into a thin cream with water, and boiled. .It then ...
-Plasters
(1) Plaster-of-Paris, baked and ground, acquires great hardness and solidity when left for twenty-four hours, in contact with a solution of alum, and when, after drying in the air, it is submitted to ...
-Sealing-Wax
In general terms, sealing-wax is compounded of resins, tempered and perfumed with proportions of the softer oleo-resins, and variously coloured. It should be glossy, smooth, not brittle, unaffected by...
-Sealing-Wax. Part 2
Melting The melting of the mass should be conducted at the lowest possible temperature, sufficing only to keep it in a fluid state. Quantities of 20 lb. to 25 lb. are treated at a time in a vessel la...
-Sealing-Wax. Part 3
(1) Resin, 6 oz.; shellac, 2 oz.; Venice turpentine, 2 oz.; melt and add lampblack, 9 oz. Pour into moulds. (2) Common resin, pitch, and ivory black, equal parts. (3) Another: common resin, 20 lb.; ta...
-Shellac
(1) Shellac, made up into sticks of the size of a lead pencil, is frequently sold as a cement which will resist water, acids, oils, etc, and it answers very well. Sometimes it is mixed with very tine ...
-Soluble Glass
When finely pulverized chalk is stirred into a solution of soluble glass of 30 B. until the mixture is fine and plastic, a cement is obtained which will harden in 6 or 8 hours, possessing an extr...
-Sorel's Cements
There are two different cements which go by the name of Sorel'ss: namely, the oxychloride of zinc and the magnesia cement. (1) Oxychloride Of Zinc A solution of chloride of zinc is prepared by...
-Waterproof Glue
(1) Glue to which bichromate of potash has been added, and which has afterwards been exposed to strong sunlight, becomes insoluble. The proportions are not very well ascertained, but about 1 part of t...
-Glass Cements
There are several kinds of so-called glass cement, said to be excellent for uniting broken glass, china, etc. (1) Pulverized glass, 10 parts; powdered fluorspar, 20; soluble silicate of soda, 60. Both...
-Glass To Metals Cements
(1) A cement of great adhesive property, particularly serviceable in attaching the brass mountings on glass lamps, as it is unaffected by petroleum, may be prepared by boiling 3 parts of rosin with 1 ...
-Fireproof Cement
Phin says it is easy to find a recipe for a fireproof cement, but it is very difficult to find a cement that will stand a red heat. It is well to bear in mind the fact that no cement containing organi...
-Chinese Glue
(1) Shellac dissolved in alcohol. Used for joining wood, earthenware, glass, etc. This cement requires considerable time to become thoroughly hard, and even then is not as strong as good glue. Its por...
-Casein or Cheese Cements
Casein or cheese has long been used for forming cements, either in combination with quicklime, borax, or, more recently, with silicate of soda. The most important point that requires attention, in ord...
-Cap Cements
Cap cements are so called because they are used for fixing brass caps, stopcocks, etc, on glass apparatus. There are two kinds of cement in use for this purpose; one consists of resin and other matter...
-Cleansing
This article embraces the cleaning and scouring processes employed by dyers, recipes for washing and cleansing various things not coming within the dyer's art, and prescriptions for the removal of sta...
-Cleansing. Continued
It corrodes glass, which causes its cleansing power, so that the strong acid should not be kept in a glass or glazed bottle or jar, but in a bottle of guttapercha or similar material. Cleansing Kid G...
-Cleansing Lining
A strong wooden frame, called a stretcher, is made of stout quartering of the size required, and fitted with wedges (as in ordinary canvas strainers ), by means of which the frame may be slig...
-Cleansing Brass
(1) Wash with rock alum, boiled in a strong lye in the proportion of 1 oz. to a pint; polish with dry tripoli. (2) The government method prescribed for cleaning brass, and in use at all the United Sta...
-Cleansing Casks
The acid smell very often found in casks may be attributed to absorption in the pores of the wood of acetic and lactic acids - a very small quantity of either of them having power to communicate their...
-Cleansing Druggists' Utensils
Before cleaning an implement, the first thing to consider is whether the article you are about to wash is worth the chemical you will have to waste upon it. If not, then throw it away; if otherwise, t...
-Cleansing Engravings
(1) Presuming these to be mounted, proceed in the following manner. Cut a stale loaf in half, with a perfectly clean knife; pare the crust away from the edges. Place the engravings on a flat table, an...
-Cleansing Feathers
(1) To clean feathers from their own animal oil, steep them in 1 gal. of water mixed with 1 lb. of lime, stir them well, and then pour off the water, and rinse the feathers in cold spring water. To cl...
-Cleansing Firearms
(1) A good and simple way of cleaning and recolouring the barrels and other metal parts of a double-barrel shot gun which are quite rusty. Take the barrels from the stock, and put them in clean cold w...
-Cleansing Floors
(1) Take some clean, sifted, white or silver sand, and scatter it on the floor. Dissolve 1 lb. American potash or pearlash, in 1 pint of water, and sprinkle the sand with this solution. Have a pail of...
-Cleansing Fur
(1) Soap or water will spoil it. Get some clean common whiting - powdered, and plenty of it - put it in a damp place for a day or so, but on no account let it get wet; rub it into the fur with the han...
-Cleansing Gilt Picture Frames
(1) Fly-marks can be cleaned off with soap and water used sparingly on end of finger covered by piece of rag. When all cleared off, rinse with cold water, and dry with chamois leather; next buy a poun...
-Cleansing Glass
(1) To clean glass in frames, when the latter are covered or otherwise so finished that water cannot be used, moisten tripoli with brandy, rub it on the glass while moist, and when dry rub off with a ...
-Cleansing Photographic Glass Plates
(10) One of the most powerful - if not, indeed, the most powerful - detergents for refractory plates is the mixture of sulphuric acid and bichromate of potash recommended by Carey Lea some years ago. ...
-Cleansing Gold
(1) To remove the brown tarnish from coloured gold, take a piece of tissue-paper damped in liq. ammoniac, gently rub the gold till the tarnish disappears, then wash off carefully with soft brush, soap...
-Cleansing Iron And Steel
(1) Take a spongy piece of fig-tree wood and well saturate it with a mixture of sweet-oil and finely powdered emery, aud with this well rub all the rusty parts. This will not only clean the article, b...
-Cleansing Ivory And Bones
(1) The curators of the Anatomical Museum of the Jardin des Plantes, in Paris, have found that spirits of turpentine is very efficacious in removing the disagreeable odour and fatty emanations of bone...
-Cleansing Leather
(1) Carriage tops that have faded and become grey can be restored by washing with a solution composed of 4 oz. of nut galls, I oz. each of logwood, copperas, clean iron filings, and sumach berries; pu...
-Stopping
The object of this operation is to fill all fissures or cracks in the picture with a composition which is capable of receiving a coating of paint without absorbing it. The composition employed for thi...
-Cleaning
This term is applied technically to the removal of varnish from old pictures, and it is scarcely necessary to say that if this were attempted by means of chemical solvents of gum-resins, which form th...
-Restoring
When it is borne in mind that the varied tints and colours employed by the old masters (and many of which are of doubtful origin at the present day) require to be faithfully matched, it will be unders...
-Restoring Sheepskin Mats
Wash while fresh in strong soapsuds, first picking from the wool all the dirt that will come out. A little paraffin, 1 tablespoonful to 3 gal. water, will aid in removing the impurities. Continue to w...
