books



previous page: American Library Edition Of Workshop Receipts Vol4| by Ernest Spon
  
page up: Mechanics and Engineering Books
  
next page: Spons' Mechanics' Own Book: A Manual For Handicraftsmen And Amateurs | by Edward Spon

American Library Edition Of Workshop Receipts Vol5| by Ernest Spon



Containing Many New Articles, As Well As Additions To Articles Included In The Previous Volumes

TitleAmerican Library Edition Of Workshop Receipts Vol5
AuthorErnest Spon
PublisherSpon & Chamberlain
Year1903
Copyright1903, Spon & Chamberlain
AmazonAmerican Library Edition Of Workshop Receipts
-Preface. Vol 5
With the spread of technical education, which is such a feature in the present century, scarcely a household but has its more or less pretentious workshop, in which the mechanical and scientific taste...
-Diamond Cutting And Polishing
Very little is known by the mechanic, of the real process of transforming a rough and apparently worthless-looking pebble into a stone of the greatest brilliancy and lustre. The change wrought in the ...
-Bottle Labels
(1) Ordinary glazed paper, preferably of a citron-yellow colour, is wiped over with a damp sponge, and then again allowed to dry. The ink used for writing the labels is prepared from 3 parts extract o...
-Plant Labels
(1) In transplanting spring shoots, as well as in sowing seeds, the gardener often feels the need of a convenient label, that will withstand the rain and not get soiled with the mud. A writer in the G...
-Laboratory Apparatus. Liebig Condenser
This condenser (Fig. 7) is much more compact, and is equally as effective as the ordinary form. Much valuable space is saved, which the chemist may use to better advantage, a is a tube about 2 3/4 in....
-Laboratory Apparatus. Liebig Condenser. Continued
D 6hows a spring clamp for holding work to be soldered or cemented. It may also be used as a pinch cock. E represents a pair of tweezers, which should be made of good spring wire flattened at the end...
-Cements And Lutes
Acid-proof - (9) See (1). This cement is not at all attacked by hydrochloric, and but very little by nitric acid. When heated it softens but very little. It does not easily dry upon the surface. If th...
-Cements And Lutes. Part 2
Hot-Water Pipe Joints (1) The best packing for cast-iron socket hot-water pipes is yarn and white and red lead (best white hemp yarn preferred), used in the following manner: - First caulk home about...
-Cements And Lutes. Part 3
Of all resins, amber and some kinds of copal are the hardest. Copal varnish is both hard and elastic; amber varnish is harder than copal, but not so elastic, and is, consequently, more brittle; hence,...
-Rubber And Guttapercha
(a) In making a cement one should know pretty thoroughly what is to be expected of it before they could advise upon it. For instance, an ordinary rubber cement will hold on a host of different surface...
-Cooling. Water. Freezing Mixtures
(30) A liquid invented by Raoul Pictet, of Geneva, for use as a disinfectant, answers well as a freezing mixture for hardening microscopical specimens. Sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide, having been ...
-Copying. Chemical Methods
(37) T. C. Roche gives the following method of making fine blue prints on paper, wood, canvas, etc, and only requires washing to fix properly. First solution: red prussiate of potash, 120 gr.; water, ...
-Printing
The tracing, made with very black ink, is placed in the printing frame, the drawing in direct contact with the plate; then place over it the sensitised paper, the prepared side in contact with the bac...
-Copying. Mechanical Methods
(6) Permanently moist copying paper. A perpetually damp copying paper, always ready for use, is described in the Paper Trade Journal. It is prepared by dissolving 1 lb. of chloride of magnesium in a m...
-Copying. Zincotypes
(a) According to Volkner (Photographic Times), the original for a heliographic reproduction must be extremely sharp in outline. A reversed photographic negative upon glass, 4/5 or 3/4 the original siz...
-Plain Copper-Plates
At the time when copper engravings were used exclusively in the Institute, the plates were made by the galvano-plastic process with the aid of a twelve-cell, zinc-silver battery (system Smee). Now suc...
-Mounting Drawings And Tracings
One of the most common details in the routine of the drawing-office is the mounting and repairing of tracings and drawings which have either been made on paper too flimsy to stand the wear and tear wh...
-Desiccating. Air Ovens
(a) The air-bath ordinarily used in chemical laboratories for drying precipitates, for making determinations of water by loss, and for similar purposes, is usually a rather expensive piece of apparatu...
-Desiccating. Air Ovens. Part 2
In a case like this there is nothing to be got by turning and twisting the thing round so as to expose alternately its various parts to the greater heat. In imagination one can see what occurs; by a p...
-Desiccating. Air Ovens. Part 3
A Page's regulator, or any similar instrument, may be all very well in a still atmosphere, but where a current is concerned it is not unlikely to be at fault and thrown out of working from one cause o...
-Desiccating. Air Ovens. Part 4
In these several ways we have endeavoured to meet the requirements of a theoretically perfect bath. We have contrived an instrument that provides a vigorous current of heated air of definite temperatu...
-Dessicating. Mechanical Methods
Foremost among mechanical appliances for this purpose ranks the centrifugal machine, or hydro extractor. In principle this apparatus consists of an upright drum, which can be made to revolve with grea...
-Dessicating. Mechanical Methods. Continued
The distiller is shown in section in Fig. 22, and consists of a lead glass tube a b 36 in. long and about 3/8 in. internal diameter. About 2 in. from its closed upper end is blown a bulb about 2 In. d...
-Evaporating Acids
Cast iron retorts are now being successfully employed on a large scale in New York for the final concentration of sulphuric acid. It is fouud that acid of 65 Be. does not attack the stills, and n...
-Illuminating Agents
The question as to the actual cost to the consumer, everything being included, of the light produced by the various illuminating agents now in use has not yet received a clear and definite answer. Car...
-Petroleum
The luminous intensity given by a petroleum lamp varies considerably with the quality of the oil employed, and also with the quality, the state of cleanliness, and the cut of the wick. A badly-trimmed...
