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American Library Edition Of Workshop Receipts Vol4| by Ernest Spon



Devoted Mainly To Handicrafts And Mechanical Subjects

TitleAmerican Library Edition Of Workshop Receipts Vol4
AuthorErnest Spon
PublisherSpon & Chamberlain
Year1903
Copyright1903, Spon & Chamberlain
AmazonAmerican Library Edition Of Workshop Receipts
-Preface. Vol 4
Since the appearance of the original volume of Workshop Receipts,' the Publishers have been continually receiving inquiries for books or articles on a variety of subjects not possessing in themselves ...
-Waterproofing Rubber Goods
The art of rendering fabrics impervious to moisture has attained considerable importance, especially in the case of clothing materials. A few simple processes are briefly described in the First Series...
-Recovering Naphtha
Methods have been devised for collecting the naphtha vapour and condensing it; the principal objections to these arrangements are that they interfere with the workman's ability to see his work as it p...
-Curing Fabrics
When spread cotton goods have become tolerably firm, or quite dry, they are wound upon hollow sheet-iron cylinders, for curing in open steam, or in a steam-jacketed heater. As the condensed steam spoi...
-Rubber Felt, Felt-Paper, Or Clark's Patent Felt
Rubber felt, felt-paper, or Clark's patent felt, is used for a variety of purposes, such as covering damp walls, protecting silk and other wares from dampness during water-transit, covering telegraph-...
-Elastic Fabrics
Burnham has discovered that, by combining the sap of the mangrove (the cativo of the United States of Colombia) with rubber in variable proportions, he is enabled to produce permanently elastic waterp...
-Cuprammonium And Its Allies
The preparation of these salts and their application to the waterproofing of paper and textiles have been made the subject of much study by Dr. Alder Wright, to whom the following remarks are mainly d...
-Cuprammonium And Its Allies. Part 2
For certain purposes, a bath containing a mixture of cuprammonium and the analogous zinc-ammonium hydroxide solutions may be used with advantage; the zinc compound does not of itself sufficiently pect...
-Cuprammonium And Its Allies. Part 3
Goods of the second class (6) constitute a much more important group. These fabrics are essentially of 3 kinds, viz. canvas, scrim, and paper. The former 2 of these classes possess many features in co...
-Cuprammonium And Its Allies. Part 4
For building purposes generally, and interior use, 4-ply offers many advantages. Where the buildings are temporary and intended for subsequent removal elsewhere (e. g. workmen's huts when engaged in r...
-Miscellaneous Waterproofing Preparations
A large number of compounds have been proposed at various times for rendering articles of everyday use more or less impervious to wet. These will now be collected together and arranged under 4 heads, ...
-Waterproofing Leather
(1) Add to a boiling solution of common yellow soap, in water, solution of alum or alum-cake (alumina sulphate) as long as a separation of white alumina soap takes place; allow the precipitate to subs...
-Waterproofing Paper
(I) It is a well-known fact that cellulose is soluble in cuprous ammonia solution; paper, linen, and other vegetable tissues laid therein undergo a sort of surface-amalgamation of the fibres, which al...
-Waterproofing Textiles
Without considering the methods by which cloth is waterproofed with rubber, there are several processes in practical use by which cloth is rendered non-absorbent of water - and for all practical purpo...
-Waterproofing Textiles. Part 2
(11) Piron has invented a process for tanning textile fabrics, which renders them waterproof, and at the same time, it is said, proof against decay, while their suppleness is not diminished, and their...
-Waterproofing Textiles. Part 3
(21) A better method, however, of preparing oil-cloth is first to cover the cloth or canvas with a liquid paste, made with drying oil in the following manner: Take Spanish white or pipeclay which has ...
-Packing And Storing
There are many articles of delicate odour or colour, or of a deliquescent character, or liable to ignition, or apt to suffer from insects or damp, or easily broken, which demand great care in their pa...
-Packing And Storing Glass And China
The safety of glass articles packed together in a box does not depend so much upon the quantity of packing material used, as upon the fact that no two pieces of glass come into actual contact. In pack...
-Packing And Storing Deliquescent Salts
(I) Lime chloride and other deliquescent salts may be packed in shaving paper, in cardboard boxes, pasted up and then well soaked in melted wax, paraffin, etc. (2) The difficulty experienced in prese...
-Packing And Storing Phosphorus
Phosphorus should be kept in a place where no damage can result in case the water, in which it is packed, should leak out, and the air obtain free access to it. This is the general rule; its practica...
-Packing And Storing Fulminates
These exceedingly dangerous compounds, liable to explode either by friction or concussion, are rendered safe by keeping them thoroughly immersed in water. Explosive Fluids Petroleum is an example of...
-Packing And Storing Flowers
Always cut the flowers early, in the cool of the morning, and when in their prime. Take a piece of cotton-wool, wet it, and wring it out, then twist it about the stalk. If tin boxes are used, they mus...
-Packing And Storing Articles Of Delicate Odour
Hitherto the question of packing delicate goods has been viewed almost entirely from what may be called the strength-of-materials standpoint. Manufacturers and importers have found that ordinary packi...
-Packing And Storing Articles Of Delicate Odour. Part 2
It is notorious that a large proportion of tinned goods which come to this country are injured so as to be rendered unsaleable, but it is not equally well known that a large number of those which are ...
-Packing And Storing Articles Of Delicate Odour. Part 3
There have been several specific cases of damage during the last 5 or 6 years, in which large quantities of tea and of several other delicate substances have been damaged, and it has been possible to ...
-Packing And Storing Articles Of Delicate Odour. Part 4
The lead of which the linings of tea chests are made is never quite pure - such a thing would be commercially impossible. The consequence of this is that the same result takes place as in ordinary whi...
-Packing And Storing Textiles
The packing of textile fabrics for foreign markets is a subject which has received very great attention in this country, notably in Lancashire. Much depends upon the proper packing of goods, and frequ...
-German Packing
For the packing of woven goods in Germany the following precautions are taken. The fabric is first folded on thin wooden board, then wrapped in white paper, then again in blue paper, then labelled, an...
-French Packing
Goods for long voyages are usually packed in this manner: A strong box is made from 1-in. boards, being in length and breadth inside about the same as the length of the goods to be packed, and of any ...
-The Storage Of Ice
The storage of ice in large quantities is a matter demanding some skill and experience in the construction of the house. The following directions are given by various authorities. (1) Build round a...
-The Storage Of Ice. Continued
The advantages to be gained by adopting Maclean's plan will be an incredible saving of time, labour, material, and, consequently, of expense, combined with a comparatively small waste of ice, thus put...
-Embalming (of Human Corpses And The Preservation Of Anatomical Specimens)
This article relates to the embalming of human corpses and the preservation of anatomical specimens. It may be taken as supplementary to the article on Preserving, in the 2nd Series of 'Workshop Recei...