-Restoring Silver
(1) East Indian jewellers never touch silver ware with any abra-sive substance, but use, instead of polishing paste, etc, slices of lemons; the goods to be cleaned are well rubbed with these, and then...
-Restoring Sponge
(1) A sponge employed in photographic manipulations for a few months loses all its valuable qualities, becoming black, hard, and greasy, and contaminating anything which it touches. To clean it, a sol...
-How to Remove Stains
The following general remarks on the removal of stains appeared anonymously in the English Mechanic. To proceed with any degree of certainty in endeavours to remove stains, they must be divided into t...
-How to Remove Stains. Continued
Mercurial ointment produces very persistent stains. These may be extracted by washing the spot with a hot solution of soda (1 soda to 50 water), and when the grease is removed, by rubbing over with a ...
-How to Remove Grease And Oil Stains
(1) For white linen or cotton goods, use soap or weak lye. For coloured calicoes, warm soapsuds. For woollens, soapsuds or ammonia. For silks, benzine, ether, ammonia, magnesia, chalk, yolk of egg, wi...
-How to Remove Ink And Ironmould Stains
(1) Equal parts of cream of tartar and citric acid* powdered fine, and mixed together.. This forms the salts of lemon as sold by druggists. Directions for using. - Procure a hot dinner-plate, lay the ...
-How to Remove Mildew Stains
(1) Well mix together a spoonful of table salt, 2 of soft-soap, 2 of powdered starch, and the juice of a lemon. Lay this mixture on both sides of the stain with a painter's brush, and then lay the art...
-How to Remove Milk And Coffee Stains
These stains are very difficult to remove, especially from light-coloured and finely-finished goods. From woollen and mixed fabrics, they are taken out by moistening them with a mixture of 1 part glyc...
-Cleaning And Scouring Textile Fabrics
The recipes under this head are mainly derived from a most useful little manual by S. Christopher on 'Cleaning and Scouring.' (Spon.) Cleaning and scouring are, with dyers, divided into English and...
-Cleaning With Benzine
Scouring with benzine has proved to be one of the best methods, since the end is accomplished without shrinkage or injurious effect upon the colour or finish, so that the garments need not be taken ap...
-Drying
Dresses, and all coloured fabrics, should always be dried in the shade, and never in the sunshine; for the best colours are sure to fade if they are exposed to the glare of the sun, and more especiall...
-Dry Cleaning
Have ready a number of dry coarse cotton or linen cloths, some coarse flannels, and one or more large pieces of coarse sponge; two or more hard scrubbing or scouring brushes, some large tubs or pans, ...
-Cleaning Curtains, Bed Furniture, Etc. Chintz
Printed or chintz curtains do not require to be unpicked or unlined for cleaning and glazing; but if they are to be friction-calendered, they must be unlined and taken apart in breadths. Lined furnitu...
-Cleaning Damasks
Dissolve 6 lb. soap in 8 gal. boiling water; and in another vessel dissolve 3 lb. best pearlash in 2 gal. boiling water. First clean the curtains, one at a time, in two lots of clean water, well worki...
-Cleaning Damasks. Continued
Each curtain is to be cleaned in the same manner, and will take about 6 sheets to properly dry it; but with each fresh curtain the second soap liquor is to be used as the first, and a fresh lot mixed ...
-Cleaning Things
Lama Boil 1 lb. of the best rice in 1 gal. water for 3 hours, and when done pour off into a basin a sufficient quantity to starch the dress. When the remainder is partially cold, well wash the dress ...
-How to Make Confectionery
The foundation of all kinds of confectionery is sugar, clarified, and boiled to different degrees by means of a special stove. Stove The confectioners' stove is generally built like a cupboard in a ...
-Candy
After passing the degree of feather, sugar is inclined to grain or candy, and will form a powder if agitated or stirred; for as the boiling is continued, the water evaporates until none is le...
-Cakes
Bordeaux Or Parisian Make a mixture as for pound-cakes, leaving out the fruit, peel, and spices; bake in a round or oval hoop. When baked and cold, cut into slices J in. thick; spread each slice with...
-Confectionary Recipes
Italian Bread Take 1 lb. butter, 1 lb. powdered loaf-sugar, 18 oz. flour, 12 eggs, 1/2 lb. citron and lemon-peel. Mix as for pound-cake. If the mixture begins to curdle, which is most likely from the...
-Confectionary Recipes. Part 2
Candied Sugar Provide a round mould, smaller at bottom than top, of any size, made of tin or copper, with holes round the sides about 3 in. asunder, so as to fasten strings across in regular rows fro...
-Confectionary Recipes. Part 3
Candy Articles that come under this head are made from sugar brought to the ball, and grained by rubbing against the sides of the pan. Artificial Fruit, Eggs, etc - Prepare plaster moulds from the n...
-Confectionary Recipes. Part 4
Ginger Candy Clarified syrup, boiled to the ball; flavour either with essence of ginger, or powdered root; then with a spoon or spatula rub some against the side of the pan until it turns white; pour...
-Confectionary Recipes. Part 5
Chocolate Drops With Nonpareils Have some warm chocolate, as for pistachios; some add a little butter or oil to make it work more free; make into balls about the size of a small marble, by rolling a ...
-Confectionary Recipes. Part 6
Give 3 or 4 coatings in this manner, and then a charge of sugar, until the comfits are about 1/2 the required size. Dry for a day, give 2 or 3 coatings of gum and flour, finish by giving 3 or 4 charge...
-Crack and Caramel
These embrace all articles which eat short and crisp. Acid Drops And Sticks Boil clarified sugar to crack, and pour it on an oiled marble stone; pound tartaric or citric acid to a fine powder, and s...
-Spinning Confectionary
Proficiency in this requires much practice, a good taste for design, and expertness in boiling, taking particular care to avoid graining. The moulds may be made either of copper or tin, slightly rubbe...
-How to Make Drops
Take treble-refined sugar with a good grain, pound, and pass through a coarse hair sieve; sift again in a lawn sieve, as the sugar, when too fine, makes the drops compact, and destroys their brillianc...
-Ice-Making Apparatus
(1) Pewter pots of various sizes, suitable to the quantity of mixture to be frozen. Tin or zinc will not do, as they congeal the mixture without allowing it time to become properly incorporated, and f...
-Ices
Ices are of 3 classes, viz.: cream, custard, and water. These derive their names from the bases of which they are composed, the flavouring matter giving a second definition thus, raspberry cream and...
-Ices. Continued
Damson Ice 1 qt. damsons, 1 pint syrup, 1/2 pint water. Mix as peach ice. Magnum bonums, Orleans, greengages, or any other plum may be done in the same way. Filbert Ice Cream (1) 1 qt. cream, 1 lb....
-Lozenges
Lozenges are compounded of finely powdered loaf sugar I and other substances (liquid or powdered), held together in a paste by means of gum solution, then rolled into thin sheets, and stamped into lit...
-Chemical Copying Methods
This term forms a convenient heading for an article embracing the various processes employed in obtaining copies or impressions of printed and written matter, such as letters, drawings, etc. The subje...
-Chemical Copying Methods. Part 2
It is necessary to prevent the liquid from flowing over the back of the paper, which it would cover with a 2 blue stain, and to prevent this the edges of the print are turned up all round. On lifting ...
-Chemical Copying Methods. Part 3
(9) Paper prepared so that a brass pointer leaves a black mark on it. Dissolve 1/4 oz. pure sodium sulphide and 1/2 oz. sodium hyposulphite in 1 qt. rain water; filter the solution, and with it unifor...