-Illuminating Gas
Column 7 of Table II. gives the expenses of putting down apparatus and mains for candle power per hour, calculated on the following grounds: - In Belgium the cost of establishing a public burner may ...
-Filtering Water
(a) A new filter, invented by Dr. William Paulson, of Loughborough, is shown in Fig. 24. It has been designed with a view to use an entirely inorganic, and at the same time a durable and powerful germ...
-Filtering Water. Part 2
Mallie filter. In case a particular gas is required, the funnel is then provided with a double-bored cork. Through one opening the gas is introduced, and it passes out by the other, a connectio...
-Filtering Water. Part 3
A good many vacuum pumps, worked by a flow of water, have from time to time been introduced to the notice of the public, but the majority of them are Dot completely satisfactory. Bun-sen's is perhaps ...
-Filtering Water. Part 4
The patentees claim that this funnel may be used for a variety of purposes besides that of ordinary filtration, such as vacuum filtering, washing precipitates automatically, dialysis, etc, besides bei...
-Explosives. Strengths
Lieut. Willoughby Walke, of the U.S. Artillery, has recently communicated to the journal of the American Chemical Society an important paper on the relative strengths of modern high explosives, which ...
-Composition of Explosives
The following table shows the composition of the more important kinds. Name of Powder. Sulphur. Saltpetre. Sodium Nitrate. Potassium Chlorate. Nitroglycerine. Gunc...
-Building Fireproofing
In the course of a recent lecture by Dr. Tanner before the Louisville Board of Underwriters, the subject of fires caused by steam pipes and hot-air flues was discussett at considerable length. In the ...
-Building Fireproofing. Continued
The temperature is lowered, fresh air appears, and oxygen is rapidly taken up by the finely divided iron, each particle heating so rapidly as to give a red heat to the mass. As carbon is able to overc...
-Theatre Fireproofing
The points which, in the opinion of the Society of Arts Committee, should be attended to in the construction, etc, of theatres, may be classified as follows: - (a) Structural (including arrangements f...
-Extinguishing Compounds And Apparatus
Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, in a recent lecture, says that nothing but a self-acting or automatic system, which will operate at the right moment and at the very spot, without the intervention of any h...
-Extinguishing Compounds And Apparatus. Part 2
Now, the Parmelee sprinkler takes a considerable time to open - over two minutes usually - owing to the length of the solder seam, and the mass of metal near it; yet concerning it, Atkinson says: - ...
-Extinguishing Compounds And Apparatus. Part 3
Jolin sprinkler. Jolin sprinkler. Closely allied to the automatic sprinkler proper, is the system of sprinkling by perforated pipes through an auto-matic valve. This system, first made practic...
-Extinguishing Timber
(9) At the requisition of the Belgian Minister of Public Works, Boudin and Donny, professors at the Ghent University, have conducted a series of experiments and investigations in connection with rende...
-Ink. Black Writing Ink
A. (A) The following formula is said to have been in use in 1654, and to have produced an ink of great permanency, if one may judge from manuscript written by the person who is the authority for the f...
-Ink. Black Writing Ink. Part 2
On the exceptionally hot days of an exceptionally hot summer, when all ink dries with exceptional rapidity, it is not difficult to write somewhat more thickly than usual, and thus maintain the wetness...
-Ink. Black Writing Ink. Part 3
(Z) Dark Blue Christian Knab, Munchberg, Bavaria, makes a blue preparation good for marking trunks and boxes, because it readily combines with wood, cloth, etc., and resists the action of the weather...
-Ink Miscellaneous
Ink Powder Finely-powdered nut-galls 10 oz., sulphate of zinc (powdered) 2 oz., sulphate of iron (powdered) 4 oz., gum-arabic (powdered) 1 oz.; 1 oz. of this powder when finely sifted, added to about...
-Action Of Bleaching Agents Upon Writing Ink
It is well known that ordinary writing is easily removed when it is acted upon by bleaching agents. Advantage is taken of this fact by unscrupulous persons desirous of altering documents, cheques, and...
-Lacquers
Bottle Black Lacquer For Coating Bottles Bottles, or other glass vessels, which it is desired to make impervious to light, may be co&ted according to Ferd. Simand, with a black lacquer prepared in t...
-Gold Lacquers
(9) An imitation of Chinese gold lacquer may be prepared by melting 2 parts copal and 1 shellac until thoroughly mixed, and * adding 2 parts hot boiled oil. Then remove from the fire and gradually add...
-Japanese Lacquer (Urushi)
Urushi is the milky secretion of Rhus vernicifera, and is the material for the well-known Japanese lacquer varnish. The tree is cultivated in many parts of the country, throughout almost all latitudes...