-Embalming (of Human Corpses And The Preservation Of Anatomical Specimens). Continued
He injected by the arteries, selecting generally the large artery in the thigh, called the femoral, for the vessel into which to insert the nozzle of the syringe. His preservation of the body of the w...
-Leather Polishes
Most leather articles while in use require the periodical application of a preservative varnish to give them a finished appearance, and protect them from decay and surface wear. Such varnishes go by v...
-Leather Polishes. Part 2
(11) A good liquid blacking may be prepared by mixing 3 lb. lampblack with 1 qt. stale beer, and 1/2 pint sweet oil, adding thereto 1 oz. treacle, 1/4 oz. green copperas, and 1/4 oz. logwood extract. ...
-Leather Polishes. Part 3
Paste blackings are also made in a variety of ways, of which the following are the chief: - (1) Bryant and James's indiarubber blacking may be made in a solid form by reducing the proportion of vineg...
-Leather Polishes. Part 4
(13) Ivory black, 2 lb.; molasses, 1 lb.; olive oil, 1/4 lb.; oil of vitriol, 1/4 lb. Add water to gain required consistency. (14) Take 1 part ivory black, 1/8 of melted tallow, and work up well in a...
-Leather Polishes. Part 5
(15) English ball blacking for harness is composed of 1 oz. lard, 1 oz. beeswax, 8 oz. ivory black, 8 oz. sugar, 4 oz. linseed oil, and 2 or 3 oz. water. (16) Another kind is made of 2 oz. hogs' lard...
-Cooling
The artificial production of a low temperature is becoming a matter of great importance in connection with many of our leading industries, besides being a necessary element under some conditions of sa...
-Cooling Air
Means of cooling the air in factories, public buildings, and private dwellings have long been a subject of study and experiment. The methods proposed may be classed under two heads: (1) fresh air is i...
-Cooling Air. Part 2
To understand this method of refrigeration, the limit has been calculated at different values of p, in cases where the temperature would be 30 C.; at the same time, the influence of vaporised wat...
-Cooling Air. Part 3
Such a result obtained in a particular case, is evidently capable of general application. Cooling by steam vapour therefore acts inefficaciously upon the organism; it simply cools the area in which i...
-Cooling Air. Part 4
Duvoir's apparatus thus acted well, but did not fulfil all the required conditions, owing to the causes already mentioned. Peclet subsequently improved upon this system by causing the air to be cooled...
-Cooling Air. Part 5
C. on the average. On the 40 yd. following the cooling is from 3.4 C. in the first experiment, and from 3 C. in the second; it is therefore evidently the same. In consequence of the total re...
-Cooling Air. Part 6
For factories and other places lighted with gas, care should be taken to ensure the escape of the products of combustion, either directly to the outside, or, when possible, by chimney ventilators, the...
-Cooling Air. Part 7
The Derschau system consists, in the first place, of double roofs, painted white, with apertures between to counteract the rays of the sun. To cool the temperature of the carriages, Derschau places in...
-Cooling Air. Part 8
The gaseous current being thus formed, sweeping through the interior atmosphere of the tubes and serpentines, would carry before it the air which would be expelled by turning the tap A. By means of an...
-Cooling Air. Part 9
Such is the apparatus which has been called the rafraichis-soir or refrigerator; it is very simple in its construction, nor is its action less remarkable. By this method, we have no operation of the p...
-Cooling Air. Part 10
There are 3 physical methods by which temperature may be lowered and ice formed : - (!) By solution of solids; (2) by evaporation of liquids; (3) by expansion of gases. Refrigerating machines may be b...
-Cooling Air. Part 11
The cream, being suitably prepared, is placed in the can, and the tub is filled with ice and salt. The scrapers are inserted in place, and the lid is attached. In the side of the tub is cut a recess, ...
-Cooling Air. Part 12
These immense pressures necessitate extreme care in the construction of the apparatus, thereby enhancing the cost; and the difficulty of keeping the joints tight often occasions loss of material and r...
-Cooling Air. Part 13
The binary absorption system of Tessie du Mothay and A. I. Rossi is one of the most recent developments of the science of producing artificial cold. Experiments on ethers indicated that those formed...
-Cooling Air. Part 14
Its total capacity for the work proposed, should be 27 pints of volatile liquid, and each of the 3 moulds will contain about 12 oz. of water - say, together, about 2} lb. In Pictet's larger ...
-Cooling Air. Part 15
The nozzles by which the water flows into the cones are jacketed with the fresh water flowing into the tanks, for the purpose of preventing them from being choked by the ice which would otherwise form...
-Cooling Air. Part 16
3. By Expansion of Gases. - The atmosphere may be used as the medium by which freezing is effected. This depends on the following natural laws: - When air is compressed, considerable increase of tempe...
-Cooling Syrups, Solutions, &C
The moderate cooling of fluids by the effect of a current of cold water is an essential condition of the condensers attached to stills, and this part of the subject will be found discussed under Disti...
-Cooling Syrups, Solutions, &C. Continued
The liquor could be run away from the precipitating tanks in the copper works into a reservoir of suitable dimensions, where it would be allowed to remain some little time to permit of the solid impur...
-Pumps And Siphons
The aim of this article is to describe the various contrivances employed in different industries and in everyday life both at home and abroad, for effecting the removal of liquids from portant liquid,...
-Pumps And Siphons. Part 2
Sometimes, Instead of coiling a second rope on the drum, this latter is made of such dimensions that a horse can work it by walking inside, constituting a tread-wheel, such as is shown in Fig. 28. The...
-Pumps And Siphons. Part 3
Fig.37. The Spanish wheel is a very light framework disc having a series of pots secured to the periphery. Its most remarkable feature is that motion is given to the wheel by a system of spokes on...
-Pumps And Siphons. Part 4
The steam-jet pipe entering at the fork offers no obstacle to the upward passage of the water, which rises in an unbroken current. Fig. 47 is a common lift-pump. In the up-stroke of the p...
-Pumps And Siphons. Part 5
There is 1 valve i at the bottom of the barrel, and another in the bucket 6. The suction-pipe k should be 3/8 the diameter of the pump barrel. A rose l is fixed at the end of the suction-pipe to : ke...
-Pumps For Acids
The chief difficulty with acids is their corrosive action on the materials employed in pump construction, necessitating the replacement of the ordinary materials by others less liable to destruction. ...
-Pumps For Syrups
The use of force-pumps of ordinary construction for raising cane-juice and syrups is to be condemned on the grounds of their limited capacity, the churning of the liquid and consequent admixture of ai...
-Pumps For Soap And Lye
Pumps of several kinds are employed in soap-works, for removing spent lye and soap from the coppers. For small pans, a simple hand suction-pump answers; for larger ones, a single- or double-acting lif...
-Siphons
Where fluids have to be transferred from an upper to a lower level, passing on the way over an obstacle of greater height than the upper vessel, a siphon may conveniently replace a pump, as, once the ...
-Desiccating
There are many industries and operations where the removal of excess moisture from solid bodies is an important feature. Convenient means of effecting this object will now be described. The apparatus ...
