books



previous page: The Tinman's Manual And Builder's And Mechanic's Handbook | by Isaac Ridler Butt
  
page up: Metalwork Books
  
next page: Welding Theory, Practice, Apparatus And Tests Electric, Thermit And Hot-Flame Processes | by Richard N. Hart

Notes On Construction In Mild Steel | by Henry Fidler



Arranged for the use of junior draughtsmen in the architectural and engineering professions with illustrations from working drawings, diagrams, and tables.

TitleNotes On Construction In Mild Steel
AuthorHenry Fidler
PublisherLongmans, Green, And Co.
Year1907
Copyright1907, Longmans, Green, And Co.
AmazonNotes On Construction In Mild Steel

By Henry Fidler, M.I.C.E. Author Of The Article On "Dockyards" In The "Encyclopaedia Britannica, And Editor Of " Notes On Building Construction"

Notes On Construction In Mild Steel 1
-Preface
In the collection of Notes on Mild Steel and Constructional Steelwork, which form the contents of the present volume, no attempt has been made to treat the subject from the point of view of Applied ...
-Chapter I. Mild Steel: Its Manufacture, Physical And Chemical Qualities
General remarks - General appellation of mild steel - Influence of small percentages of carbon - Tabular statement showing the approximate percentages of carbon and approximate ultimate tensile stre...
-Influence Of Carbon
The ordinary steel of commerce is carbon-steel; in other words, the distinctive features of two different grades are due for the most part to variations in carbon rather than to differences in other...
-Influence Of Silicon
The contradictory testimony concerning the effect of silicon on steel has been well summarized by Mr. Howe,2 who records many examples of exceptional steels with 1 Campbell, Manufacture and Propert...
-Influence Of Phosphorus
Of all the elements that are commonly found in steel, phosphorus stands pre-eminent as the most undesirable. It is objectionable in the rolling mill, for it tends to produce coarse crystallization, a...
-Influence Of Sulphur
Nothing is better established than the fact that sulphur injures the rolling qualities of steel, causing it to crack and tear, and lessening its capacity to weld. This tendency can be overcome in som...
-Influence Of Copper
Steel may contain up to 1 per cent, of copper without being seriously affected, but if at the same time the sulphur is high, say 0.08 to 0.10 per cent., the cumulative effect is too great for molecul...
-Influence Of Aluminium
Experiments by Hadfield quoted by Campbell show that after making allowances for the variations in other elements, it will be found that the aluminium has little effect upon the tensile strength, whi...
-Influence Of Arsenic
The effect of arsenic upon steel was quite fully investigated several years ago by Harbord and Tucker. The conclusions given by them may be summarized as follows: - Arsenic, in percentages not exc...
-Influence Of Arsenic. Part 2
The following formulae give the ultimate strength of acid and basic open-hearth steel in terms of their principal chemical constituents, where C = 100 X per centage of carbon, P = 100 X per centage of...
-Influence Of Arsenic. Part 3
For a given percentage of phosphorus in the finished product, it follows therefore that the original stock must contain no more phosphorus than that allowed at the finish. This implies the use of pra...
-Rivets
Pieces of rivet steel, heated uniformly to a low cherry red, and cooled in water of 82 Fahrenheit, must stand bending double in a press to a curve of which the inner diameter is equal to the diam...
-Bolts And Nuts
Pieces cut from a bar, heated uniformly to a low cherry red and cooled in water at 80 Fahrenheit, must stand bending in a press to a curve of which the inner radius is equal to the radius of the ...
-Beams, Angles, Channels, Tees, Etc
Strips cut lengthwise, 1 in. wide, heated uniformly to a low cherry red and cooled in water of about 80 Fahrenheit, must stand bending double in a press to a curve of which the inner radius is o...
-Plates
Strips cut lengthwise or crosswise, 1 inch wide, heated uniformly to a low cherry red, and cooled in water of about 80 Fahrenheit, must stand bending double in a press to a curve of which the in...
-Steel Castings
Steel castings to be sound, true, and clean, and free from honeycomb. Pieces of 1 inch square, taken from each cast or blow of steel, to have a breaking strain of 26 tons per square inch, with an elo...
-Chemical Analysis
Reference has already been made to the relation between the chemical constitution and the mechanical properties of mild steel, the difficulties surrounding the problem of ascertaining exactly what tha...
-Chemical Analysis. Part 2
Elongation, 27.0 per cent, in 8 inches. Crossways, Ultimate strength, 28.8 tons per square inch. Elongation, 24.0 per cent, in 8 inches. 18. Chemical Analysis Of A Sample Representing Thick ...
-Chemical Analysis. Part 3