-Japanese Lacquer (Urushi). Continued
The japanners' oven is a receptacle in which the work is placed when being heated. Usually the heat is applied by means of external flues in which hot air or steam is circulated. By this system the te...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern
(A) Cheap Lantern For Gelatine Plates The cost of this lantern is nothing, for every amateur who practises photography has the materials required - viz., a green glass bottle and a jampot of white ea...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern. Part 2
The frame or base or the lantern is a three-aided square, a little over 6f in. serous, and 13 in. long in internal measurement. It ia closed at the front and open at tbs back of the lantern. It is 2 1...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern. Part 3
Portable lantern,. Pentaphane lamp. Carrier For Slides The lantern slide carrier may sound to some a very unimportant part of the lantern outfit, yet it is the very back-bone of a successful ...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern. Part 4
The most powerful of all is the true oxy-hydrogen jet. Here we have both gases (the oxygen and hydrogen) under a much higher pressure. The jet is so constructed that the two gases mix in the chamber o...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern. Part 5
At the bottom of the lantern, and secured to the feet, is a tray-holder of sheet-iron; in this slides the bottom tray, measuring 3 1/2 in. by 8 1/2 in., and shown at Fig. 66. Halfway up is another tra...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern. Part 6
The 3 1/4 in. plate is now clipped in the block, and dropped carefully into the opening over the negative, and after exposure is lifted out in the same way, so that any number of exposures may be made...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern. Part 7
Making The requisites of a good lantern picture are: - (a) Artistic composition, the arranging of the subject in such a manner that as the eye wanders over it its beauties continue to grow, and the i...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern. Part 8
(6) After your negatives are dry, the next step is to make a lantern transparency from them. The method is very simple. A 3 1/4 by 3 1/4 gelatino-bromide plate is exposed behind the negative to the li...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern. Part 9
From this positive a relief is produced, in which these white spots will be raised ones, and can, therefore, be cut down before the tinfoil is applied. This process has the further advantage that th...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern. Part 10
Having thus given a short outline of the old-fashioned albumen process, we shall proceed with the details of the present system of working. In the first place, we commence with the preparation of the ...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern. Part 11
Printing the transparencies may be effected either in the camera or by superposition, the latter being the method usually followed; but if the negatives be a different size to that of the required sli...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern. Part 12
To A. L. Henderson is due the credit of proposing the addition of 1/3 acetate to 1/3 each of the citrate and chloride salts. From some experiments he exhibited, I at once thought he had found a proces...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern. Part 13
For these plates any one can easily make a temporary drying-box by standing the racks on a shelf in the firegrate, and covering a thick cloth over the front of the fireplace in the same way as a sweep...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern. Part 14
My troubles began in slide painting in making a sufficiently fine outline; and this is how I overcame this difficulty, and hit upon a plan at once as good, if not better, than that given by Dal linger...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern. Part 15
This applies also to a grass lawn or meadow. All that will be required for the trunk of a tree will be to warm it up with burnt sienna, well thinned. (J. J. Houston.) (of) When preparing photographic...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern. Part 16
The most important piece of work in the painting of a lantern landscape being the sky, I close this article by describing how it is done, premising that I do all my painting upon a retouching desk, wh...
-Magic Lanterns. The Lantern. Part 17
Dabbers. Do not leave large spaces in between, end let the strip they are painted on be of a good length, so as to give greater variety. Have a thin piece of wood fined to the end of the strip, to...
-Batteries
The great fault is rather a misdirection than a lack of energy, which often seems to be due to an entire ignorance of, or failure to grasp, fundamental principles, and consequently both time and money...
-Batteries. Part 2
Zinc can only combine with sulphuric acid by liberating an equivalent amount (chemically speaking) of hydrogen - thus Zn + H2S04 = ZnS04 + H2 , and just as zinc gives up energy and generates an electr...
-Batteries. Part 3
The statements which have been recently made in the daily papers as to the effects produced by the use of primary batteries in lighting railway carriages have brought many queries, not a few from pers...
-Batteries. Part 4
At the price named it would be too costly for lighting on the large scale; but there are very many persons who would go to the expense of fitting up the battery and the lamp if they could have a light...
-Batteries. Part 5
It will likewise find an application in laboratories, where the bichromate pile is in much demand because of its powerful qualities, and where it is often necessary to control it from quite a distant ...
-Batteries. Part 6
When water is poured in to make up for evaporation, the equilibrium of the fluids is not disturbed. The deposit on the zinc thus protected is easily removable, requiring no hacking or scraping. One zi...
-Batteries. Part 7
being so pivoted that they can swing round when the cells require to be taken out of their compartments. In Fig. 81 will be seen 3 of the 6 pipes leading from battery box into chimney Z, which ought t...
-Batteries. Part 8
It is as well to mention that before turning gas on to battery, if all the cells are connected in parallel and coupled to eight 1/2-gal. Bunsens grouped in series of two for aboutl0-20 minutes,dischar...
-Kousmine Battery
By making use of the phenomenon of diffusion, Kousmine has succeeded in overcoming the increase in internal resistance of the bichromate ot potash battery due to the formation or crystals on the posit...
-Kousmine Battery. Part 2
Constructed under these conditions, in which the depolarising material rests on a plate, or, better still, at the bottom of a metal jar, is the most handy form for numerous purposes. The use of agglom...
-Kousmine Battery. Part 3
The latter require to be remounted every 2 days, and do not give nearly inch a constant cu rrent, thus causing numerous troubles. These iron batteries have the remarkable property of being able to giv...
-Kousmine Battery. Part 4
Badiguet's Batteries with two liquids, that is to say, with bichromate and carbon, with acidulated water in the external vessel and zinc in the porous one, have the great advantage of much diminishin...
-Renard Battery
Renard batteries belong to the chromic depolarising class, in which free chromic acid and hydrochloric acid, more or less diluted or mixed with sulphuric acid, are used. Each element consists of a cyl...
-Renard Battery. Part 2
If it is desired to exhaust the battery in a very short time, the local action, which is proportional to the time, will have a very slight influence, but the electrical rendering will be feeble, as th...
-Renard Battery. Part 3
For cheapness and handiness, glass tumblers or drinking glasses with what are known as well bottoms (fig. 9T) would make up very handy cells tor experimental purposes. Farther experiments led to a ...
-Skrivanof Battery
This is simply a chloride of silver cell, with caustic potash instead of chloride of zinc. Two of the cells, contained in ebonite cases buckled to the belt of the performer, keep a star light going, a...
-Weymersch Battery
The standard size consists of a rectangular trough of ebonite or wood, 9 1/2 in. by 11 in. by 13 3/4 in., divided into 6 cells by means of ebonite partitions. In each cell is firmly fixed a porous pot...
-Battery Carbons
Max Nitsche-Niesky recommends the following: Good coke is ground and mixed with coal-tar to a stiff dough, and pressed into moulds made of iron and brass. After drying for a few days in a closed place...
-Commutators
(a) Fig. 106 represents a small, practical apparatus by Salomon. It is designed to open and close a circuit successively by one and the same manoeuvre, and is particularly applicable to the lighting a...
-Galvanometer
To every worker in physics or electricity a good and reliable galvanometer is a prime necessity; but the prices asked for such by instrument makers often constrain one to get along with some rude and ...
-Lamps
(a) A very good form of lamp can be made of a 3 neck globe, to be procured at the chemical apparatus shops, in the shape of Fig. 112: a is the globe and 6 two of the necks, which should be fitted with...