-Desiccating. Part 2
Fig. 75. England's drying closet, Fig. 75, is simply a light-proof box with wires stretched acroos the interior to support the articles to be dried, e. g. photographic plates. Through the centre r...
-Desiccating. Part 3
Figs. 79,80, and 81 show the air-bath as usually employed by the author. It consists of 4 concentric walls of sheet copper, 2 of which are attached to the upper plate, and the others to the bottom pla...
-Desiccating. Part 4
At one American establishment, apples are pared, cored, and sliced at once by hand machinery. The slices are then spread on galvanised screens and placed in the evaporator, a chamber running from the ...
-Desiccating with Water-Ovens
The accompanying sketch (Fig. 83) of a combined steam-oven and distilled water apparatus, so arranged as to be left to itself for a long period of time without the risk of the boiler going dry, may pe...
-Distilling
The scope of this article is confined to simple distillation of fluids, such as the distillation of water to free it from non-volatile impurities, and the distillation of spirit to remove combined wat...
-Distilling. Part 2
The frames being laid on the ground, it is difficult to discover a leak, and the wood in the sides of the roof, between the fresh-water groove and the salt water, is apt to crack in the part above the...
-Distilling. Part 3
This latter contains an aperture running in the direction of its axis, and the whole is arranged so as to form a tight joint. Fig. 90. When the substance distilled attacks cork and rubber, the ne...
-Distilling. Part 4
Fig. 97 illustrates a little earthenware distilling apparatus in use among the Japanese. It consists of 4 pieces: a boiler a, on to which fits a short cylinder with a perforated bottom 6, and over thi...
-Distilling. Part 5
Compared with a Liebig condenser of similar dimensions, this apparatus exposes probably 3 times as much condensing surface. The idea of a tubular con-forth, is, in the opinion of the American Journal ...
-Distilling. Part 6
Half way between i and the end proper of the worm, the pipe is tapped, and a branch, carrying the faucet l, leads into the still m, where it terminates under the centre of the head in the shape of an ...
-Distilling. Part 7
The ascending steam, finding its way among the chips, carries all the camphor with it, and on condensation in the cooler H, the camphor is deposited, and removed at suitable intervals. Fig. 107. ...
-Distilling Spirit
The distillation of spirit is performed for the purpose of separating the alcohol more or less from the water. The boiling point of water at the ordinary standard pressures of the atmosphere, equal to...
-Distilling Spirit. Part 2
The first apparatus to fulfil these conditions was devised by Coffey. Although a variety of apparatus for distilling have been constructed by Savalle, Siemens Brothers, and others, yet some form or mo...
-Distilling Spirit. Part 3
The operation of distilling is often carried on in the apparatus represented in Fig. 111. It is termed the Patent Simplified Distilling Apparatus; it was originally invented by Corty, but it has since...
-Emulsifying
To emulsify an oil consists in rendering it capable of mixing with water to form a uniform milky fluid, by the aid of an intervening medium, generally saccharine or mucilaginous. Milk being the most ...
-Emulsifying. Part 2
As no other agents present themselves for fulfilling the sweet object in view, we have been in the habit of preparing emulsions without attempting to make them sweet, and, we believe, without detracti...
-Emulsifying. Part 3
Pancreatine possesses greater emulsifying power than any agent we are acquainted with, 1 gr. of this article prepared by the writer having been found sufficient to emulsify 1 oz. of cod liver oil; and...
-Emulsifying. Part 4
III. Emulsion of Cod Liver Oil with Hypophosphite of Lime. - This differs from the simple emulsion in that 128 gr. of calcium hypophosphite are dissolved in the water, each tablespoonful of the finish...
-Evaporating
By evaporation is meant the vaporising o. a fluid by means of diminishing the atmospheric pressure, or exposing it to heat or a dry atmosphere; or the heat may be combined either with diminished press...
-Desiccating Saline Solutions
Sea water may be considered as a dilute saline solution, and its treatment for the recovery of common salt (sodium chloride) affords an example of the utilisation of natural heat (the sun's rays) for ...
-Desiccating Saline Solutions. Part 2
The water is allowed to descend through 2 pipes, closed or opened at will by the valves k into the transverse pipe g; thence it rises through the pipes, and flows out by cocks into pans, from the over...
-Desiccating Saline Solutions. Part 3
In France, often 2 fires only are put under each pan. The general construction of a French salt-works is rather more regular than in those of this country, and the pans are usually placed side by side...
-Desiccating Saline Solutions. Part 4
The pans are fitted with conical covers of sheet iron, through the centre of which pass iron spindles, geared above to the pinions of the shafting by bevel-wheels, and resting on the bottoms of the pa...
-Desiccating Saline Solutions. Part 5
Pillars of cast iron rising from the bottom of this lower pan support the upper pan, which is of the ordinary make, and demands no special description. The interval between the two need not, according...
-Desiccating Saline Solutions. Part 6
Pohl states that In a subsequent trial, after lifting the top pan at the end nearest the fires to a height of 6 in. and lowering the other end to within 3 in. of the surface of the brine in the bottom...
-Desiccating Saccharine Liquors
The means by which beat is applied to the evaporation of saccharine juices and syrups may be described under 4 separate heads, according to their principles: - (a) Pans heated by fire, (b) pans heated...
-Desiccating Saccharine Liquors. Continued
Film Evaporators Under this head are particularly included those evaporators which depend upon the principle of exposing thin films of liquid to the action of a heated surface in the open air. They a...
-Desiccating Acids
The sulphuric acid made in the chambers is not strong enough for many of the purposes to which it is applied. The acid can be concentrated by boiling, however, which causes the evaporation of a part o...
-Filtering. Filtering Water
In general terms, the object of filtration may be said to be the separation of the solid from the liquid constituents of a fluid mass by means of a straining medium. Either the solid portion, or the l...
-Filtering. Filtering Water. Part 2
Here it deposits coarse suspended matter, and gradually rising in height penetrates the filter bed from below, and is drawn, filtered, into the factory from the surface of the bed by a pipe built into...
-Filtering. Filtering Water. Part 3
Experiments on the filtration of water through animal charcoal were made on the New River Company's supply in the year 1866, and they showed that a large proportion of the organic matter was removed f...
-Iron
From experiments made by allowing water to filter through spongy iron on to meat, it has been found that after 6 weeks the meat remained fresh. Another test was made by preparing a hay infusion, whic...
-Iron. Part 2
Many preparations of iron have long been known to possess a purifying influence on water containing organic impurities. Thus Scherer, years ago, recommended a solution of iron sulphate where the impur...
-Iron. Part 3
At first, stirring was considered indispensable, but it was found that by taking 'an excese of a mixture of magnesia hydrate, with a proper substratum serving as a filtering medium through which the w...
-Water Filtering Cisterns
The following is a description of a filter which purifies foul water from organic impurities held in solution as well as from suspended solids. Take any suitable vessel with a perforated false bottom,...
