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Welding And Cutting Metals By Aid Of Gases Or Electricity | by L. A. Groth



An examination of the various methods existing for the production and liquefaction of combustible gases, of their easy application and economical advantages, and of the phenomenal advance during the last three years in their adaptation to an immense variety of metallurgical and engineering operations, which have hitherto been carried out under less favourable conditions, proves that compressed gases have become an indispensable factor in almost every branch of industry.

TitleWelding And Cutting Metals By Aid Of Gases Or Electricity
AuthorL. A. Groth
PublisherD. Van Nostrand Company
Year1909
Copyright1909, D. Van Nostrand Company
AmazonWelding and cutting metals by aid of gases or electricity

By Dr. L. A. Groth, Consulting Engineer Royal Commissioner at the International Patent Congresses of Vienna, 1873, and Paris, 1878; Vice-President of the International Permanent Commission for the Protection of Industrial Property, Paris; Knight of the Royal Swedish Order, Gustavus Vasa ; etc.

Welding And Cutting Metals By Aid Of Gases Or Elec 1
-Preface
An examination of the various methods existing for the production and liquefaction of combustible gases, of their easy application and economical advantages, and of the phenomenal advance during the l...
-Chapter I. General Remarks
The art of welding iron is probably as old as the earliest production of that metal by man; in fact, the reduction of iron in the primitive forges demanded the union by welding of the reduced particle...
-Chapter II. Gases And Sources For Their Generation
Aggregation - Liquefaction - Atmospheric Air - Liquid Air - Carbide of Calcium - Acetylene - Acetylene Dissous - Blau Gas - Hydrogen - Oxygen - Water Gas. Aggregation It has been known for ages that...
-Carbide Of Calcium
In its number for May, 1908, Acetylene, The Lighting Journal, states that The Acetylene Illuminating Company, Limited, were the founders of the acetylene industry in the United Kingdom, by introducing...
-Acetylene
Acetylene (C2H2) was first obtained by Davy in 1837 from the black mass which he obtained when making potassium. Berthelot in 1858-59 produced acetylene by passing hydrogen between the poles of an ele...
-Automatic Generators
. 1. Under no condition, likely to occur in working, must it be possible for the pressure in any part of the apparatus to exceed that necessary to support a column of water 100 inches in height. 2. W...
-Tabulating The Results
These results are of very great interest, as they not only show clearly the facts already pointed out, but indicate that in any automatic apparatus on this principle the cut-off should be so arranged ...
-Blau Gas
This gas has been introduced under the name of the inventor, Blau. It is liquefied illuminating gas produced by distillation of mineral oils in red-hot retorts. Chemically the gas consists of the sam...
-Hydrogen
This is an elementary gas and the lightest substance known. It is colourless, odourless, and non-poisonous, although, as ordinarily prepared, it frequently contains traces of disagreeably smelling or ...
-Oxygen
Oxygen was discovered almost simultaneously in the year 1774 by Priestley and by Scheele, the Swedish chemist having, however, nearly completed his discovery in 1772. Priestley discovered that the re...
-Oxygen. Part 2
Professor Garuti's Process having many advantages is therefore described here: - The principal points to consider are: 1. Reduction to a minimum of the electro-motive force required, and 2. Perfect...
-Oxygen. Part 3
The generators work without intervention of manual labour, and they are arranged side by side in a room having a constant temperature ; the gases produced are collected in iron piping and, after passi...
-Water Gas
Lavoisier discovered in 1793 that when steam, unmixed with air, is passed through glowing coke, the coke is oxidised; carbonic oxide and hydrogen are produced theoretically pure, and in equal volumes ...
-Chapter III. Welding
Description - Different Systems - Acetylene Welding - Aluminium Welding - Aluminium Thermic Welding - Blau Gas Welding - Chemical Welding - Coal Gas Welding - ElectricWelding - Forging - Hydrogen Weld...
-Different Systems Of Welding
Welding may be accomplished by various means, and the different systems employed may be divided into two main divisions : The Autogenous Welding, by means of which the fusion or union of the metals i...
-Acetylene Welding
In the case of automatic or non-automatic welding plants the gas from the generator A passes into a condenser to cool it and to remove any tarry products ; it enters thereafter a washing apparatus B, ...
-Acetylene Welding. Continued