-Microphone
Fig. 117 is a microphone which any person who has the construct for himself. The vibrating plate A consists simply of a visiting-card of medium thickness cut much better than round, as the latter, alt...
-Motors
It is generally understood that an efficient electric motor cannot be made without the use of machinery and fine tools. It is also believed that the expense of patterns, castings, and materials of var...
-Motors. Continued
The wooden block F, on which the magnet is formed, is secured to a base board O, as shown in Fig. 122, and grooves are made in the edges of the clock, and corresponding holes are formed in the base to...
-Phonogram And Grapho-Phone
From the researches of a number of experimenters with the phonograph, it appears that: (1) The embossing point should be abandoned for a process of engraving - that is to say, instead of pressing the...
-Regulators
An ingenious electric regulator, which is so simple that any amateur can construct it, and that, too, at little eipense, has keen devised by C. Pollak. A few small pieces of wood, some brass, and 4 wi...
-Regulators. Part 2
After once being well charged, 4-6 cells of sulphate of copper battery will recharge it. - (Jl of the Telegraph.) Referring to the main objection in storage batteries - that storage involves a loss o...
-Regulators. Part 3
Hence it may be fairly hoped to overcome and restrain all exuberances by suitable clamps and guides arranged so as to permit flat and even growth, but to check all lateral warpings and excrescences. ...
-Regulators. Part 4
In the present glass boxes properly arranged on accessible shelves, with only plugs or studs between the plates, clear vision through the cell in any direction is easy, and accidental obstruction not ...
-Telephones
(a) A good working telephone may be made as follows: - Make 2 tin drums 6 in. oximeter and 4 in. deep. They should have a heavy wire formed in same as 1/2 gal. cup. The wire should not be less then No...
-Welding
(a) The history of electric welding extends over a much longer period of time than is generally supposed. Some years ago, Prof. Elihu Thomson, among experiments by which he intended to prove the subst...
-Welding. Continued
After they are prepared in this manner they have to be reheated to a welding temperature, placed under a steam hammer and welded, this last operation requiring 30-40 minutes. (0. K. Stewart.) (6) Alt...
-Metals
Wrought iron. Cast iron. Malleable iron. Wrought copper Cast copper. Tin. Zinc. Antimony. Cobalt. Nickel. Bismuth. Electric welding apparatus. Aluminium. Silver. Platinum. Gold (pure). Man...
-Metals. Part 2
The indirect method of distribution is almost exclusively used to-day. It alternating current dynamo, self or separately eicited, and one welder that is a transformer, with the necessary clamping and ...
-Metals. Part 3
2. E.M.F. of welding current as controlling the strength of current flowing. 3. End pressure applied to force the abutting ends into each other at welding heat. 5. Interruption of current at proper ...
-Metals. Part 4
It has been found that the best form of transformer is the one in which the primary and secondary coils are eo-axially placed on nn iron core, so as to oblige all lines of force generated by the forme...
-Metals. Part 5
If, by imprudence, the switch should be moved to the right while no stock is inserted and the clamps in contact with each other, the switch cannot be locked, and the fuse in primary will be blown, wit...
-Metals. Part 6
Even a pretty thick layer of oxide will be reduced and drop off, while smaller quantities of oxide unite to form a slag with the sandy clay frequently added as a flux. This slag prevents the oxidation...
-Metals. Part 7
The iron melts like wax; but the action seems too powerful, the molten metal hissing and evaporating distinctly. In such a case one of the 3 parallel groups is rut out. Should the action then be too s...
-Metals. Part 8
It has been said, above, that the materials undergo little chemical change under this treatment. The question seems very important for iron, whose behaviour is so remarkably influenced by slight varia...
-Wire Insulating
(A) A new method of insulating electric wires has recently been adopted in Germany Paper is first of all prepared by soaking in an ammoniacal solution of copper, a process which confers upou the paper...
-Metal Work. Brozes
(a) - Before a work of art can be cast in bronze, it must be in existence in some other material, and it may not be altogether superfluous to describe briefly the various stages an article must pass b...
-Metal Work. Brozes. Part 2
There are two principles whereby artistic bronzes may be produced. The one is that known as piece moulding, and is identically the same as that employed in making castings for. machinery, etc. Conti...
-Metal Work. Brozes. Part 3
The moulder then proceeds to work on the projecting portions of the model, making separate pieces so that they can be withdrawn and replaced at will. When he has made as many pieces as his judgment te...
-Metal Work. Brozes. Part 4
If, when the crucible is quite cool, you find it also quite clean, without any residue, you may be sure that your wax is good, and that the pigment used is perfectly safe. Having prepared the wax, an...
-Metal Work. Brozes. Part 5
It is, therefore, usual to have more vents than jets, and they should be so placed that wherever there is a bell or pocket formed by the configuration of the mould in which the air might be imprisoned...
-Metal Work. Brozes. Part 6
The materials mixed with it are fire-clay (burnt and ground to an impalpable powder), emery, rotten-stone, hammerscale, etc, etc, the only object being to obtain a very fine and fire-resisting powder....
-Metal Work. Brozes. Part 7
The metal most suitable for artistic work is an alloy of copper and tin, either with or without the addition of zinc, lead, or both. The mixture used by the Kellers was, copper 91.4; zinc 5.53; tin 1 ...
-Metal Work. Brozes. Part 8
The green patina on statues is usually given by some acid or salt, sal ammoniac being generally used. The surface is scratchbrushed and cleaned off as perfectly as possible, to get off every particle ...
-Metal Work. Brozes. Part 9
Many castings are liable to be spoiled through deficiency of metal; this can always be obviated by taking a known bulk or weight of modelling wax for the work, and weighing the remainder after the wor...
-Metal Work. Brozes. Part 10
In the plate of light brown bronze (Fig. 201), which presents the simplest possible case, there is no attempt at a raised surface; the artist has simply taken a plate of bronze, 8 1/2 in. diameter, he...
-Metal Work. Brozes. Part 11
Japanese alloys. Japanese bead. The lobster red of the Japanese is, I believe, not a product of pickling at all, but is cuprous oxide, formed by heating capper in air (it may be in air and ste...