-Water Filtering Cisterns. Continued
Figure 161 illustrates a method of preparing an ordinary house cistern for filtering. The pipe and fittings should be of galvanised iron; black or plain iron is better as long as it lasts, as it rusts...
-Laboratory Water Filters
Textbooks generally remark at the outset that it is very necessary to use a funnel, the sides of which form an angle of 60, this being the angle formed by the folded paper. Symes takes exception ...
-Laboratory Water Filters. Part 2
Some fabrics, such as swansdown, close-textured twill calico, etc, filter as brightly as paper does, and may be used for that purpose as distinct from ordinary straining, provided the solid particles ...
-Laboratory Water Filters. Part 3
Fig. 165. A dealer in wares used by chemists informed Casamajor that he had many inquiries concerning asbestos for filtering liquids in chemical analysis. Some chemists complain that they cannot g...
-Filters For Liquids Demanding Special Conditions
There are some few liquids or solutions that cannot be suitably filtered in an apparatus such as may be employed for water. They are chiefly fluids of an oily, gelatinous, or syrupy character. Gelati...
-Oil Filtration
The filtration of oils may be effected in a very great variety of ways, either with or without the assistance of artificial pressure derived from (a) a head of the liquor to be filtered, (A) one of ...
-Percolation
This is a kind of filtration, commonly called by displacement, employed for extracting the essence from roots, herbs, seeds, barks, etc. It is effected in the following manner: It is first necessary...
-Percolation. Part 2
It is especially adapted for the preparation of concentrated infusions and essences, as they may thus be obtained of any required strength, without loss, or requiring concentration by heat, which is s...
-Percolation. Part 3
In considering the rest of the conditions upon which solution depends we next observe the action of currents. Thus immerse a cubical crystal of potassium bromide 1 in. in dimension in water, and its ...
-Percolation. Part 4
Assuming now that we desire to transfer the dissolved matter equally to all portions of the liquid, we most easily accomplish the object by stirring the contents of the vessel until the menstruum abov...
-Percolation. Part 5
We use no manual labour after preparing the apparatus, and have no pressed residue to pulverise. We simply connect maceration as before examined to one of nature's most familiar laws, and in this latt...
-Percolation. Part 6
Let us not infer, however, that the conditions cannot render the foregoing to an extent inaccurate. If our material be placed loosely in the percolator as a consequence the first portion of menstruum ...
-Percolation. Part 7
In percolation, from the instant the stratum of menstruum commences to penetrate the material until it escapes, we have maceration connected with alteration of the position of the mass of the liquid. ...
-Electrotyping
The electro-deposition of metal is much employed as a means of reproducing printing surfaces, especially being adapted for duplicating engravings and delicate work rather than ordinary type. The condu...
-Electrotyping. Part 2
The sheet-copper bands which conduct the electricity from the battery to the trough should be about 1/32 in. thick and 1 in. wide; wire has not sufficient body to carry the necessary amount of current...
-Electrotyping. Part 3
Moulding As soon as the mould and forme are ready for moulding, pull the table of the press forward, so as to allow of the pages being properly placed in the centre, and wipe it perfectly clean. Befo...
-Electrotyping. Part 4
If low spaces have been used, and the forme has not been floated prior to moulding, the work of the builder is greatly augmented. The removal of the wax spaces becomes a long and tedious job, and th...
-Electrotyping. Part 5
Trimming And Bevelling A good plate should be perfect on the surface, level on the back and front, square, and have bright, clean, and accurately-bevelled edges. On being taken from the pan, it is tr...
-Stereotyping
When matter has been set up in type, it is often desirable to reproduce it in a form more convenient for handling, while at the same time liberating the type for further use. Hence has arisen the art ...
-Stereotyping. Part 2
In conducting this latter operation, the lead is again placed first in the pot, melted, and well skimmed, taking especial care that no zinc is allowed to contaminate it. When quite clean, the proper p...
-Stereotyping. Part 3
Baking The Mould When the mould has stood for a few minutes, with the aid of a knife cut a small groove round the back, towards the iron frame. Turn the mould on its back, and lightly tap the frame, ...
-Stereotyping. Part 4
After all the edges round the top are struck off, the thin metallic covering of the mould can be removed, and the whole of the plaster will be exposed to view. This can be picked from the surface of t...
-Stereotyping. Part 5
Obviously the same principle may be carried out with any suitable method of uniting the plates and blocks. It is a matter of convenience to cast the risers or movable blocks for mounting plates, on...
-Stereotyping. Part 6
Beating the flong is undoubtedly the most difficult process to be mastered, and it is only with great care and judgment that a really good mould can be obtained. The handle of the brush must be held i...
-Stereotyping. Part 7
Casting The Plate The casting box. Fig. 180, consists of 2 thick iron surfaces, the top one a serving as a lid. The hinges b are made by 2 protruding pins at one end, fitting loosely into slots c on ...
-Bookbinding
By binding a book is meant the arrangement of the sheets composing it, with maps, plates, etc. in proper sequence, within a pair of covers, of various material, with or without ornamentation, and ...
-Bookbinding. Part 2
Maps are best mounted on the finest linen (which takes up the least room in thickness), cut a little larger than the map, with an additional piece left, on which to mount the extra paper, which throws...
-Bookbinding. Part 3
A book that is to be sawn in is marked up us for flexible work, but the; back is sawn, both Tor the bauds and kettle - stitch, with a tenon saw, having the teeth not spread out too ' much, and of ...
-Bookbinding. Part 4
In the method called flexible not to show, the book is marked up in the same way as for flexible, and is slightly scratched on the band marks with the saw, but not deep enough to go through the sec...
-Bookbinding. Part 5
Fig. 184. Pasting On The End Papers For each side of the book, a single leaf of white paper, somewhat thicker than that used for the ends, is cut. Lay the end papers on a board or on the press, w...
-Bookbinding. Part 6
Backing: - Backing-boards should be of the same length as the book, somewhat thicker than cutting-boards, and with their tops planed at an angle, so that the sheets may fall well over. Hold the boo...
-Bookbinding. Part 7
If, however, the book is to be entirely uncut, the size of the book is taken, and the portions called squares that project round the book, in addition. When a book has not been cut, the amount to b...
-Bookbinding. Part 8
The tail is cut in the same way as the top edge. To cut a book properly requires great Care. Always lay a book down one way and take it up another, and in cutting always work with the back of the boo...
-Bookbinding. Part 9
Colours For Sprinkling Many dyes and colours that answer all purposes, may be purchased ready for instant use. Judson's dyes diluted with water are very good. Plain Colouring The colours, having be...
-Bookbinding. Part 10
Other Effects A few drops of turpentine put in the colours will give them a different effect, viz. causing the small white spots that appear on shell marble. There are various patterns, each being...
-Bookbinding. Part 11
To gild the edges, the book should be put into the press straight and on a level with the cheeks of the press between cutting-boards, the boards of the book being thrown back. The press should be scre...