The following remarks contained in the presidential address of the Iron and Steel Institute for 19011 are suggestive as to the possible issue in the near future not only of the competition at present ...
-Cast Steel
This most valuable material has of late years come into prominent use in a variety of forms, although in ordinary building construction the expense attending its adoption has been, and still is, the p...
-Cast Steel. Continued
The annealing of steel castings is frequently adopted, the castings being re-heated in a specially constructed furnace, and allowed to cool gradually for certain specified periods. All the tests enume...
-Table No. 21. The Transverse Strength Of Cast-Steel Bars
The bars were of the nominal dimensions of 2 x 1, planed all over, the load being applied at the centre of the specimen, and the greater dimension of the bar being vertical. Distance between support...
-Table No. 22. The Transverse Strength Of Cast-Iron Test-Bars Loaded At The Centre, On Supports 36 Inches Apart
Nominal size of bar, 2 inches deep x 1 inch wide. No. of Test. Actual dimensions of test-bar as cast. Inches. Actual breaking load at centre. Pounds. Deflection at fracture. I...
-Chapter II. Rolled Sections In Steel And Their Mechanical Elements, With General Remarks On Their Uses And Combinations
Angles - Equal-legged - Unequal-legged - Round-backed - Acute-angled - Obtuse-angled - Bulb-angles - British standard sections - Table of the principal mechanical elements of equal-legged angles; of u...
-Angles
The angle-steel, or, to use the older nomenclature, the angle-iron, is perhaps the most commonly in use among all those sections of material which go to make up riveted work. It may be equal-legged,...
-Angles. Continued
The following tables give the dimensions, weight per foot run, sectional area, moments of inertia, and least radii of gyration for equal-legged, unequal-legged, and bulb-angles in steel: - (See Fig. ...
-Tees
The tee-steel, or tee-iron, ranks perhaps next to the angle in general utility. Its general form is shown in Fig. 11. The proportions of top table to stem or web are very variable, and the error of m...
-Bulb Tees
A tee section with a bulb rolled on the lower extremity of the stem constitutes the useful section known as bulb tee or deck beam. This section is used to a considerable extent in shipbuilding, an...
-Rolled Joists
This well-known, most useful, and deservedly popular section is shown in Fig. 13. The web is most commonly rolled with parallel sides, the flanges being tapered, and connected to the web with roundin...
-Channels
This section is represented in Fig. 14. The web is rolled with parallel sides, the flanges are tapered and connected to the web with rounded internal angles, and this is the type of the British standa...
-Zed Angles
This useful section is shown in Fig. 15. It is largely used in the frames of ship and caisson work, having a considerable moment of inertia for its weight, as compared with angles or tees, with ample ...
-Chapter III. Upon Certain Applications Of Riveted Girderwork, With Some Remarks Upon Rivets And Rivet-Holes
General remarks - Examples of various types of girderwork - Remarks upon the design of riveted connections - Fundamental rules and the study of good examples - The making of rivet-holes - Punching and...
-Upon Certain Applications Of Riveted Girderwork, With Some Remarks Upon Rivets And Rivet-Holes. Part 2
The fundamental rules which, after the proper determination of the mechanical elements of the strength of the joint has been made, will govern the general design are: the grouping of the assemblage of...
-Applications Of Riveted Girderwork, With Some Remarks Upon Rivets And Rivet-Holes. Part 3
In punched work the holes in each individual plate or bar are punched separately, and this is also the case with drilled work, except in the special cases above mentioned. It is, therefore, in the ass...
-Girderwork As Applied To Bridge Construction
It is obviously impossible in a collection of notes such as the present to deal even in the most elementary manner with the details of bridge construction in steel. The subject is one of immense exten...
-Girderwork As Applied To Bridge Construction. Part 2
The general levels of the work in the vicinity of the viaduct did not permit of any greater headway above high-water mark and the underside of the main or cross-girders than that shown in Fig. 34. ...
-Girderwork As Applied To Bridge Construction. Part 3
The floor of the viaduct is carried by fish-bellied cross-girders, as shown in Fig. 34, spaced 5 feet apart, as in Fig. 33. The section of these girders is shown in Figs. 44, 52, and 54. The connectio...
-Girderwork As Applied To Bridge Construction. Part 4
The loads lifted by these cranes are of all degrees of magnitude, varying from a few hundredweights up to the loads of 100 tons or even more, found in steel foundries, gun-making establishments, boile...
-Girderwork As Applied To Bridge Construction. Part 5