-Copper Welding
The art of welding copper was well known to the ancients; but the secret by which two pieces of copper can be joined so as to present as perfect a union as that made in welding iron was by some accide...
-Enamels For Iron And Other Metals
When the enamel becomes separated from the metal, or when the iron bends away from the enamelled side, i.e., when the contraction of the enamel on cooling, is less than that of the iron, one of the fo...
-Gold Beating
The rough gold is put into a stone crucible, melted, and poured into a mould which gives it the right width for rolling. About 5 oz. of gold is generally moulded at a time. It is then run through roll...
-Gold Beating. Part 2
In the case of a thin shallow casting, soft ramming at the surface is of more importance than in a deeper one, because in the former case there is little counter pressure exerted by the metal tending ...
-Gold Beating. Part 3
Again, for pressing down or pinning the joint edges of moulds, and so preventing crushing, the trowel is always used, as it is for scraping out core prints when too small for their cores, and for ...
-Smiths' Work
Though none but a professional smith could hope to undertake elaborate works in wrought iron and steel, yet many simple jobs can be done with a very moderate amount of practice, such as the bending, d...
-Smiths' Work. Part 2
Smiths' tools. There is also the tuyere or tue iron to be considered, its function being the conveying of the blast to the fire. The nose of a tuyere would rapidly burn away, and does inevitably b...
-Smiths' Work. Part 3
These gouges or hollow sets are struck by the sledge, the smith holding the tool by the withy handles, while the striker directs his blows on the head. The bevel is either inside or outside; and ...
-Smiths' Work. Part 4
Then the blast is put on, and the heat is enclosed and intensified around the bar. The bar, especially if large, is to be turned partly round ill the fire now and again to equalise the heat, the blast...
-Smiths' Work. Part 5
It is easy to see how a difference in relative proportions would modify the method of making which ought to be adopted, and since our connecting rod is selected, not as of any particular size, but ill...
-Smiths' Work. Part 6
When doing forging, it is necessary to take measurements rapidly - not an easy task with hot iron. Hence, gauges notched to different sizes are made of sheet iron, say 1/8 in. thick, the size of each ...
-Rust Removers
(1) Cover the metal with sweet oil, well rubbed in, and allow to stand for 48 hours; smear with oil applied freely with a feather or piece of cotton wool after rubbing the steel. Then rub with unslake...
-Eggs
(1) Buy boxes from the grocer at Is. a dozen and pack in meadow hay. Procure a suitable size box, fill with hay, press down tightly, then makes holes with two fingers and thumb of the right hand, and ...
-Eggs. Continued
(12) A very good type of box for sending eggs by post or rail is made of stout brown cardboard, strengthened with linen at the corners and at the joining of the top and bottom with the sides, and the ...
-Fercolation
Fig. 263 shows an arrangement suggested by Ungerer for the process of re-percolatien. A number of percolators a b are placed on a suitable stand, one above the other, so that the tube of one percolato...
-Preserving Books
In certain parts of China, the British Consul at Swatow observes, books are extremely liable to be attacked by insects. They first destroy the glue used in the backs of books, and gradually perforate ...
-Distilled Water
In the first place, contrary to the general opinion, condensed steam does not always furnish pure distilled water. The drip from the cylinders of steam engines is never fit for use, not being half so ...
-Distilled Water. Part 2
It is quite possible that a strong, healthy infant, taking 1 qt. of milk daily might absorb as much as 20-25 gr. in that time, having regard to the likelihood of the minimum amounts mentioned being ex...
-Distilled Water. Part 3
I therefore hold that vendors of foods containing boracic acid compounds commit offences under the 3rd and the 6th Sections of the Act of 1875, and the 2nd Section of the Amended Act of 1879. Whether ...
-Distilled Water. Part 4
The absolute quantity may not be sufficient to show itself palpably upon a body weighing, say, 1 1/2 cwt., but it must be there all the same. The Comite Consultatif d'Hygiene Publique of France repor...
-Fruit Candying
Leghorn occupies the first place in Italy, and perhaps throughout the Mediterranean, for the preparation of candied citron and orange peel. Citron is brought for this purpose from Corsica, from Sicily...
-Preserving Plants
Dried Plants Dried plants are apt to be destroyed by insects, and large collections would soon become the prey of the larvae of Anobium, Ptinus, etc, were not the precaution taken to protect them aga...
-Preserving Fruits
A collection of fruits is the indispensable complement of the herbarium. To render work easier it is as well to place it as near the latter as possible. After well washing the freshly-gathered fruits...
-Wood Preservation
Specimens of woods should be kept in a separate room from that of the herbarium. They usually contain numerous insects' eggs, and, from timeto time, they should be put into the sulphide of carbon box....
-Corrosion And Protection Of Metal Surfaces
Some substances are applicable to the preservation of most metallic surfaces, and may therefore be mentioned before dealing with those which can be applied only with discrimination. Such may be said t...
-Copper Corrosion
The corrosion of copper by oxidation on exposure to the air takes place very slowly, the metal becoming soon coated with a skin of carbonate commonly called verdigris, though that name is correctly ...
-Iron And Steel Corrosion
The different varieties of iron and steel will not oxidise (rust) in. dry. air, or when wholly immersed in fresh water free from air, but they all do so when exposed to the action of water or moisture...
-Iron And Steel Corrosion. Part 2
If the latter has begun, it promotes its own further formation, as rust, like other porous bodies, absorbs gases and therefore takes up moisture and acids from the air. Besides, where rusting has alre...
-Iron And Steel Corrosion. Part 3
The sheets are, generally galvanised before they are corrugated; but as in process of corrugation the sheets, especially the thicker ones, sometimes crack slightly on the surface (unless the iron is o...
-Iron And Steel Corrosion. Part 4
(8) The results of some experiments on the preservation of sheet-iron used in railroad bridges have been published by the directory of the Government railroads of the Netherlands. From 32 sheets half ...
-Iron And Steel Corrosion. Part 5
If the coating is to serve only for a short time, instead of calcined magnesia, the same quantities of burnt lime, marble, or dolomite may be used. For packing and covering iron articles, such as wire...