-Bookbinding. Part 12
Supposing a book is to be done in 2 colours, red and white. The head-band is cut to size, the book is, for convenience, held in a press, or a plough with the knife taken out, so that the end to be hea...
-Bookbinding. Part 13
When dry, the ends of the bands are cut off with a bevel, and a little piece of the boards from the corners nearest the back is also taken off on the bevel, that there may not be a sharp point to fret...
-Bookbinding. Part 14
The perfection in covering a book depends upon the leather being worked sharp round the boards, but with the grain almost untouched. Paste should be always used for all kinds of leather; but leather ...
-Bookbinding. Part 15
Great care must be taken to rub the whole down well, that it may adhere properly; the grain need not be heeded. With regard to the overplus at the head and tail, there are two ways of disposing of it:...
-Bookbinding. Part 16
Cotton wool is used for taking the gold leaf up and pressing it firmly on the leather. Varnish should be used only on that part where glaire has been applied and has afterwards been polished, the obj...
-Bookbinding. Part 17
To blind tool the side of a book it must be marked with a folder and straight-edge, according to the pattern to be produced; and as a guide for the rolls and fillets to be used. These lines form the g...
-Bookbinding Gold Work
This is far more complicated than blind or antique work, so that it is better to practise upon some spare pieces of roan, calf, and morocco, before attempting to finish a book. Gold work is not more d...
-Bookbinding Gold Work. Continued
When this simple finishing can be executed properly and with ease, a more difficult style may be attempted, such as a full gilt back. This is done in 2 ways, a run-up back and a mitred back. As ...
-BookBinding Inlaid Work
Inlaid, or mosaic work, is used only in the higher branches of bookbinding. Formerly books were not inlaid, but painted with various colours. Grolier used a great deal of black, white, and green. Tuck...
-Porous Calf
Calf, as before described, requires more and different preparation than morocco, on account of its soft and absorbing nature. As a foundation or ground-work, paste of different degrees of strength is ...
-Full Gilt Back
(a) Run-up. Make a mark up the back on both sides a little away from the joint with a folder and straight-edge. Put on lettering piece. When dry, paste and paste-wash the back. When again dry, take ...
-Book Pressing
Plates of japanned tin or polished horn are proper for this purpose. Put pressing tins between the book and the millboards, up to the joint. Place one of the japanned tins on the side level with the g...
-Book Graining
Graining is now used very much on calf books. This may be properly considered as a blind ornament. It is done by means of copper or wooden plates cut out in various patterns, so as to form small squar...
-Finishing With Dry Preparation
Dry preparation is used for silk, velvet, paper, or any other material that would be stained by the employment of the wet process. A number of recipes are in use. Dry some white of egg by spreading i...
-Vellum
Several kinds of vellum are prepared from calf-skins: pre-pared or artists' vellum, with a very white artificial surface; Oxford vellum, the surface of which is left in its natural state; Roman...
-Blocking
The tools required for blocking are blocks or stamps, composed of very small pieces, or in one block cut to the size of the book. In any case, the block has to be fastened to the movable plate at ...
-Calf Colouring
Although coloured calf-skins may be bought almost as cheaply as smooth calf (uncoloured ones), yet there are many places where coloured calf cannot be procured. Skins may be purchased already sprink...
-Sprinkles
There are many sprinkles, all worked in the same way, by throwing the colour on finely or coarsely, as it may be wanted light or dark. Presuming that the paste or ground-wash is thoroughly dry, take ...
-Marbles
As the success of marbling depends upon the quickness with which it is executed, it is important that the colours, sponges, brushes, and water, should be previously disposed in order and at hand, so t...
-Dabs
This is a process with a sponge, charged with the black or the brown liquid, dabbed on the calf either all over the cover or in successive order. Give the proper preparation to the calf, and be very c...
-Straw-Plait, Matting, And Baskets
There is so much similarity in the manufacture of these articles that they readily admit of description under a general heading. ...
-Straw-Plait
In this industry, Tuscany holds a first place. All that which is known as Leghorn or Florence straw is raised on the hills which rise on each side of the rivers Pisa and Elsa, to the south-west of Flo...
-Straw-Plait. Part 2
Straw can be sold at different periods. It is sometimes bought on the ground - that is, before it is uprooted - in which case a sum is fixed upon for the whole field, and the risks and costs of upro...
-Straw-Plait. Part 3
Consul Welsh reports to the United States Government as follows : - In the city of Florence is a market for straw goods made by hand by female residents of surrounding places, such as Fiesole, Brozzi,...
-Straw-Plait. Part 4
Grey This shade can be obtained only on very white straws. Steep in a bath of soda crystals to which a little lime water has been added, to causticise the alkali. The purpose of this washing is to re...
-Matting
Russian Matting Mats of lime (linden) bast form in Russia the object of a considerable trade. It is no unusual thing at Riga, Archangel, and Petersburg, for English and German vessels to take in a co...
-Baskets
The subject of the periodical overflow of the Thames and other rivers should be the means of directing more attention to the possible improvement of wet ground in marshy situations by the planting of ...
-Musical Instruments
The construction and repairing of musical instruments in general favour, such as pianos, harmoniums, and violins, form a fitting subject for the present volume. ...
-Pianos
Selecting Pianos The chief points to be considered in the selection of a piano are its durability, tone, and touch. As to appearance, the buyer will please himself; but in the workmanship of the case...
-Pianos. Part 2
In pianos where the treble notes are not of good quality, or where the strings are continually breaking, considerable improvement will be effected by renewing the top octave, the increased brilliancy ...
-Pianos. Part 3
With the harp, on the contrary, one of the first lessons a purchaser finds it necessary to learn is to tune it, and replace broken strings, and it would be considered quite exceptional, even for a lad...
-Pianos. Part 4
Buzzing Buzz is the most important of the minor defects of a piano, as it is generally also the most persistent. The conditions under which it may occur are various, and for the most part, simple a...
-Pianos. Part 5
There are some external causes of buzzing which demand attention. Thus the piano may be standing on a loose floor-board: the remedy is to fasten the board tightly with screws, removing the loose nai...
-Pianos. Part 6
Just below the line of wrest pins should be figures to indicate the size of the wire used; for all notes between any 2 of these numbers, the size indicated by the lower is to be employed. Fig. 191. ...
-Harmoniums
First purchase about 16 ft. of 3/4-in. pine, about 1 ft. wide, and a plank of good sound beech, 3 ft. long, 7 in. wide, 2 in. thick at one end, and running off to 1/2 in. thick at the other. Be partic...
-Harmoniums. Part 2
Fasten the spiral springs in their proper position on the valve-board, and then glue the overhanging leather of the folds on to the valve-board and feeder-board. The inside must also have strips of l...
-Harmoniums. Part 3
Cut the mortices right through the soundboard, and clear them out nice and smooth; those in the bass may be cut back on the under side, as shown by the dotted line in Fig. 199. Cover the top of the b...