-Chemical Copying Methods. Part 4
This soft paper absorbs a large proportion of the aniline ink, and itself forms a reversed printing-surface, capable of yielding a considerable number of direct copies to damp sheets of paper. (14) H...
-Chemical Copying Methods. Part 5
(16) Willis's process is founded on the action of bichromates on organic matter, the printed image being coloured by means of an aniline salt; it is extremely useful for copying plans and simple line-...
-Chemical Copying Methods. Part 6
The print is developed by being floated back downwards on water at a temperature of 100 to 122 F. (38 to 50 C), till the lines appear as depressions. It is then washed with water a...
-Chemical Copying Methods. Part 7
A roller charged with lithographic ink (No. 2, mixed with middle varnish, is the best), is then passed over it, backwards and forwards, several times, so that more ink may adhere to the lines. Coarser...
-Chemical Copying Methods. Part 8
(27) Michaud's Process A negative of the subject to be reproduced having been obtained, a print is taken on a film of bichromated gelatine supported by a metal plate. The print is developed by the us...
-Chemical Copying Methods. Part 9
(31). Warnerke has recently published some improvements based upon the discovery that a gelatine plate submitted to pyrogallic acid becomes insoluble in the parts exposed to light. The ordinary gelati...
-Chemical Copying Methods. Part 10
After drying, the picture is put upon a marble slab, made very hot, taking care, however, that the print does not become brown by heating. By undergoing this operation of heating, the chromate salt is...
-Mechanical Copying Methods
(1) Stencils A class of printing stencil is made by the mechanical perforation of suitable paper or tissue. Stencils perforated by a rapidly rising and falling needle-point, actuated by a treadle, ha...
-Transferring Methods
(1) Pixis Process For Transferring Photographs To Wood A phototype plate, representing the picture that is to be transferred, or its negative, is produced: it must be of the same size as the copy is ...
-Disinfectants
A true disinfectant should be at once a deodoriser (destroyer of odours) and an antiseptic (destroyer of low forms of life). The presence of sewage gas in an apartment may be detected in the following...
-Disinfectants. Part 2
Dr. Dougall considers that his experiments prove that putrefaction and fermentation are not identical processes; that putrefaction is more difficult to prevent than fermentation; that fermentation fre...
-Disinfectants. Part 3
It is also by far the most powerful as a deodorant. Professor Beilstein, who has recently studied the various substances used for disinfection, arrives, in a communication made to the St. Petersburg ...
-Disinfectants. Part 4
Richardson impregnates filter paper with iodine by pouring over it a solution of iodine in amyl hydride. The volatile solvent almost immediately evaporates, leaving the paper charged with iodine. A fe...
-Disinfectants. Part 5
As the vapours tested are not unpleasant or injurious when breathed, it is to he hoped that practical tests in hospital wards will confirm the promise of Robson's experiments. As eucalyptol - derived ...
-Disinfectants. Part 6
Being non-gaseous, they are not withdrawn from air in which they may be floating in clouds by liquid or solid disinfectants exposed in vessels, and in these circumstances should be expelled by ventila...
-Disinfectants. Part 7
Sulphurous acid has of late years occupied a prominent place amongst disinfectants, since having been recommended by a committee of the German Empire for the cholera epidemic. Recently, however, its d...
-Dyeing, Staining, And Colouring
The subject may be divided into the following sections: - Calico-Printing The following summary of recipes for calico printing are in the main condensed from an article on the subject, by W. Crookes...
-Dyeing, Staining, And Colouring. Part 2
Indigo Effects Under this style, will be included the so-called China blues - designs in blue on a white ground; the kinds where reserves or resists are printed upon the cloth, which is then dyed i...
-Dyeing, Staining, And Colouring. Part 3
For a green colour, take 4 1/4 gal. indigotine precipitate, 18 lb. powdered gum Senegal, stirring till dissolved; 11 lb. nitrate of lead, and 11 lb. white sugar of lead, both in powder. The mixture is...
-Dyeing, Staining, And Colouring. Part 4
Discharges On Vat-Blues Give a medium blue in the vat. Steep pieces in bichromate of potash (4 3/8oz. in If pint water), and dry on rollers, avoiding sun-light. Print on the following discharges: - ...
-Dyeing, Staining, And Colouring. Part 5
Padding Purple Make up a thickener as follows: - 13 1/2 gal. water, 2 gal. purple fixing liquor, 2 qt. logwood liquor at 8 Tw., 18 lb. flour. Boil, and add 2 1/2 gal. of farina gum water, made b...
-Dyeing, Staining, And Colouring. Part 6
(3) Prussiate 34 oz. chlorate of aniline, 12 oz. prussiate of aniline, 34 oz. water, 12 oz. gum tragacanth water (containing 4 3/8 oz. per 1 3/4 pint). This mixture may also be thickened with starch ...
-Spirit Colour Style, Or Application Colours
The colours employed in this style contain so large a proportion of acid mordants, chiefly the chlorides of tin (or, as they are technically called, spirits ), that steaming would be impracticable....
-Steam Colours
This style includes the processes by which the aniline colours in the majority of cases are fixed upon cotton goods, and, in addition, the topical application of the artificial alizarine colours; also...
-Steam Colours. Continued
(2) Dark 6 lb. starch gum, 9 lb. satin gum, 2 pints olive oil, 16 1/2 qt. red liquor at 17 Tw., 6 pints acetic acid at 7 Tw., 4 gal. catechu liquor, 4 lb. sal ammoniac, 4 qt. sapan liquor a...
-Reds Or Rose Colours
(1) Magenta 1/4 oz. magenta crystals, 6 1/2 oz. acetic actd, 3 oz. water. Dissolve at a boil. Meantime mix for thickening 17 1/2 fl. oz. red liquor at 21 3/4 Tw., 17 1/2 fl. oz. water, and 12 oz....
-Black Colours
(I) Fast. For 110 lb. cotton yarn or cotton wool. - 8 3/4 lb. solid extract of logwood, 5 lb. 10 oz. catechu. Boil up together, boil the yarn in the decoction for 1 hour, steep in the cold liquid for ...
-Blue Colours
(1) Methyl, 30 lb. yarn. - Dissolve 4 lb. Glauber salts, 2 lb. alum, in a sufficient quantity of water. Dissolve 1 1/2 oz. methyl blue (of Meister, Lucius, and Briining), and add it to the dye-beck. E...
-Browns Colours
(1) Fast, 110 lb. cotton yarns. - Dissolve 22 lb. catechu, and 2 lb. 3 oz. blue vitriol (sulphate of copper), in boiling water; steep for 1 hour in the boiling hot liquid; lift, drain, and then dye a...
-Drab Colours
(1) Light, 60 Lb Boil 6 lb. solid extract of peach wood till dissolved add the solution to a sufficient bulk of warm water; give the yarns 5 turns; lift, and add 1 1/2 pints black liquor (acetate of ...
-Green Colours
(1) Methyl, 11 Lb Dissolve in boiling water 7 1/10 oz. tannin; lay the bleached cotton overnight in the hot solution; wring out; dye in cold water with a solution of the colour according to shade. Wr...
-Grey Colours
(1) Light, 11 lb. yarn. - Boil 4 1/2 oz. sumach in 87 pints water; in this steep the yarn for 1 hour, turning frequently; lift, and add to the beck a decoction of 4 1/2 oz. copperas; stir; reenter, gi...