In some cases two travelling cranes of equal power may be temporarily coupled together to lift a load equal to twice the load lifted by one traveller alone. In this case the disposition and spacing, a...
-Girderwork As Applied To Bridge Construction. Part 6
The section of rail employed is usually either a bridge rail, as in Fig. 245, or a flat-footed rail, as in Figs. 59, 60, 61, 62, 63. The former section has possibly greater stability under the lateral...
-Girderwork As Applied To Bridge Construction. Part 7
It frequently happens, in cases where a traveller road has to be supported on one side on a row of columns and on the other side by a wall, that on the wall side special arrangements of girders to car...
-Lattice Girderwork For Roofing
As an example of this application of girderwork, details will now be given of a lattice girder of 53' span supporting a series of roof principals, the details of these principals being given in Figs. ...
-Applications Of Riveted Girderwork In Connection With Water-Tank Construction
In presenting details of this application of girderwork it has been found advisable to consider at some length (without entering fully upon the important subject of tank construction in general) the d...
-Applications Of Riveted Girderwork In Connection With Water-Tank Construction. Continued
It will be observed that, in the tank under consideration, the flanges are turned inside the tank, and not outwards. This is not an invariable rule, and there are arguments for and against the practic...
-Weights Of Mild Steel Bolts And Nuts
The following table of the weights of mild-steel bolts and nuts may be found useful in the process of estimating weights of steel-work and fastenings. The heads and nuts are hexagonal, of the usual W...
-Chapter IV. On The Practical Design Of Columns And Struts
General remarks - The ideal column - The practical column - Variation of modulus of elasticity - Transverse stress : examples - Conditions of end connections : flat ended, round ended, pin ended - Exp...
-On The Practical Design Of Columns And Struts. Part 2
It is not therefore surprising, from a consideration of the foregoing, to find that most formulae professing to give the ultimate strength of a column or strut are based upon constants derived from ex...
-On The Practical Design Of Columns And Struts. Part 3
The well-known series of tests on wrought-iron riveted columns carried out at the Watertown Arsenal, Mass., in 1883, will next be considered.1 This series of tests comprised seventy-four columns of va...
-On The Practical Design Of Columns And Struts. Part 4
It is not difficult to discover from the results of these experiments, and others which will be referred to, the great importance of avoiding structural weakness at the ends of a column which first re...
-On The Practical Design Of Columns And Struts. Part 5
We may now lastly observe from experiments Nos. 63 to 74 inclusive the influence of eccentric loading upon the ultimate strength of the column. Comparing experiments 63 and 64 with 65 and 66, we have...
-On The Practical Design Of Columns And Struts. Part 6
The loss of strength produced by slight eccentricity of loading also becomes evident in two tests; an angle, 2 x 2 x 5/16, 8 feet 3 inches long, properly centred, with 1-inch ball and socket...
-On The Practical Design Of Columns And Struts. Part 7
The number of published experiments on the ultimate compressive resistance of mild steel columns is, notwithstanding the extent to which this material has been employed in this direction, not so compl...
-On The Practical Design Of Columns And Struts. Part 8
Fig. 140, a simple flat bar, is met with as a strut or compression member in the webs of multiple lattice girders. It is obviously weak in the direction of its least radius of gyration, and is prevent...
-On The Practical Design Of Columns And Struts. Part 9
Fig. 154 shows an effective section consisting of four channels connected at the external corners by four angles. We now approach a group of sections in which the rolled joist is the principal featur...
-On The Practical Design Of Columns And Struts. Part 10
Figs. 166 and 167 show types of built-up-sections of plates and angles adapted to meet special conditions in large columns carrying heavy and diverse loadings. Fig. 166. The use of these section...
-On The Practical Design Of Columns And Struts. Part 11
A further comparison may be made of the sections above described which is not without importance, and that is the extent to which the surfaces of the respective sections can be protected from the effe...
-On The Practical Design Of Columns And Struts. Part 12
In cases of buildings of several stories, where the column is considerable height, in segments of the various floor spaciugs, and where the accumulation of load on the lower columns is heavy, a sound ...
-On The Practical Design Of Columns And Struts. Part 13