-Harmoniums. Part 4
Fig. 201 illustrates part of a cylinder, broken, showing the progress of the 5 operations: a, pointing; b, boring; c, garnishing: d, gumming; e, turning. The manufacture of a musical box may be di...
-Harmoniums. Part 5
Next to the cylinder, one of the most important parts of the musical box is the key-board. We will first see how all accidents happening to a key-board can be remedied. It is well known that the numb...
-Harmoniums. Part 6
Fig. 206. Fig. 207. It may be well to remark here, that when a key is untempered and has no sound, it will sometimes regain sound by drawing it to a blue with the blowpipe, without previously ...
-Clock And Watch Mending
In executing ordinary repairs to clocks and watches, there is nothing of such an intricate or difficult character that it cannot be undertaken by any one possessing some skill and dexterity in handlin...
-Repairing Clocks
Having described and illustrated the mechanism of the 8-day clock, it will be an easy matter to give directions for effecting simple repairs. After taken the movement from its case, removing the hand...
-Repairing Clocks. Part 2
Now, if the pinion is put in the centres and tried, it will probably be found to have warped a little in hardening. This is corrected in the following manner: The rounding side of the arbor is laid on...
-Repairing Clocks. Part 3
A few hints on cutting escape wheels may be useful to those who possess a wheel-cutting engine. The form of cutter used for brass wheels is what is commonly known as a fly, or single-tooth cutter, dr...
-Repairing Clocks. Part 4
The pivot can now be turned down to size, polished, burnished, and the end rounded up. There are several tools sold for centring arbors for drilling, but there is no more accurate way than that descri...
-Repairing Clocks. Part 5
A much better plan is to make the chops of 2 pieces of brass, and rivet them together with 4 rivets; the bottom edges should be slightly rounded off to prevent any chance of the spring breaking at tha...
-Cleaning Clocks
Different workmen have different methods of cleaning a clock, each supposing his own to be best; the following will be found as good as any. Mix up some rotten-stone with any good oil, and with a stif...
-Putting Clocks Together
Commence by screwing on the hammer spring and the cock. The cock is put on in order to allow the pivots to go through the holes until the shoulders rest on the plates, as the wheels do not fall about ...
-30-Hour English Clocks
The manufacture of these clocks, has entirely ceased; there are still a large number in use, however, which occasionally require cleaning and repairing. Two styles are met with : in one, the wheels ar...
-Spring Clocks
The motive power of these timepieces being produced by the uncoiling of a spring, several parts are introduced which are not found in weight clocks - namely, the spring barrel, fusee, and stopwork. Th...
-Musical Clocks
These call for no special remarks, beyond that it is advisable to well understand the action of the letting off work, and the run allowed, before taking to pieces. The arrangements are so differen...
-Outdoor Clocks
In the case of large clocks, the cause of stopping is usually apparent, and by trying the side-shake of the pivots in their holes, it can be readily seen if any new ones are required. The depths are n...
-Drum Timepieces
These seldom go satisfactorily for any length of time with the treatment they ordinarily receive. In addition to the usual careful examination of depths, end-shakes, sizes of holes, etc, it is necessa...
-Bird Clocks
These often give trouble from the bad mechanical arrangement of the parts. The great secret in repairing them is to reduce the friction as much as possible. The resistance to the rising of the lifter...
-German Clocks
When of the ordinary construction, these call for no especial remarks; the principal point to notice is the back hole of the pallet arbor, which will be generally found much too large. It is an easy m...
-American Clocks
Try the pinions to see if they are tight on the arbors, for they are often loose. The best way to secure them is with a little soft solder, taking great care afterwards to thoroughly clean off all the...
-French Clocks
The cleaning and management of these clocks is simple. It occasionally occurs in new clocks, that a movement has been fitted to a case that is not high enough to allow the pendulum to swing free when ...
-Watches
In setting to work upon repairing a watch, it is of great importance to adopt a regular system in submitting it to examination, always following a certain order in dealing with the various parts. This...
-Verge Watch
To take the movement to pieces, begin by detaching the hands with a pair of nippers (if it is carefully done, the hands will not be marked), then draw out the pins which hold the dial, and remove it. ...
-Verge Watch. Continued
See that the pivot holes are of the right size, and the end-shakes correct; if not, alter as may be necessary. Try, in the same manner, the centre-wheel depth with the third pinion, the third-wheel de...
-Geneva Watch
The following remarks refer in the main to foreign watches with a Lepine movement. Rotate the wheels connecting the hour and minute hands by the aid of a key; a glance will suffice to show whether th...
-Geneva Watch. Part 2
Remove the barrel bar with its several attachments; also the third wheel, and, if necessary, test the unrighting of the centre wheel by passing a round broach or taper arbor through it, and setting th...
-Geneva Watch. Part 3
A burnt bone is an excellent substitute for the crust, and has the advantage of causing the brush to impart a very brilliant appearance to objects on which it is used. Cleaning with a brush is less u...
-English Watch
Many of the remarks made in speaking of the Geneva movement are equally applicable to that of English construction. It will be well, however, to supplement them by a few special directions. The follow...
-Watch Pivoting
This may, in some respects, be called the most tedious of any work connected with watch repairing; for it is certainly no easy job for the novice to drill down the centre of a small pinion, especially...
-Watch Repair
New Mainspring The barrel cover being removed by the blade of a small watch screwdriver, the arbor is first taken out and then the broken spring. If, without doubt, the broken spring was the original...
-Watch Repair. Part 2
If an English arbor, the next step will be to turn the top pivot and fit it into the name plate, and afterwards file the square on the other end of the arbor to receive the ratchet. If, however, it is...
-Watch Repair. Part 3
If it is a train which requires 16,200, we then have to get the spring of such a strength that it will make 270 vibrations per minute; but it is best to count every alternate vibration, making the cou...
-Photography Processes
A long article on this subject appeared in the 1st Series of' Workshop Receipts,' but since that time many new processes have come into use, and will be discussed here. Gelatine Processes. The Gelati...
-Emulsions
(1) Burton and other well-known photographers advise the acid boiling process for making the emulsion, the operation being conducted in a very slight deep-ruby light. The formulae used by Burton are...
-Emulsions. Part 2
An important question is the temperature of the coating and drying room. As regards coating, with the gelatine he used, Burton prefers to have the room about 60-65 F.; if colder than that, h...
-Emulsions. Part 3
(5) Distilled water .. 1 oz. Alcohol...... 4 oz. Silver nitrate .. .. 240 gr. Both the above solutions may be prepared by day or gas light. (c) In the dark room, by a non-actinic light, such as a ...
-Emulsions. Part 4
The emulsion, when it has gained the requisite degree of fineness, is allowed to cool down to 90-100 F. (32-38 C), when the albumen is poured into it, and thoroughly mixed. All th...
-Developers
(1) For the development of gelatino-bromide plates, Egli & Spiller recommend the following solutions: - (a) Hydroxylamine hydrochloride...... 32 gr. Citric acid...... 15 gr. Potassium bromide .. 20...