-Red Colours
(1) Eosine These shades range from a cherry-red to a true rose, and have not the violet cast of magenta. For a more bluish shade, steep in a bath of curd soap at 144 F. (62 C); work for 1/2...
-Violet Colours
(l) Gentiana, 11 lb Boil 2 lb. 3 oz. sumach, or 6 1/6 oz. tannin, in water, and steep the yarns overnight in the clear solution. Wring up next morning, and dye in a beck at 165 F. (74 C), co...
-Encaustic Colours
Encaustic colours are the various metallic oxides given in the following list. When more than one substance is used for colouring, the proportions must be varied to suit the tint required. For violet,...
-Dyeing Feathers
(I) The feathers should be soaked in solution of ammonium or sodium carbonate, whereby they are rendered less liable to break or bend; after being dyed, they should be dried in a current of warm air. ...
-Dyeing Flowers, Grasses, And Mosses
Dyeing is especially used for the red Xeranthemum annuum fl. pl., red asters, and all kinds of ornamental grasses. Mix 10 parts fresh water with 1 of good nitric acid, plunge the flowers in, shake off...
-Dyeing and Staining Hats
The fulling-stock may be made the vehicle for dyeing or staining all fancy colours, as drabs, beavers, slates, mouse, tan, rosy drabs, and many others. Some makers partially dye, and then complete the...
-Dyeing Horn
(1) After having fine sandpapered the horns, dissolve 50 to 60 gr. nitrate of silver in 1 oz. distilled water. It will be colourless. Dip a small brush in, and paint the horns where they are to be bla...
-Dyeing
Horsehair The horsehair is first washed in soap and rinsed. Brown is obtained by letting lie for 12 hours in a decoction of logwood and limewater at 120 F. Blue, violet shade, is treated as de...
-Dyeing. Continued
Brown The solution is made up of varying quantities of decoctions of logwood and Guinea-wood. For darkening, a small quantity of iron protosulphate is employed. Russia-Red Decoction of cochineal wi...
-Dyeing Blacks
(1) 1/2 gal. vinegar, 1/2 lb. dry lamp-black, 3 lb. sifted iron rust; mix, let stand for a week; lay 3 coats on hot, and rub with linseed-oil. (2) 1/2 lb. good galls, well broken, 1/4 lb. logwood, 3 ...
-Dyeing Browns, Russets, Reds, Yellows
The use of russet and brown leather for reins necessitates the employment of stains of various shades in the workshop, in order that the reins or other straps may be of a uniform colour after being wo...
-Dyeing Calf-Kid
Dyeing black is accomplished either by brushing on a table, or by ridging or folding, grain-side outwards, and drawing quickly through baths of the mordant and colour. To prepare them for the colour...
-Dyeing Metals
Before giving special recipes under the separate metals, it will be well to quote the following paragraph having a general bearing on the subject. Metals may be coloured quickly and cheaply by formin...
-Dyeing Brass
(1) An orange tint inclining to gold is produced by first polishing the brass and then plunging it for a few seconds in a warm neutral solution of crystallized acetate of copper. Dipping into a bath o...
-Dyeing Bronze
As to the colouring which may be given to bronze, and which is obtained by various methods of oxidation, the following are some of the methods in vogue: - (1) The dull colour of medal bronze is obtai...
-Dyeing Gold
(1) Gold alloys, particularly those containing copper, acquire, through repeated heatings during their manufacture, an unseemly brown or brownish-black colour, caused by the oxide of copper, to remove...
-Colouring Paper
The following recipes for coloured papers are mainly derived from Dunbar. Amber (1) For 400 lb. dry paper. 400 lb. Oran esparto, 1/2 lb. chrome yellow, mixed in the engine one hour; 1 pint iron liqu...
-Colouring Paper. Continued
(4) Deep Green For 250 lb. dry paper. No. 3 stuff; 5 pails size, 20 lb. alum, 22 lb. silk green paste, extra fine. A beautiful clear green. (5) Pale Green For 250 lb. dry paper. No. 4 stuff, full b...
-Colouring Silk
Blue (I) Aniline Blue Dyed With Soap For 11 lb. silk add to a water 17 1/4 oz. sulphuric acid and 3 1/2 oz. solution of white soap. Stir well up and dye at 158 F. (70 C.) with 1 3/4 oz. an...
-Colouring Straw
(1) Black In order to obtain a level colour, a solution of gluten is added to a lye of soda, which is allowed to stand for 24 hours, and filtered. The hats are then steeped for 12 hours in the clear ...
-Whitewashing, Calcimining, Or Distemper
(1) This is most commonly applied to ceilings and walls. If the ceiling is new, nothing further is required than a coat of good Paris white (whiting of a superior kind), with just sufficient glue-size...
-Colouring Wine
Various matters are largely employed to artificially heighten the colours of wines. The following are among the number: - (1) Malva flowers or hollyhock produce, when steeped in spirits for 24 hours,...
-Staining Wood
The practice of staining woods is much less common in America and England than on the Continent, where workmen, familiar with the different washes, produce the most delicate tones of colour and shade....
-Staining Wood. Continued
N.B. - Enough varnish should be mixed at once for the job to make it all one colour - i.e., good black. (Smither.) (9) For Table Wash the surface of table with liquid ammonia, applied with a piece o...
-Ebonising
(1) Boil 1 lb. logwood chips 1 hour in 2 qt. water; brush the hot liquor over the work to be stained, lay aside to dry; when dry give another coat, still using it hot. When the second coat is dry, bru...
-Colouring Floors
(1) Get the wood clean, have some Vandyke brown and burnt sienna ground in water, mix it in strong size, put on with a whitewash or new paint brush as evenly as you can. When dry, give two coats of co...
-Mahogany Staining
(1) Boil 1/2 lb. madder and 2 oz. logwood chips in 1 gal. water, and brush well over while hot. When dry, go over with pearlash solution, 2 dr. to the quart. By using it strong or weak, the colour can...
-Oak Staining
(1) Mix powdered ochre, Venetian red, and umber, in size, in proportions to suit; or a richer stain may be made with raw sienna, burnt sienna, and Vandyke. A light yellow stain of raw sienna alone is ...
-Satinwood Staining
Take 1 qt. alcohol, 3 oz. ground turmeric, 1 1/2 oz. powdered gamboge. When steeped to its full strength, strain through fine muslin. It is then ready for use. Apply with a piece of fine sponge, givin...
-Walnut Staining
Deal and other common woods are stained to imitate polished walnut in various ways. (1) One method is, after careful rubbing with glasspaper, to go over the surface with a preparation of Cassel brown ...
-Wool Colouring
Atnaranth On Yarns and Pieces. Boil 87 dr. orchil in water, and make up the decoction to 1 3/4 pint. Boil 30 dr. cochineal in water, and make up the decoction to 1 pint. Thicken the mixture with 1/2 ...
-Essences
The term essence implies a preparation of the essentially active portion of a substance, but it is widely and erroneously applied to a variety of decoctions, infusions, solutions, tinctures, and fluid...
-Essences. Part 2
Ca8carilla 12 oz. bruised casca-rilla, 1 pint proof spirit; proceed by digestion or percolation. Cassia As Allspice. Cayenne (1) 3 lb. recently-dried capsicum pods, 1 gal. rectified spirit; diges...
-Essences. Part 3
Lovage 2 oz. lovage root, 1 oz. lovage seeds, 10 oz. rectified spirit digest a week and filter. Nutmeg As Allspice. Orange As Lemon. Orange-peel - 4 oz. fresh yellow rind of orange, 1/2 pint rec...