The method of effecting the connection between the upper and lower sections of the column at the level of the traveller girder is shown in Figs. 197 and 198, which is a variation from the design shown...
-On The Practical Design Of Columns And Struts. Part 14
It forms one of a row of columns dividing two adjacent bays of an extensive range of factories, boiler-shops, etc., the bay on one hand having a high-level traveller road, with high-level roof, and on...
-On The Practical Design Of Columns And Struts. Part 15
The general arrangement of the building is such that any-overturning moment due to horizontal wind pressure acting at the top of the column is divided between several rows of columns, the whole being ...
-Chapter V. Roof Construction In Mild Steel And Iron
General remarks - Development of roof construction in timber, cast iron, wrought iron, wrought iron and steel, mild steel - Classification of roof principals - Members of roof principals - Upper or co...
-Roof Construction In Mild Steel And Iron. Continued
This distinction would, however, appear to fail unless the loading of the principal is purely vertical in both classes. Where the assumptions as to wind pressure include a horizontal component, as in ...
-The Main Tie Or Lower Tension Member
The form of section to be given to this important member of a roof-truss, especially of the classes (a) and (b) above alluded to, will largely influence the details of connections and the general type...
-The Intermediate Bracing Of Struts And Ties
The design of the struts forming portion of the intermediate bracing in trussed principals will be governed by the laws of long columns, and they will generally be found to be free from the transverse...
-Purlins
The arrangement and construction of these important members of a roof structure must now be considered, and it will be found that the class of roof covering to be adopted will have considerable influe...
-Purlins. Part 2
The figures detailed in Table 35, and showing the average results of a considerable number of careful experiments on the rate of discharge of guttering, cesspools, and downpipes of a certain type of d...
-Purlins. Part 3
The arrangement indicated in the figures and experimented upon as described above, was intended for use in buildings of large area, with numerous valley gutters, and if an attempt were made to deduce ...
-Lanterns, Skylights, And Ventilators
These are of very various types of construction, and may be used either for lighting or ventilation, or both combined. When used for lighting, the sashes may be arranged on the sides of the lanterns e...
-Lanterns, Skylights, And Ventilators. Part 2
A fair idea of the degree of Watertightness obtainable by such an arrangement as that shown can be obtained, by the construction of a model of two or more rows of the blades in zinc full size. Water s...
-Lanterns, Skylights, And Ventilators. Part 3
The portion of the principal next the wall is shown in Fig. 280, while the central portion of the truss, with its lantern and skylight, is shown in Fig. 281. This principal is composed of a tee steel...
-Lanterns, Skylights, And Ventilators. Part 4
The riveted connection of the braces with the upper and lower members of the principal is shown in detail in Figs. 304, 305, 306, and 307, Fig. 304 showing the detail of connection of purlin to main r...
-Lanterns, Skylights, And Ventilators. Part 5
The method of securing the bases of the standards in their foundation blocks of concrete is shown in Figs. 310 and 311, in front and side elevation. To protect the standards from the blows of wheels o...
-The Testing of Roof Principals, Girders, or other Structural Work in the Contractor's Yard
It is not unfrequently stipulated in a specification for roof work that one or more bays of roofing erected complete, as far as the ironwork is concerned, but without the roof covering, shall be teste...
-The Testing of Roof Principals, Girders, other Structural Work in the Contractor's Yard. Continued
In connection with the subject of the behaviour of principals under test load, some consideration may here be given to the disputed question as to how far keys and cotters, or screwed connections, are...
-Chapter VI. The Use Of Mild Steel And Iron In Marine Engineering
General remarks - Design of iron piers or jetties - Classification of jetties - Those which are backed up by solid structure in the rear - Those which are isolated - Types of design of the second clas...
-The Use Of Mild Steel And Iron In Marine Engineering. Part 2
The other type is that in which the vertical members are spaced further apart, and are of such dimensions and weight as may reasonably be expected to resist the shocks they may be called upon to endur...
-The Use Of Mild Steel And Iron In Marine Engineering. Part 3
It may not unfrequently be necessary to determine, as the work proceeds, experimentally, the best proportion of pitch and diameter of blade to suit any given condition, and where this is likely to be ...