-Iron And Steel Corrosion. Part 6
(13) The iron is subjected to the action of dilute hydrochloric acid, which dissolves the iron, and leaves on the surface a pellicle of homogeneous graphite, which adheres well to the surface of the i...
-Iron And Steel Corrosion. Part 7
As to the pressure of steam in the boiler, 40 lb. is the extreme; but they are obliged to use considerable force to effect the double object of keeping out atmospheric air and to efficiently oxidise t...
-Iron And Steel Corrosion. Part 8
Hence the direction for the use of light shavings instead of any other means of heating. (Gas Light Journal) (19) Crace Calvert some years ago drew attention to the fact that steel after immersion in...
-Iron And Steel Corrosion. Part 9
If a white sediment forms in the solution, the sample should be at once rejected. In the application of a preservative coating to iron, Prof. Lewes directs, first, thorough scraping and scrubbing fro...
-Iron And Steel Corrosion. Part 10
(24) Some machinery makers use a kind of thin black japan for preserving the brightness of polished parts. Some months ago the writer was in several works of Lancashire tool makers, and noticed this b...
-Lead Poisoning
Soft water, especially when full of air, or when containing organic matter, acts upon lead in such a way that some of it is taken up in solution, and the water is poisoned. Vitiated or impure air acts...
-How to Prevent Silver Tarnishing
(1) To prevent silverware from tarnishing, it is only necessary to brush it over with alcohol in which a little collodion has been dissolved. It dries immediately, leaving a thin transparent invisible...
-Siphons and Pumps
Pumps. Acid. - Although this device, in slightly different forms, has been in use for some time, yet the convenience of the modification shown in Fig. 269 may render it worthy of description. ABC are ...
-Siphon Arrangements
(a) The following arrangement of siphon is little known, though used at various times, and for various purposes, the last 20 years. It simply consists in having the ends of an equal legged siphon bent...
-Siphon Arrangements. Part 2
The apparatus (Fig. 277 ) consists of an elbowed pipe C A B D E of galvanised iron, 'whose extremity 0 communicates with the outlet R, where it is fixed by means of a piece of rubber of peculiar form ...
-Siphon Arrangements. Part 3
The latter once empty, the siphon will be unprimed, and will reprime itself a few hours later. The instant of unpriming, and consequently the level of the water remaining in the pond, is fully under t...
-Waterproofing Boots
(10) 1 part ozokerit in 2 parts castor oil, and 1 part lamp-black added, makes an excellent application, as the boots will take a thin polish after. (11) Salad oil 1 pint, mutton suet 4 oz., white wax...
-Waterproofing Woollen Goods
What is asserted to be an effective process for waterproofing woollen goods has come into use among German manufactures, the cloth in this case gaining considerably in weight, and, though perfectly wa...
-Glass Manipulating
Breaking (b) In breaking a glass tube, e.g., a combustion-tube, a small scratch is made with a file at the required place. At each side of this scratch, and about 1-2 mm. away from it, a small roll o...
-Cutting Glass
(3) To cut glass jars, fill the jar with lard-oil to where you want to cut the jar; then heat an iron rod or bar to red heat, immerse it in the oil; the unequal expansion will crack the jar all round ...
-Drilling Glass
(5) Glass may be readily drilled by using a steel drill hardened, but not drawn at all, wet with spirits of turpentine. Run the drill fast and feed light. Grind the drill with a long point and plenty ...
-Glass Etching
(3) The process here described consists in corroding glass by violently projecting sand upon its surface by means of a current of air or steam. It is very probable that it will be found of service in ...
-Frosting Glass
(6) Verre Givre, or hoar-frost glass, an article now made in Paris, is so called from the pattern upon it, which resembles the feathery forms traced by frost on the inside of the windows in cold weath...
-Powdering Glass
Powdered glass is frequently used instead of paper, cloth, cotton or sand for filtering varnishes, acids, etc. It is not soluble or corro-dible. Sand, if purely silicious, would be better, but such sa...
-Modelling And Plaster Casting
Modelling in some plastic material is the first step in learning to execute work in more solid materials, such as wood and stone. With a plastic substance, such as clay, it is possible to correct erro...
-Plaster Casting
(1) The model (of clay or otherwise) is first covered with a layer of good plaster of Paris mixed, or gauged, as plasterers call it, to the consistence of batter, and coloured with a little red or y...
-Plaster Casting. Part 2
(5) Mending Models Sandarac varnish is the best material. Saturate the broken surfaces thoroughly, press them well together, and allow them to dry. (6) Plaster Moulds Glycerine is said to be a good...
-Plaster Casting. Part 3
The original ought to be taken out of the mould before the latter becomes perfectly cold and rigid, or it will be very difficult to extract. Next pour in plaster of Paris, after having wetted the moul...
-Plaster Casting. Part 4
The practical method of carrying this out is as follows: - A large zinc vessel is required with a tight-fitting cover. In each vessel is a grating made of strips of zinc, resting on feet 1 1/4 in. hig...
-Plaster Casting. Part 5
The proportions of lime and plaster may be varied according to the results to be obtained; nevertheless, the proportions of 1 to 6 have given the best results. As it is important that the plaster sho...
-Plaster Casting. Part 6
In the usual casting operations it is generally necessary that the mould in which the casting is made should be of less fusibility than the material cast, although there are rare cases in which this d...
-Working Details Of The Paper-Mould Process
This method well merits close study, especially as at present workmen often so far follow the traditions of their craft as to lose sight of such points of special advantage as might easily be grasped ...
-Working Details Of The Paper-Mould Process. Part 2
We may then dismiss all adhesives but flour paste, and glue; the former can be used by itself, but glue by itself is not very satisfactory. Together they give the best result, for reasons already stat...
-Working Details Of The Paper-Mould Process. Part 3
It is desirable to prepare the flong in the first instance with excess of moisture, and to allow this to evaporate spontaneously, as during this process of evaporation the paper swells and takes a pla...