-Artificial Fruit
Kletzinsky published years ago formulas for 15 fruit essences, which, in 1867, were republished by several journals. Some of these formulas were again produced in the Confectioners' Journal without an...
-Ginger
(1) 5 oz. bruised unbleached Jamaica ginger, 1 pint rectified spirit; digest a fortnight, press, filter. (2) As (1) with addition of very little essence of cayenne. (3) 3 oz. grated ginger, 2 oz. fr...
-Rennet
For the preparation of concentrated solutions, only dried calves' stomachs are suitable, and those which have been blown out with air and dried as quickly as possible are best. The small stomachs of t...
-Extracts
Extracts are preparations of vegetable juices obtained by expression, decoction, or infusion, and evaporated down to a solid or semi-solid consistence. They are distinguished, according to their solve...
-Extracts. Part 2
From a tincture of the root, made with rectified spirit. It is said to be 12 times as strong as the extract of the leaves. (11) Saccharated 4 oz. extract of aconite, 1 oz. sugar of milk in powder; m...
-Extracts. Part 3
(2) 3 lb. coarsely-bruised yellow cinchona; 4 pints temperate distilled water; macerate for 24 hours, constantly stirring, and strain through linen; what remains, again macerate in 1 qt. water for 24 ...
-Extracts. Part 4
(2) 2 1/2 lb. powdered jalap; 1 gal. rectified spirit; digest 4 days, and express the tincture; boil the marc in 2 gal. water until reduced to 1/2 gal.; filter the tincture and decoction separately, a...
-Extracts. Part 5
(2) 15 oz. bruised poppy-heads without the seeds, 1 gal. boiled distilled water; macerate 24 hours, boil to 1/2, strain, and complete the evaporation. Quassia 1 lb. scraped quassia, sufficient disti...
-Colocynth Extract
(1) Colocynth pulp, cut in pieces and the seeds removed, simply macerated in cold water for 36 hours, frequently pressing it with the hands, and afterwards strongly pressing out the liquor, which must...
-Lactucarium Extract
A difficulty is usually met with in making the lactu-carium preparations, occasioned by the caoutchouc principle always present in this as well as most, if not all, the products from the lactescent pl...
-Malt Extract
Extract of malt represents the matter dissolved from malted cereals, generally malted barley, by water. It is met with in trade in three forms; the first, as a more or less viscid extract, containing ...
-Sarsaparilla Extract
(1) Alcoholic (a) 16 oz. bruised sarsaparilla, 2 oz. bruised liquorice root, 2 oz. rasped guaiacum wood, 2 oz. sliced sassafras bark, 6 dr. sliced mezereon, 7 pints spirit (sp. gr. 935 = 13u.p...
-Opium Extract
(1) 1 lb. opium in thin slices, 6 pints distilled water; macerate the opium in 2 pints of the water for 24 hours; express the liquor. Reduce the residual opium to a uniform pulp, macerate again in 2 p...
-Fireproofing Buildings
This article embraces the modern methods devised for preventing, limiting, and extinguishing fires, and may be conveniently divided into the following sections: - Buildings, Extinguishing Compounds, P...
-Fireproofing Buildings. Part 2
The upper surfaces of the floors are formed on battens filled in with mortar to an even surface for tiles in cement. It is impossible that fire can find its way between these solid surfaces of plaster...
-Fireproofing Buildings. Part 3
It is needless to point out the danger to which an ordinary town house is liable from the ignition of its external woodwork. Safety from external fire may be secured by the application of the same con...
-Fire-Extinguishing Compounds
(1) 8 lb. carbonate of soda, 4 lb. alum, 3 lb. borax, 1 lb. carbonate of potash, and 24 lb. silicate of soda solution are mixed together; l 1/2 lb. of this mixture is added to each gal. of water when ...
-Fireproofing Paints
(1) Various substances have been proposed as fireproof coatings for the protection of woods employed for building purposes, but most of them have been abandoned as being either too costly or not suffi...
-Fireproofing Textile Fabrics
Several preparations for rendering textile and other inflammable fabrics incombustible and practically fireproof have been recently introduced by Martin and Tessier, of Paris. The compositions are sai...
-Fireproofing Timber
(1) By Payne's process, patented in 1841, the timber is enclosed in a close iron vessel in which a vacuum is formed. A solution of sulphate of iron is then admitted into the vessel, which instantly in...
-Fireproofing Writing Materials
(1) A really incombustible paper, without a fireproof ink, would be a very valuable article in many businesses, and for many purposes of every-day life, but if it can be supplemented by a fireproof in...
-Gelatine, Glue, And Size
These substances may be considered as merely varieties of the same material, exhibiting no essential difference in composition or character; in fact, glue and gelatine pass insensibly into each other,...
-Gelatine, Glue, And Size. Part 2
According to another account, the liming process consists in steeping for some weeks in a pit with lime-water. The object of it is to remove any blood or flesh adhering to the skin, and to form a soap...
-Gelatine, Glue, And Size. Part 3
The common glue of Boulogne absorbs 3 1/2 times its weight of water. Well-dried glue is much less hygro-metric than badly-made glues or those made of inferior materials. The latter are liable to putr...
-Gelatine, Glue, And Size. Part 4
The 2 products are thus easily separated, in order to be treated in the usual way, and the hydrocarbons are recovered by evaporating with steam and condensing. German plan for preparing gelatine from...
-Gelatine, Glue, And Size. Part 5
Bone gelatine differs materially from skin gelatine, while the product of one animal may not be the same as that from another. Some gelatines - the inferior ones - dissolve at a low temperature, and o...
-Gelatine, Glue, And Size. Part 6
The accumulation of scutch in heaps in the glue-yard, and its retention there, is an instance of traditional trade slovenliness which ought at once to be put a stop to. There can be no excuse whatev...
-Glycerine
Glycerine is one of the constituents of fixed oils and solid fats, and though discovered by Scheele over a century ago, it has only lately come into general use. Few things in the history of chemical ...
-Glycerine. Part 2
Enormous quantities of glycerine are run to waste in the spent lyes of the soapmaker. One of the earliest attempts to extract it was a patent by H. Reynolds, June 10, 1S5S, for concentrating the spent...
-Glycerine. Part 3
J. Weineck (specification No. 1289 of 1881) avoids the use of both chloride and sulphate of sodium in soapmaking as follows: - He exposes fats in a cylindrical wrought-iron vessel, fitted with a stirr...
-Glycerine. Part 4
At this stage the cost of 1 lb. of glycerine is about 1 1/2d. The liquor is now ready for osmosis, by which process the ashes it contains are so far reduced that after further evaporation it can be di...
-Glycerine. Part 5
Glycerine, per cent. Sp. Gr. Freezes. 10 1024 1C. 20 1.051 - 2.5 30 1.075 - 6 40 1.105 - 17&d...
-Glycerine. Part 6
If cane sugar or dextrine is found, it is boiled for 1/2 hour with acidified water to convert these substances into glucose. If none of these impurities is present, the amount of water is found by Vog...
-Gut. Gut-Spinning
Gut-spinning is the twisting of prepared gut into cord of various diameter for various purposes - i.e. for ordinary catgut, for use in machinery, and for fiddle-strings. Hence in different establish...
-Gut. Gut-Spinning. Continued
The cleansing or separation of the peritoneal membrane, a portion only of which has been removed by the un-greasing at the slaughter-house, is ordinarily performed at the conclusion of a putrid fe...