-The Use Of Mild Steel And Iron In Marine Engineering. Part 4
In Fig. 346 is given a cross-section of a jetty belonging to the first of those classes discussed on p. 339, being supported in the rear by a rubble mound, which may be supposed to resist, or share in...
-The Use Of Mild Steel And Iron In Marine Engineering. Part 5
The main girder connecting the tops of the cylinders is of a heavy box-girder type, and is shown in section in Fig. 360. Cross girders, of which the end of one next the main girder is seen in Fig. 360...
-Bollards
Among the necessary items of equipment on a wharf, jetty, or dockside, for the handling of ships or vessels of all sizes, not the least important are the bollards for the attachment of mooring hawsers...
-Caissons
The term caisson is applied to a variety of structures fulfilling varied functions and serving widely different purposes. Thus we have the term applied to that form of structure designed to close do...
-Caissons. Part 2
The stringers supporting the frames in the central well, compartments 7, 8, and 9, were not, for economical reasons, designed to resist the full collapsing pressure of the water which came upon them i...
-Caissons. Part 3
As previously stated, the breakwater was founded upon a mound of quarried and deposited limestone rubble, in a depth of water varying from 45 to 65 feet below low water, and brought up to a level of 3...
-Caissons. Part 4
The sliding caisson derives its nomenclature from the methods adopted in the removal of the caisson from the dock entrance by sliding or hauling it into a recess in the dock walls prepared for its rec...
-Caissons. Part 5
These details show also the mode of connection of the timber keels and stems with the framework and skin plating of the body of the caisson, to resist the severe shearing (or combination of shearing a...
-Caissons. Part 6
The conditions of working of a modern dry dock frequently lead not unnaturally to the result that the caisson is the last floating structure to be cared for and docked. Repairs are postponed to a conv...
-Caissons. Part 7
Communication between the tanks and the sea is maintained at all times by pipes and valves worked from the upper deck. The blowing-out apparatus is associated with hand pumps, the latter being used i...
-Caissons. Part 8
A coefficient of friction, even when derived from careful experiments on faces prepared to represent the normal working conditions, is, however, likely to become uncertain in its amount, if any altera...
-Caissons. Part 9
In respect of the last item, the details of the timber keels and facings of the masonry will be similar in kind (see Fig. 397), while the arrangements of the roadway over the upper deck, the strength ...
-Caissons. Part 10
The detailed design of such engines is somewhat outside the scope of these notes, and need not be further alluded to, except to state that a liberal margin of power is always judicious, in order to de...
-Caissons. Part 11
By the whole weight is, of course, understood only the surplus of weight over the buoyancy of the air-chamber and the immersed materials, an amount which will vary with the state of the tide and the w...
-Caissons. Part 12
The hydraulic cylinders themselves are of an ordinary type, of cast steel, lined with gun metal, the net internal diameter of the cylinder being 13 inches, and the diameter of the upper portion of the...
-Caissons. Part 13
When the chain was again pulled for the second and third time no further permanent set was observed, and the extensions of the chain were as follows, being the averages of a considerable number of obs...
-Chapter VII. The Protection Of Steel Surfaces From Corrosion
General remarks - The destructive effects of oxidation - Desirability of an exhaustive inquiry into the best methods of protection and the relative efficiencies of various coatings - Effects produced ...
-The Protection Of Steel Surfaces From Corrosion. Part 2
The durability of foundation bolts, rag bolts, and the like depends largely upon this, and there can be no doubt that the condition of much iron and steel work in such situations is greatly a matter o...
-The Protection Of Steel Surfaces From Corrosion. Part 3
When Exposed On Glass In A Thin Film 1. At 60 Fahr. Dried to a hard tough film in 24 hours. 2. At 100 Fahr. ... 16 (3) Specific ...
-The Protection Of Steel Surfaces From Corrosion. Part 4
This Sample Was Rejected. Analysis Of A Further Sample Per cent. Oil . . . . . . . . . 23.45 Tur...
-Longmans' Civil Engineering Series
Notes On Docks And Dock Construction By C. Colson, C.B., M.Inst.C.E., Deputy Civil Engineer-in-Chief, Loan Works, Admiralty. With 365 Illustrations. Medium 8vo, 21s. net. Calculations In Hydraulic E...









TOP
previous page: The Tinman's Manual And Builder's And Mechanic's Handbook | by Isaac Ridler Butt
  
page up: Metalwork Books
  
next page: Welding Theory, Practice, Apparatus And Tests Electric, Thermit And Hot-Flame Processes | by Richard N. Hart