-Developers. Part 2
(4) Joshua Smith has recently explained advantages in the use of lime water over ammonia in the development of gelatine plates. He first slakes 1 1/2 oz. lime by covering it with water overnight, in ...
-Developers. Part 3
Ammonia Solution. Ammonia, 880 .. .. 2 dr. Water ........ 1 oz. Keep in stoppered bottles. To develop, give the plate the ordinary soaking in water, and pour over it: Pyro solution...... 1 dr. Wa...
-Developers. Part 4
(11) Dr. Eder has for a considerable time directed especial attention to the soda and potash developers, either of which seems to offer certain advantages over the ammoniacal pyrogallol. This advantag...
-Developers. Part 5
Developer A. Make up the following solutions: - (a) Ammonia, '880 .. .. 1 dr. Water........ 9 dr. This is a 10 per cent. solution. (6) Potash bromide .. .. 24 gr. Water........ 1 oz. This is a 5 p...
-Intensifiers
(1) According to W. Brooks, the greatest drawback to gelatine plates has been the want of a proper intensifier after fixing. Many negatives are perfect in every respect except for the want of a little...
-Intensifiers. Part 2
In the collodion film, the image is on the extreme surface, and the particles of silver on the film attract the crystalline silver precipitate which gradually separates out from the depositing solutio...
-Intensifiers. Part 3
Bromide. Cyanide HgBr.AgBr + AgK(CN)2 = Hg(CN)2 Potassium Bromide and Bromide. Metallic Silver. + KBr + Ag.AgBr From the above, it will be seen that the intensified image is composed of metallic...
-Intensifiers. Part 4
If the negative be in the state best described as nearly dense enough, careful washing in the first solution will give just the requisite density, and then a thorough washing and immersion in Ammonia....
-Intensifiers. Part 5
(9) That not a few of the votaries of the art would forsake mercurial intensification for silver and iron or other permanent redevelopment, were they assured of the absence of abnormal or other stains...
-Stripping Film From Negatives
Frequently inquiries are made as to the best means of removing a gelatino-bromide negative from its glass support, so that it can be used either as a direct or reversed negative, and it does not appea...
-Remedy For Frilling
(1) The tendency of the film on gelatine plates to frill and rise up off the glass during development is very common when the solutions are warm. A remedy described by Watmough Webster, which, in hi...
-Putting Up Plates
At a recent meeting of the New York Society of Amateur Photographers, Newton called attention to the danger of the injurious action of soda hyposulphite, contained in the dividing paper frames, upon g...
-Reducing Negatives
(I) F. C. Beach presented the following formula for reducing negatives: - (a) Water ...... 15 dr. Gold chloride .. .. 15 gr. (6) A Weak Solution of Potassium Cyanide. Water ...... 8 oz. Potassium...
-Toning Silver Citro-Chloride Prints And Transparent Positives
The probabilities being in favour of an increased use of silver citro-chloride mixed with gelatine, for the purpose of obtaining positives printed out for enlarging, the lantern, opal, or paper...
-Drying Plates
(1) An inconvenience which has caused no little trouble to workers with gelatine plates is the length of time they take to dry. A collodion plate can be held to the fire and dried in a very short time...
-Gelatino-Bromide Film Paper
(1) Since the discovery and rapid development of dry-plate photography, many attempts have been made to dispense with the use of glass as a support for the film, and so far with considerable success. ...
-Tissue Negatives From Plates
The method of removing the films from collodion plates by means of a coating of transfer collodion, and subsequently either remounting them upon the glass in a reversed position to be utilised in proc...
-Hartley's Dry-Plate Process
Sensitiveness of a gelatine emulsion depends upon the fineness of the silver bromide in the gelatine; the finer it is, the more rapid. Weak solutions give finer precipitates than strong solutions. Aci...
-Washing The Emulsion
Let the water run through the tube to bottom of pitcher and off at faucet below. To tell when the emulsion is sufficiently washed, take some of the waste water running from the faucet into a 2oz. bott...
-Flowing The Plates
Filter the emulsion through a piece of moist flannel in the glass funnel, placed in the tin funnel as described hereafter; filter into a small pitcher that will hold about 6 oz. You can have several o...
-Keeping The Emulsion
Take the emulsion strips and put them into a wide-mouth fruit jar; pour enough alcohol on to cover the emulsion, screw on the top, and the emulsion will keep. When you wish it, take up what you want t...
-Melting And Filtering The Emulsion
Make a tin box 18 in. deep, 12 in. high, 12 in. wide, all sides enclosed except one. On the side that is not enclosed, make flange 6 in. wide all round the opening. Cut a hole in the partition where y...
-Developing
Any developer that will work on any plate will work on Hartley's the same. But he claims that all published developers given by dry plate factories are right if the exposure is. Unless the exposure is...
-Collodion Processes
Since the introduction of gelatine processes, collodion has become of less importance, though it possesses some advantages, and has undergone some improvements of late years. Collodio-Citro-Chloride ...
-Collodio-Chloride Paper
In a glass beaker dissolve 2 dr. silver nitrate in 1 1/2 dr. distilled water by heat; drop this solution into a bottle containing 14 dr. alcohol. In cold weather it is better to put the bottle in a ve...
-Fixing Silver Prints Without Hyposulphite
It is a well-known fact that small quantities of silver chloride are soluble in ammonia, as well as in the chlorides of sodium, ammonium, etc, which, though solvents, are not sufficiently powerful to ...
-Fixing Silver Prints Without Hyposulphite. Continued
In making up a bath, equal quantities of (a) and (6) are mixed, plenty of chalk being added, letting the whole stand for 3-5 hours before use. With some samples of this paper, the bath can be used at ...
-Transparencies
When the season for outdoor work closes, amateurs begin to look about for means of employment during the dark evenings. One of the most pleasing occupations is the production of transparencies for the...
-Transparencies. Part 2
A negative whose size bears a proportion similar to 3 1/4 by 3 1/4 will lend itself more easily to reduction; thus whole-plate or half-plate negatives are easy of manipulation in this respect, and req...
-Transparencies. Part 3
After toning, wash well and dry: they dry quickly. Varnish with Soeh-nee crystal varnish, then mount with covering glasses, and mark. Bind round the edges with paper and very stiff gum, and the pictur...
-Albumen Processes. Albumen-Ising Paper
The first thing is to decide how much albumen has to be prepared to coat the quantity of paper required. As a guide, it may be mentioned that a ream of paper will consume 1 1/2-2 gal. albumen; and as ...
-Floating Albumenised Paper On The Silver Bath
The silver nitrate which is taken up from the sensitising bath when albumenised paper is sensitised, serves 3 distinct purposes. In the first place, double decomposition takes place between it and the...
-Silver Printing On Albumenised Paper. The Silver Printing Bath
Without doubt the best results are obtained from the use of a plain neutral solution, kept as near as possible to its full strength, varying from 45 to 60 gr. of silver nitrate per oz. of water, kept ...