-Hydrogen Peroxide
Schbnbein showed that the active principle of grass bleaching is ozonised oxygen, but the investigations of Schtfne, Houzeau, and Goppelsroder prove that ozone is not formed in the air during the blea...
-Black Writing Ink
The term ink is used to denominate a great variety of fluid or semi-fluid compounds employed in the permanent delineation of objects upon paper, stone, glass, metals, leather, textiles, and other g...
-Black Writing Ink. Part 2
A little gum-tragacanth is also added to obtain a proper consistence. It is absolutely necessary to use the chrome salt in the right proportion. An excess gives a disagreeable appearance to the writin...
-Black Writing Ink. Part 3
Latterly, however, it has been found possible to prepare, with aniline and methyl, colouring substances of a bluish-black shade, so intense and soluble in water that they can be used in the preparatio...
-Coloured Writing Ink
Coloured inks may be divided into two classes, those in which the colouring matter is derived from coal-tar, and those in which it is not. A. Without Coal-Tar Colours. - Blue (a) Dissolve 2 to 3 oz....
-Copying Ink
The quality required of a copying-ink is that it shall afford one or more copies of the written matter by applying dry or damped paper to its surface, and subjecting it to more or less pressure. The b...
-Engraving Inks
Under the term engraving-inks will be included all inks employed for engravers, whether on stone, wood, or metal. Black (a) Coal-tar, 100 parts; lampblack, 36; Prussian blue, 10; glycerine, 10. Th...
-Indelible Inks
These are intended for use in cheques, vouchers, and other valuable documents, the object being to prevent tampering with the writing, and expose any such attempt if made. The following recipes have b...
-Indian Ink
The peculiar ink employed by draughtsmen is termed Indian, because the best qualities have always come to us from India and China. In the latter country the manufacture of drawing-inks is a large in...
-Invisible Or Sympathetic Ink
The terms invisible and sympathetic are applied to any writing fluid which leaves no visible trace of the writing on the paper, until developed by the application of heat or chemical reagents. T...
-Marking-Ink
The use of marking-ink is for writing on textile fabrics; it must therefore be proof against the action of hot water, soap, alkalies, etc. The chief recipes are: - (a) 20 parts potash are dissolved i...
-Miscellaneous Inks
(A.) Inks for writing on metallic surfaces may be made as follows: - (a) 1 part verdigris (acetate of copper), 1 part sal-ammoniac, 1/2 part soot, 10 parts water; stir well; write with a quill. (6) 1 ...
-Printing Ink
The ink used by printers is compounded mainly of two ingredients, colouring matter and varnish. The former varies according to the quality and tint of the ink; the latter may be obtained by natural re...
-Printing Ink. Continued
The black is washed and dried, then mixed with linseed oil, and an ink is obtained suitable for printing, lithography, and wood or metal engraving, (e) The base of common printing ink is a linseed-oil...
-Stamping-Inks
These are intended for use with rubber stamps, (a) The ordinary stamping-ink made by diluting printing-ink (which is made of lampblack and linseed varnish) with boiled linseed oil, stands pretty well ...
-Iodine
Iodine is widely distributed in the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms. It is found in sponge and cod-liver oil; in all algse and marine plants, mainly as potassium iodide; combined with silver, ...
-Iodine. Continued
If we compare this method with that of incineration in pits, it will be seen - 1. That the drying is done away with under circumstances where it is very difficult - on the seashore and in the winter s...
-Iodoform
The following remarks on the various processes for preparing iodoform are abstracted from a paper read by Dr. G. 11. Bell before the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy: - 1. Cornells and Gille, of Lie...
-Iodoform. Continued
After the last portion of iodine that had been added was decolorized, the flask was placed aside to cool and to allow the iodoform to separate, when the contents of the flask were thrown on a filter, ...
-Isinglass
Isinglass, or fish glue, in its raw state, is the sound, maw, or swimming-bladder of various kinds of fish. The sounds undergo no other preparation than careful drying, but in the drying they are...
-Isinglass. Continued
At the bottom, a row of wooden slats, about 2 1/2 in. broad, 1/2 in. thick and 13 in. long, are placed edgeways, and upon these the weed is laid carefully piece by piece in the frame, the sides of whi...
-Ivory Substitutes
Of late years, the scarcity and dearness of genuine ivory have driven inventors to manufacture artificial compounds capable of replacing it for many industrial and domestic purposes. These compounds, ...
-Ivory Substitutes. Part 2
(4) A practical difficulty attending the use of the above process is that the solvents employed are so volatile. Large masses of celluloid may be prepared better, quicker, and with less consumption of...
-Ivory Substitutes. Part 3
(11) For producing a white celluloid, without unduly increasing its specific gravity, the dissolved pyroxyline and other ingredients are mixed with white starch, either from wheat, rice, potatoes, etc...
-Ivory Substitutes. Part 4
The discharge pipe is passed through an equalizing warm-water vessel, which keeps it sufficiently warm to prevent the material in contact with the inner surface cooling faster than the central portion...
-Ivory Substitutes. Part 5
The whitened pyroxyline is put into boxes lined with filtering cloths, and then submitted to mechanical drying. On being taken from the hydro-extractor, the material still retains about 40 per cent, o...
-Leather Manufacture
Within the limits of the present volume it would be impracticable to give a complete treatise on the manufacture of leather; but there are many recipes and processes involved in it which may fitly occ...
-Chamois-Leather
The process of manufacturing chamois or shammy leather is thus described by Dr. Ballard: - After the pelts have been fleshed and split, the inner or flesh sidesare taken for the manufacture. ...
-Currying
In general terms, the process of currying consists in softening, levelling, and stretching the hides and skins which are required for the upper-leathers of boots and other purposes demanding flexibili...
-Depilatories, Or Unhairing
The removal of hair from hides is most commonly effected in England by the agency of lime, or by sweating processes demanding no further description. But besides lime many other substances have been p...
-Glove-Kid
This branch of leather manufacture is mainly carried on in Germany, Austria, and France. In Germany and Austria, lamb-skins are principally employed; in France, kid-skins. For fine gloves, the skins o...
-Bran-Drench
This is prepared by soaking wheaten-bran in cold water, diluting with warm water, and straining the extract through a fine hair sieve. Sufficient of the liquid must be employed to well cover the skins...
-Imitation Leather
A mixture recommended consists of 16 parts gelatine and 5 of glycerine. A colouring matter is then added as may be required - caoutchouc to give elasticity, and boiled linseed-oil to render the whole ...
-Morocco Leather
Morocco leather is produced from goat-skins. Rough-haired or blue back seal-skins are also used, and produce an excellent article; while an inferior description, called French morocco, is produce...
-Patent, Japanned, Or Enamelled Leather
These are terms used to designate those leathers, whether of the ox, the horse, the calf, or the seal, which are finished with a waterproof and bright varnished surface, similar to the lacquered woodw...
-Russia Leather
This is tanned in Russia with the bark of various species of willow, poplar, and larch, either by laying away in pits or handling in liquors, much like other light leathers, the lime being first remov...
-Luminous Bodies
Luminosity or phosphorescence is a property enjoyed by some organic and inorganic substances of emitting light without heat. These substances are more numerous than is generally supposed. To commence...
-Luminous Bodies. Continued
Some even go so far as to assert that all minerals containing a fixed acid are capable of becoming phosphorescent by insolation or other means. Fused nitrate of calcium and petrifactions are also rend...