-Working Details Of The Paper-Mould Process. Part 4
If the flong is very soft, the beating must not be continued until these divisions are so distinct as with normal flong, and if the flong is very hard one will only obtain sufficient relief by making ...
-Working Details Of The Paper-Mould Process. Part 5
The mould may now be laid on a hot surface to further dry, or, better still, it may be baked in a steam or gas-oven, heated to about the same temperature as the moulding press; but in any case it shou...
-Working Details Of The Paper-Mould Process. Part 6
Casting box. Stereotype gauges. The metal used for stereotyping is much the same as ordinary type metal, only, as a rule, the stereotyper is content with an alloy tending too much toward...
-Working Details Of The Paper-Mould Process. Part 7
Circular saw. Zinc hook. Shooting board. The travelling part is one with the two racks, while the double gearing and the arrangement for reversing by shifting the strap from the middle pul...
-Working Details Of The Paper-Mould Process. Part 8
It very often happens that the stereo. type requires some wort done upon lis face, such as cutting away the parts corresponding to large while surfaces, raising low parts, or sloes, or soldering in...
-Working Details Of The Paper-Mould Process. Part 9
* Commercial hydrochloric acid saturated with zinc, and when poured off from the excess of metal, is mixed with i its bulk of hydrochloric acid. Although very little care and attention on the part of...
-Working Details Of The Paper-Mould Process. Part 10
The depths are nicely rounded and the square shoulders of the type shanks show not at all, or only faintly. * Such as clean. end evenly but slightly oiled original; well united. thoroughly seasoned, ...
-Working Details Of The Paper-Mould Process. Part 11
More or less successful attempts have been made in the direction of moulding the type in a dry and spongy millboard, and casting at once - these methods being called instantaneous stereotyping process...
-Tobacco Pipes
Among the branches of industry which have been a consequence of the introduction of tobacco, the manufacture of pipes has becpme of considerable importance. Immense quantities of wood, meerschaum, chi...
-Tobacco Pipes. Part 2
When the roll reaches him, the moulder places his open mould before him, and then taking a roll, the head of which he places upon a special support, he thrusts his needle into the centre of the tail o...
-Tobacco Pipes. Part 3
The workmen who make these moulds must know how to sculpture very well, and must also possess some skill in the reproduction of complicated subjects, and know how to divide and arrange their moulds. T...
-Tobacco Pipes. Part 4
The rough blocks are packed in sacks containing 40 to 100 dozen each, and sent abroad, principally to France (St. Cloud), where they are finished into the famous G. B. D., or Pipes de Bruyere, know...
-Meerschaum
The following is a new process for preparing artificial meerschaum. Precipitates are prepared by means of a solution of soluble glass: (a) of silicate of magnesia, by precipitating it through a soluti...
-Therapeutic Smoking Pipe
This improved form of smoking pipe is introduced to notice, primarily to provide a means of combating the smoker's habit, and to do away with the injurious element in it to which its baneful effects a...
-Taps
(1) A tap simple of construction, and coating neit to nothing, consists of a cork, having a straight, cleancut hole, through which is inserted a piece of glass tubing sealed at one end, and having a s...
-Taps. Part 2
The standing and running parts of each rope must pass through the loop in the same direction, i. e. from above downwards, or vice versa. If they pass in the opposite direction the knot is termed a gra...
-Taps. Part 3
Drag rope knot H I K. This is a useful knot for attaching hand spikes to drag by. It may also be used as a ladder by securing it firmly at each end. The sheet-bend or weavers' knot A, Fig. 340. This ...
-Taps. Part 4
Splicing Wire Rope, L M N The increasing use of endless - wire rope for underground haulage, elevated wire ropeways, and for hoisting, gives importance to methods of splicing. About 84 ft. of rope i...
-Taps. Part 5
Fig. 311. The left-hand part of the half-hitch is passed under the cross rope by A, while the free end of the rope is passed as described by B. b shows this phase of the operation. In thia way two lo...
-Taps. Part 6
(l) (6)2/8 = 4 1/2ton as the maximum strain on the-.running end of the fall. Then P = 4 1/2 tons, and 6 P = R = 27 tons, as the theoretical weight. For each sheave in use we must deduct 1/10 of 27,...
-Velocipedes. Repairs
Bent Handle Bar This is one of the most common accidents which happens to a bicyclist, and is also one of the most easily remedied. If the handle bar is badly bent, turn the machine upside down, so t...
-Repairing Books
Bookbinding has been already described in vol. iv. pp. 228-267. Cloth-bound books, that is, books which have been sent out by the publisher in cloth cases, by reason of the demand for cheap books, ar...
-Netting
(1) The tools employed in netting are exceedingly simple, and can, in case of necessity, be made by any person with the aid of an ordinary pocket-knife and some pieces of hard wood. The most important...
-Netting. Part 2
On looking at the knot, it will be seen that it can be securely tightened by pulling the end o, which bites the end a securely; whereas if a is pulled it slips under 6 without biting. The above expla...
-Netting. Part 3
Netting on to a row of loops is done with much greater facility than netting on a foundation cord,,and should be practised by the learner in the first instance, if he can obtain a teacher to net a few...
-Netting. Part 4
This simple knot is the foundation of all net-making, and once succeed in that and you will very soon be able to manufacture almost anything. Slip out the mesh stick and take the same stick through th...
-Netting. Part 5
In order to make the angle neater, the spool should be withdrawn before the last knot is tightened, so that the last loop is made to come into the angle; and the first knot should be untied, and the l...
-Walking Sticks
(1) At the present time there is, comparatively speaking, no limit to the material that can be turned to account for the purpose of walking and umbrella stick making; indeed there is always a keen loo...
-Walking Sticks. Part 2
Ivory, horns of all kinds, rhinoceros, buffalo, stag, seahorse, walrus tusks, etc, are also largely used. In enumerating the materials used in the manufacture of walking sticks it has been thought be...
-Walking Sticks. Part 3
Briar This is also the produce of a West Indian tree (Zanthoxylum Claot-Herculti), the bark of which is tubsrcu-lated, or warted, for which reason it is valued for walking sticks. They are imported f...