-Toning
The soda acetate toning bath still holds its own against the many formulae for toning that have from time to time been published; and deservedly so, as by its use the utmost range of tone can be secur...
-Coating The Plates
Ordinary cleaned glass plates are used; but if the printing is to take place by contact with the negative, the glasses selected should be the flattest procurable. There is nothing novel in the method ...
-Film Stripping
Take a developing tray larger than the negative to be stripped, pour in sufficient water to cover, and, for a whole plate, drop in 8-10 drops hydrofluoric acid (the exact quantity cannot be given, as ...
-Fixing And Toning Pictures
The remaining operations may be conducted by daylight. The picture is fixed in a solution of soda hyposulphite made by dissolving 1 oz. hypo in 5 oz. water. After being thoroughly washed, the transpar...
-Restoring Faded Photographs
(1) It is only to immerse the yellowed print in a dilute solution of mercury bichloride until all the yellowness disappears. It is then well washed in water to remove the mercurial salt. If the print ...
-Printing A Positive From A Positive
Cros and Vergeraud have worked out a process for obtaining images so as to have a positive impression from a positive plate, and a negative print from a negative original. The process is based on the ...
-Reducing Over-Printed Proofs
A simple and certain method of reducing over-printed proofs has been one of the wants long felt by all photographers. It is well known that in every photographic establishment even the most careful pr...
-Photographing By Magnesium Light
Some experiments have been recently published on the use of bottles of oxygen in which to burn fragments of magnesium ribbon, to take portraits by the magnesium light. An objection is the trouble and ...
-Paper Negatives
Use Morgan and Kidd's ordinary enlarging paper for negatives, and a Rouch's patent 10 by 8 camera with an ordinary dark slide, in which fix slips of copper 3/8 in. wide for the paper to rest on. Lay a...
-Photographing Paper Photographs
In copying paper photographs the granular texture of the paper invariably injures the copy, making it appear to be covered with whitish dots. A method practised by Denier, a Russian photographer, enab...
-A Photographic Print Upon Paper In 5 Minutes
It is sometimes desirable to produce a positive upon paper in much less time than is possible by the ordinary process, in which manner it takes not less than 12 hours to complete a good photograph. Th...
-How to Make Paper Negatives
At a recent meeting of the London and Provincial Photographic Association, W. Turner gave the following as his method of making paper negatives: The picture or drawing to be copied is made translucent...
-Enlarging On Argentic Paper And Opals
The process of making gelatino-bromide of silver prints or enlargements on paper or opal has been before the public for some years now, and cannot be called new; but still it is neither so well known ...
-Light For The Dark Room
The use of a yellow instead of a ruby light for those photographic operations which require what is called a dark room, has been spreading considerably. It is, however, sometimes assumed that although...
-Mounting Prints
Until improvements in photo-mechanical printing methods enable us to economically and conveniently impress the photographic image directly upon cardboard, the work of mounting prints will form a consi...
-Paper Pan
First cut out a block of wood the exact size and thickness of dish required. Then take a sheet of cartridge paper, paste it with flour paste and rub in the paste well, letting the paper be thoroughly ...
-Testing A Lens
To be thoroughly successful in photography, it is of the utmost importance that the operator should be perfectly familiar with the lens he is working with. A lens should be examined and tested for any...
-Photographing On Wood
Among the many published formulae for photographing on wood, nearly all are defective at one vital point; that is, the block becomes wet during the operation. In this respect, engravers' boxwood is pe...
-Photographing On Wood. Part 2
(5) Underlying the whole system of photographing upon wood is this principle - nothing must remain on the surface which is capable of clogging the point of the graver, hence the vehicle in which the c...
-Photographing On Wood. Part 3
Plain Collodion. Alcohol .. .. .. 900 parts Ether .. .. .. .. 1800 Pyroxyline .. .. .. 60 Iodised Collodion. Plain collodion (as above) 700 parts Alcohol........ 450 Ether .. ...
-Flexible Plates
Photographers, both amateur and professional, have long wanted some thoroughly efficient substitute for glass as a support for dry-plate films, and a few attempts have been made to supply the want wit...
-Silver Prints Mounted On Glass Medallions
The prints to be treated should be printed darker than for ordinary mounting, care being taken not to tone them very much, or a cold blue or grey will be the result when finished. The glass plate inte...
-Enamel Photographs
A sheet of any smooth-surfaced glass (plate is best) is cleaned by any of the usual photographic methods; now rub over the plate a solution of alcohol containing about 5 drops nitric acid to the oz.; ...
-Outdoor Photography
It frequently happens that the amateur in outdoor photography requires a plate which will retain its sensitiveness for a few hours, such as the photographing of objects within easy reach of his home. ...
-Negative Bath
The following negative bath will be found excellent, reducing the expense by one-half, and giving negatives of a first-class description, with an entire absence of pinholes : - Silver nitrate .. &#...
-Varnishes
(1) A solution of shellac methylated spirit forms the basis of varnish, and a simple varnish so made will answer for all rough work; but where delicate results are wanted, it must be paler in colour, ...
-Varnishes. Part 2
(4) For Prints Heat a piece of glass, and rub a little wax over it with a bit of cotton-wool. Pour water over the plate, and press the picture down upon it with a piece of filtering paper. When dry, ...
-Varnishes. Part 3
For wet collodion negatives it is invaluable, as its use entirely does away with split films; and when only 1 or 2 prints are required, the negative need not be varnished with spirit varnish. All that...
-Preparing Sulphurous Acid
Within a short period, sulphurous acid has become an important element in the preparation of an excellent pyro developer for gelatine plates; and as it is more or less unstable in its keeping qualitie...
-Preparing Sulphurous Acid. Part 2
At the other end, a stout rubber band d, attached to the 2 projecting ends, exerts quite enough tension to hold the shutter firmly to the tube. The clamps c, having each a slit of 1/2 in., can be rea...
-Preparing Sulphurous Acid. Part 3
The fraction of a second required can be practically obtained by expensive shutters; but the writer has found that very considerable accuracy may be ensured by using a rotary shutter which was made fo...
-Preparing Sulphurous Acid. Part 4
The Jarvis Shutter Various devices have been employed to enable an instantaneous shutter to give a longer exposure to the foreground than to the sky. Most of them, however, are mora or less complicat...
-Preparing Sulphurous Acid. Part 5
The ordinary double plate holder is perfectly safe when at rest, but as soon as the slide is put in motion it is not light-proof, from the very nature of its construction. Any one will readily be conv...
-Preparing Sulphurous Acid. Part 6
The first and third method work well, without seriously affecting the simplicity of the apparatus. When the ground glass is fixed, however, in the back of the case, it is not in focus for the plate, a...
-Preparing Sulphurous Acid. Part 7
The objectives are Steinheil's anti-planets, 1 in. in diameter, of 6-in. focus, and capable of covering a plate 12 1/2 in. square. Their luminous power is con-siderable. The shutter is a spring one...









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