-Magnesia
This, the only known oxide of magnesium, is ordinarily prepared by the gentle and prolonged ignition of magnesium carbonate. A new process has lately been opened up, as follows: - If we cause a solut...
-Matches
Matches consist of two essential parts, a stem (which may or may not be combustible) and an igniting composition. In the case of common matches, the stem is made of wood. The wood roost generally use...
-Wax Vestas
In making wax vestas, the first process is the coating of the cotton. A number, say 20, of strands or wicks, composed of 15 to 20 threads each, are led from a bale placed upon the ground, through guid...
-Vesuvians
The vesuvians, principally used as lights by smokers, have rounded splints, made from alder, or some similarly hard wood, the object being to prevent the ignition of the wood, and consequent droppin...
-Selection And Assortment Of Paper Bags
The following notes on papermaking are condensed from Dunbar's valuable little work called the 'Practical Papermaker.' Those desiring a more exhaustive and scientific account of this industry should r...
-Selection And Assortment Of Paper Bags. Continued
Continental System Rags on the Continent are boiled with lime and soda-ash in a very satisfactory and economical manner, as follows: - No. 1 Stuff. Lime . . .216 1b Soda-ash (48 %) . 114 for...
-Recipes For High-Class Papers
The following recipes will produce papers, smooth, strong, tough, and possessing elasticity of feel and clearness of colour: - Cream, extra superfine (300 lb. dry paper). S.P.F.F., 1/4; dark fines, 1...
-Astronomical Drawing-Paper
Felix Plateau describes in Les Mondes an ingenious process for drawing on paper white lines on a black ground - a method frequently used for astronomical illustrations - by means of which both author ...
-Blotting-Paper
This is a paper whose value consists in its absorbing qualities, and these depend as much upon the mode of preparation as upon the material. For blotting of a high class, cotton rags of the weakest an...
-Crystalline Paper
According to Bttttger, the simplest method of giving paper surfaces a crystalline coating is as follows: - Mix a very concentrated cold solution of salt with dextrine, and lay the thinnest possible co...
-Deciphering Burnt Documents
Rathelot, an officer of the Paris law courts, succeeded in an ingenious manner, in transcribing a number of the registers which were burnt during the Commune. These registers remained so long in the f...
-Papers
Filtering-Paper That usually employed is blotting-paper. S. H. Johnson makes a kind by mixing 5 to 20 per cent, of purified animal charcoal powder with the pulp, which is preferably long-fibred. Har...
-Paper Testing
Litmus To prepare litmus-paper, rub good litmus with a little hot water in a mortar, and pour the mixture into an evaporating basin; add water until the proportion is 1/2 pint water to 1 oz. litmus; ...
-Tracing-Paper
(1) A German invention has for its object the rendering more or less transparent of paper used for writing or drawing, either with ink, pencil, or crayon, and also to give the paper such a surface tha...
-Parchment
Natural - (1) In making natural parchment, the pelts, after liming, washing, and fleshing, as for leather-dressing, are split by the splitting-machine, and the inner layer is taken for making parchmen...
-Perchloric Acid
It is recommended that this acid should be prepared by the user himself, the cost in this case being 7s. to 9s. a lb., whereas the manufacturers demand 40?. It can be prepared in the following manner ...
-Pigments, Paint, And Painting
These three heads form but one subject, and are appropriately discussed together, in their natural order, which is - (1) Pigments, the preparation of the dry colouring matters; (2) Paint, the compound...
-Pigments, Paint, And Painting. Part 2
Antwerp-Blue This is a mixture of Prussian blue, alumina, magnesia, and zinc oxide, in various proportions. It is prepared like Prussian blue, except that the zinc, magnesia, and alum are added to th...
-Pigments, Paint, And Painting. Part 3
With seggar-shaped vessels, it is necessary to isolate each column, and then there is danger that it will topple over. The calcining furnaces are generally built one against the other, with a single ...
-Pigments, Paint, And Painting. Part 4
Many makers adopt an immediate washing, grinding, drying, and sifting, before the ultramarine has become entirely blue. The colour is then more uniform, because there are no green specks inside or out...
-Pigments, Paint, And Painting. Part 5
Emerald-Green Form a paste with 1 part verdigris in sufficient boiling water, pass it through a sieve to remove lumps, and gradually add it to a boiling solution of 1 part arsenious acid in 10 water,...
-Pigments, Paint, And Painting. Part 6
Cassius-Purple This is the precipitate which takes place when solutions of gold and tin chloride are mixed under proper conditions. The preparation of the purple of a constant composition is effected...
-Pigments, Paint, And Painting. Part 7
The red-lead produced is brighter in tint the greater the increase in weight of the massicot used, the maximum increase being about 2 per cent. Vermilion (a) Melt 1 part sulphur, and gradually add 5...
-Pigments, Paint, And Painting. Part 8
The precipitate is allowed to settle. It is then well washed with water by decantation, filtered rapidly, and brought on to boards, where it is allowed to dry slowly. During the drying process, the co...
-Lamp-Black Paints
Lampblack is an exceedingly light, dull-black powder, formed by the imperfect combustion of oils, fats, resins, etc. It may be prepared on a small scale by suspending a small tin-plate funnel over the...
-Bone-Black Paints
When bones are heated in a crucible, the organic constituents are decomposed and carbonized. A mixture of combustible gases is given off, which do not condense on cooling; and others, which condense i...
-Prussian-Blue Paints
The average composition of Prussian-blue is 3 equivalents iron protocyanide, 2 sesquicyanide, and 9 water. The proportions of the cyanides are liable to differ, and this fact, combined with varying qu...
-Smalt- Or Saxony-Blue Paints
This appears to be a double silicate of potash and cobalt, mixed with time, alumina, magnesia, iron oxide, nickel oxide, arsenic, carbonic acid, and water. The intensity of the colour, in Ludwig's opi...
-Ultramarine Paints
The preparation of ultramarine from lapis-lazuli no longer survives. Artificial ultramarine, of which some 10,000 tons are made annually, is composed approximately of 46.60 per cent, silica, 23.30 alu...
-Sepia Paints
Sepia is furnished by the cuttle-fish (Sepia officinalis). The colour is extracted from a pocket filled with a brown liquor, which the fish emits to obscure the water when pursued. As soon as caught, ...
-Chrome' Or Guignet's-Green Paints
(1) Fuse together 3 parts boracic acid and 1 potash bichromate at a dull-red heat on the hearth of a flame-furnace. This forms a borate of chromium and potash, with evolution of oxygen. The mass is re...
-Titanium - Green Paints
Its preparation from washed rutile or iserine is effected by the following process: - The clean ore is melted with 12 times its weight of acid potash sulphate in a Hessian crucible. After cooling, the...
-Baryta-White Paints
(a) Natural baryta sulphate, barytes, or heavy spar, is employed in the manufacture of a handsome innocuous white colour, fast, and resisting most reagents, but with little body or covering power. Thi...
-White-Lead Paints
There are several processes for making this pigment. (A) American Process This is a modification of the Dutch method. The purest metallic lead is used. Originally it was subjected to the chemical op...
-White-Lead Paints. Part 2
(4) The white-lead is mixed with water, to form a soft paste, which passes through several horizontal mill-stones before it is thoroughly comminuted. (5) The soft paste is poured into conical earthen...
-White-Lead Paints. Part 3
When the settling tank is sufficiently filled with white-lead, the solution is passed into other vessels, and the white-lead is washed in washing tanks provided with wooden horizontal stirrers having ...