-Walking Sticks. Part 4
Guelder Rose (Viburnum Opulus) The sticks from this well-known shrub are very attractive when dressed and polished. The bark which covers them is of a rich brown, thickly marked with white lines. The...
-Walking Sticks. Part 5
Pomegranate (Punica Granatum) These sticks come mostly from Algeria, where they are specially cultivated. Rajah Cane This favourite stick has been known in commerce for some 20 years or more. It is...
-Walking Sticks. Part 6
Its congener, the whitethorn, or hawthorn, is not so suitable for walking-sticks, being more brittle and less durable. Among fruit trees, the cherry will furnish some very nice fancy sticks, supple, ...
-Boat Building
(a) The first thing to be done is to design the boat intended to be built, and draw a plan similar to that represented by Fig. 351 A. The designs must now be drawn upon a floor fall size, from which m...
-Boat Building. Continued
A sail - presumably a lugsail - of best duck will cost about 1s. 4d. per sq. yd.; but if the builder desires to make it himself - a difficult and delicate task - good duck can be purchased for 9d. per...
-Anemometebs
(a) Fig. 353 is a simple anemometer that anyone can make: a is the pressure-plate, exactly 6 in. square, made of galvanised iron and fastened to the pillar of a 10 lb. spring balance b; the cylinder o...
-Measuring Angles
A simple means of measuring angles is shown in Fig. 357. The board a usually of deal, which should be about 15 in. square, underneath it has screwed on to it in the centre a brass boss, which fits int...
-Barometers
(1) To make a cheap. Obtain a straight fine glass tube, about 33 in. long, and with a clean interior, sealed at one end, and having an even uniform bore of about 2 1/2 lines diameter. The mercury to b...
-Barometers. Part 2
Exhausting barometer tubes. The air is now exhausted through /; the mercury rises in 6 and g until c is partially filled; a Bunsen burner is placed under c and the mercury distils over into g and flo...
-Barometers. Part 3
The 3 small brass clasps c, provided for attaching the tube to its support, may be readily cut from sheet-brass, polished, bent to shape, and drilled with a hole in each end to receive the appropriate...
-Barometers. Part 4
The plug is then to be reinserted and glued in place. The stand (which it is well to make and fit to the tube before the latter is filled) is shown in Fig. 364. It may be of walnut, mahogany, or cher...
-Barometers. Part 5
The fact that the manufacturers have hermetically sealed the top of the tubes fortunately assists in an investigation of the cause of the instrument's action, for it is evident at once that the conten...
-Barometers. Part 6
I observed the instrument three times a day during the whole summer and autumn of 1881, and there was never an increase in the height of the precipitate without a corresponding fall of temperature, or...
-Barometers. Part 7
Glycerine barometer. It will now be seen that it is desirable to eliminate from the reading of the barometer scale the effect due to a change in temperature. Simultaneously observe the reading of ...
-Camera Lucida
(1) The camera lucida is an apparatus which renders great services to landscape painters by permitting them to see upon their canvass or drawing-paper the landscape that they wish to reproduce, and to...
-Dendrometer
There are various methods of ascertaining the heights of trees, all more or leas mlisfactory; but the aim pleat and moat efficient contrivance that has parallel line* are drawn at right angles to the ...
-Electric Gas Lighting. Electric Gas Igniting Apparatus Including The Jump Spark And Multiple Systems
FOR USE IN Houses, Churches, Theatres, Halls, Schools, Stores, or any large building. Also the care and selection of suitable Batteries, Wiring and Repairs By H. S. NORRIE. {Author of Induction Coil...
-How To Run Engines And Boilers
New Edition With a Section on Water Tube Boilers. Practical Instruction for Young Engineers and Steam Users. By EGBERT POMEROY WATSON. Synopsis of Contents. Cleaning the boiler, removing scale, sca...
-The Fireman's Guide
A Handbook on the Care and Management o Boilers. By KARL P. DAHLSTROM, M.E. Contents of Chapters. I. Firing and Economy of Fuel, - Precautions before and after starting the fire. care, of the fire, ...
-Theoretical And Practical Ammonia Refrigeration
A Work of Reference for Engineers and others Employed in the Management of Ice and Refrigeration Machinery, BY ILTYD I. REDWOOD, Assoc, Mem. Am. Soc. of M. E.; Mem. Soc. Chem. Indus. Eng. CONTENTS. ...
-Spon & Chamberlain Practical Handbooks. The Slide Valve Simply Explained
By W. J. TENNANT, Asso. M. Inst. Mech. E. The work has been thoroughly revised and enlarged in accordance with the present American Practice. By J. H. KINEALY, D. E., M. Am. Soc Mech. E. The work i...
-ABC Of The Steam Engine With A Description of The Automatic Shaft Governor
By JAP lisk, m.e, WITH SIX LARGE SCALE DRAWINGS. A practical hand-book for Firemen Helpers and Young Engineers, giving a set of detail drawings all numbered and lettered and with names and particular...
-Authorized American Edition Of Polyphase Electric Currents And Alternate-Current Motors
By S. P. THOMPSON, D.Sc, B.A., F.S S. Second and Enlarged Edition, with Twenty-four Colored Illus trations and Eight Folding Plates. Contents of Chapters. I. Alternating Currents in General. II. P...
-Small Accumulators. How Made And Used
An Elementary Handbook for the Use of Amateurs and Students. By PERCIYAL MARSHALL, A.I.M.E- Contents of Chapters. I. - The Theory of the Accumulator. II. - How to make a 4-Volt Pocket Accumulator. I...
-Workshop Books
Bent Iron Work. How to 'Imitate Mediaeval and Italian Wrought Iron Work. Illustrated. By F. J. Erskine. 1s., by post 1s. 2d. Bookbinding for Amateurs. How to Bind Books and Pamphlets. Illustrated. By...









TOP
previous page: American Library Edition Of Workshop Receipts Vol4| by Ernest Spon
  
page up: Mechanics and Engineering Books
  
next page: Spons' Mechanics' Own Book: A Manual For Handicraftsmen And Amateurs | by Edward Spon