-White-Lead Paints. Part 4
When using lead acetate, either solid or in solution, take a quantity yielding the proportion of acetic acid just mentioned. (F) Pattinson Process Pattinson's white-lead is distinguished by its comp...
-Zinc-White Paints
(a) Zinc chloride or sulphate is precipitated by means of a soluble sulphide - sodium, barium, and calcium sulphides have been used - and precautions are taken that no iron present is precipitated. Th...
-Gamboge Paints
Gamboge is a product of several trees of E. Asia, species of Gar-cinia, natives of Cambodia, the province of Chantibun in Siam, the islands on the E. coast of the Gulf of Siam, the S. parts of Cochin ...
-Realgar Paints
Realgar (arsenic di sulphide) is a deep orange-red substance, soluble in water, and highly volatile and poisonous. It is found native in some volcanic districts, especially in the neighbourhood of Nap...
-Paint Vehicles
A perfect vehicle mixes readily with the pigment, forming a mass of about the consistency of treacle. It is colourless, and has no chemical action upon the pigments with which it is mixed. When spread...
-Paint Driers
The maximum drying power is obtained by the addition of certain metallic oxides, which not only part with some of their own oxygen to the oil, but also act as carriers between the atmospheric oxygen a...
-Paing Processes
Grinding In working any form of grinding-rollers, great care must be taken to clean them thoroughly immediately after use. If the paint be allowed to dry upon the surface of the rollers, it is diffic...
-Paing Processes. Continued
Filling Before the first coat is applied to wood, all holes should be filled up. The filling usually employed is ordinary putty; this, however, sometimes consists of whiting ground up with oil foots ...
-Paint Discoloration
Light - coloured paints, especially those having white-lead as a basis, rapidly discolour under different circumstances. Thus white paint discolours when excluded from the light; stone colours lose th...
-Miscellaneous Paints
Under this head the following few varieties deserve notice: - Cement Paint For Carton-Pierre Composed of 2 parts washed graphite, 2 red-lead, 16 freshly-prepared cement, 16 barium sulphate, 4 lead p...
-Miscellaneous Paints. Part 2
Tungsten Paints Themineral colours from tungsten are obtained by decomposing soluble tungstates by means of salts of the metals yielding insoluble phosphates. The tungstate of nickel produces a light...
-Miscellaneous Paints. Part 3
Add 5 per cent, to regular price for knotting, puttying, cleaning, and sandpapering. For work done above the ground floor, charge as follows: - Add 5 per cent, for each storey of 12 ft. or less, if in...
-Mixing The Paints
Permit me to make a few suggestions here in regard to the mixing of paint, which may not fully agree with others' views. There is just as much paint that cracks by putting it on too flat as by using t...
-Varnishing
Three coats of varnish over the colour are necessary on a first-class coach. The first coat should be a hard drying varnish put on the fiat colour; the quick rubbing that some use I would not recommen...
-Woodwork Painting
One of the attendant drawbacks of houses that are newly built, or have been hastily finished for letting, is the inferior painting of the woodwork, and its speedy destruction. The wood is not thorough...
-Potassium Oxalate
The rapid dry-plate processes in photography, which are at present exciting considerable attention among the more advanced classes of those engaged in the art, have created a demand for neutral potass...
-Preserving
The art of preserving is a most comprehensive subject, and includes the methods adapted to delay the decomposition, oxidation, or destruction by any other means of all those substances which are usefu...
-Preserving Hay
Professor Wrightson, of the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, writes to the 'Times' as follows: - Will you allow me a few lines' space to call attention at this seasonable time of the year to a...
-Preserving Indiarubber
(1) In the opinion of Hempel, the hardening of vulcanized indiarubber is caused by the gradual evaporation of the solvent liquids contained in the indiarubber, and introduced during the process of vul...
-Preserving Leather
(1) Equal parts of mutton rat and linseed-oil, mixed with 1/10 their weight of Venice turpentine, and melted together in an earthen pipkin, will produce a dubbin which is very efficacious in preser...
-Preserving Leeches
The health and biting propensities of the Sanguisuga depend upon a number of circumstances, some of which are rather obscure, but it may be stated in general terms that the absence of decaying ani...
-Preserving Lemon-Juice
(1) A correspondent in 'Mem. de Med. et de Pharm. Milit.' says, after various experiments and the test of 8 months' exposure to the sun and heat of summer, he has come to the following conclusion: - H...
-Preserving Skins And Furs
(1) About 40 years ago, Waterton, at the request of the Society of Arts, described his method of preparing and preserving the skins of animals and birds, which was published in the ' Transactions.' Th...
-Preserving Stone
As regards stone, other than such specially crystalline kinds as granite, marble, porphyry, hard limestone, etc. none of which is liable to admit access of water from its external surface - we very mu...
-Preserving Textile Fabrics. Bagging For Chemicals
A patent has been taken out by Grouchy for making bagging which resists chemical action. The bagging is plunged in the following solution at 142 F. (60 C), and left for an hour: - Sul...
-Preserving Linen Stuffs And Tarns
Sails, ropes, nets, etc., keep much longer when they have been treated with tannin. Hence Lebrun recommends the following process for preserving linen goods and yarn: 2 1/4 lb. good oak-tan is boiled ...
-Preserving Wood
Those who wish to have a thorough knowledge of the causes of decay in timber, and the remedies devised for their prevention, should consult the valuable little book by Thomas Allen Britton on Dry Rot...
-Preserving Wood. Part 2
(5) Payne's Impregnating the wood, while in a vacuum, with a strong solution of sulphate of iron, and afterwards forcing into the timber a solution of sulphate of lime or any of the alkaline carbonat...
-Preserving Wood. Part 3
The action of iron had been recognised for some time. Rottier mentions an experiment made with chips of wood impregnated with solutions of copper sulphate containing sulphate of iron in various propor...
-Preserving Wood. Part 4
The wood should be carefully brushed before being operated upon. (12) To destroy ants and insects in wood. - (a) Corrosive sublimate is an effectual poison to them. (6) Oils, especially essential oils...
-Preserving Wood. Part 5
(23) Card impregnates the wood with a solution of zinc chloride or other antiseptic soluble mineral salt, then dries the outer layers of the wood by heated air currents, and finally saturates with hot...
-Preserving Wood. Part 6
(33) Melsens impregnated blocks of wood with tar by alternate heatings and coolings; they were then kept 2 years in a corner of a garden in earth saturated with the products of a urinal, and were unal...
-Preserving Wood. Part 7
As regards creosote-oil, it is beyond doubt that the petroleum products, containing phenic acid, are preferable to the metallic salts for wood exposed to sea-water, because naphthalene, and es...
-Meat Preservation
Dr. Richardson says that putrefactive changes in meat are due to the decomposition of the water contained in the tissues. The means which have been found to arrest this decomposition are - (1) a low t...
-Preserving Milk
(1) Condensed Milk The compound known as condensed milk is an illustration of the application of the drying or desiccation theory, accomplished by evaporating the excess of moisture, adding sugar,...
-Fish Preservation
Before alluding to recent processes for preserving fish in a fresh state, some space may be devoted to the ordinary methods of curing fish. Herrings The fish are spread on a floor, and sprinkled wit...
-Preserving Fruit, Grain, And Vegetables
For the preservation of grain no further precautions are necessary beyond gathering it when ripe, and keeping it dry. Desiccation The simplest form of desiccation is by ordinary sun- and wind-drying...









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