Fig. 11. Steel Cylinders (Fig. 12). - All cylinders sold or employed by the British Oxygen Company are guaranteed to be made of steel complying with the British Government recommendations. They are m...
-Purifying Material
There are various purifying substances described by Messrs. Leeds and Butterfield, analytical chemists, as follows: - There are three principal chemical reagents in regular use. These are chromic aci...
-Purifying Material. Continued
In an automatic apparatus the fundamental idea is that the generating chamber, or one at least of several generating chambers, shall always contain a considerable quantity of undecomposed carbide, and...
-Insulator
The insulation of buildings, more particularly those used for acetylene generators, is of vital importance from a point of safety. Perfect insulation is almost impossible, but a good insulation can be...
-Welding Of Aluminium
The welding of aluminium has met with great difficulties by reason of the great ability of oxidation of the material. The moment it has been prepared and cleansed, the aluminium is at once covered wit...
-Tests Of Tensile Strength
By the Swiss Federal Testing Institute, attached to the Polytechnicum in Zurich : w = welded. u = unwelded. The spots where the pieces are welded are marked by a black line. w. 6 mm. 1. u. 6 mm. w....
-Tests Of Tensile Strength. Part 2
The welding is done automatically and does not require an expert welder, but may easily be carried out by the permanent staff of any company. The Paris Metropolitan Railway made some experiments on a...
-Tests Of Tensile Strength. Part 3
LEEDS CITY TRAMWAYS. Conductivity test of Thermit welded rail joint on near rail, inward track, opposite St. Thomas Street, North Street, Leeds. This track was put down in July, 1903, and has sinc...
-Tests Of Tensile Strength. Part 4
Brazing, Lead Burning, and Soldering. Brazing consists in uniting metal parts by flowering melted brass, technically called spelter, between them. It is practically identical with soldering except th...
-Chemical Welding Of Iron And Steel At A Low Temperature
At the Franco-British Exhibition the Societe des Plaques et Pouches a Souder, J. Laffitte exhibits some specimens of their welded articles of iron and steel. The welding agent used consists of thin w...
-Coal Gas Welding
The ordinary coal or illuminating gas may be used for welding. The arrangement is extremely simple and inexpensive, as the heavy steel cylinder containing any of the combustible gases is substituted f...
-Welding Of Copper
The welding of copper requires a larger sized blowpipe than that for iron of corresponding thickness, by reason of the greater conductivity of copper. A flux is always required, pulverised acidum bori...
-Electric Welding
Electric welding is gaining rapid acknowledgment, the more as its great advantages combined with inexpensive machinery and easy manipulation are becoming known. It has, during the last few years, deve...
-Electric Welding. Continued
The Resistance system of electric welding seems to have been first introduced by Professor Elihu Thomson, in 1877, whilst making some experiments in the laboratory of the Franklin Institute, Philadelp...
-Hand And Mechanical Power
Fig. 35. - Hand Chain Welding Machine, for Chains up to 6 mm. diameter. Special welding machines are constructed for welding one particular kind of article, and should be selected in those cases wh...
-Automobile And Cycle Rims
The generators are specially constructed with stationary alternating current coils and rotating exciting coils, an arrangement which is best adapted to withstand the unavoidable current impulses accom...
-Automobile And Cycle Rims. Part 2
Energy Used In Electric Welding By The Thomson Process Material. Section. Square inch. Kilowatts in primary of welder. Time in seconds. Total kilowatt-seconds. Iron...
-Automobile And Cycle Rims. Part 3
Fig. 52. It may be said that practically a new industry has arisen in the making of square and hexagon headed bolts by electric welding. For the heads, specially die-drawn stock of the required sh...
-Automobile And Cycle Rims. Part 4
Fig. 54. - Pipe Coil for Refrigerating Machine, Electrically Welded by Thomson Process. Pipes Welded end to end by moving Welding Machine during Operation of Coiling. Fig. 55. - Some Applications...
-Automobile And Cycle Rims. Part 5
Wrought fittings of all kinds for steam and other pipe installations, such as bends, branch pipes, expansion bends, etc., can be fitted with electrically welded-on flanges, and a few specialities in t...
-Automobile And Cycle Rims. Part 6
Bosses for water gauge fittings are welded on when required. The joints of rails have principally been welded by Thermit as mentioned on page 70, but it may also be done by electrical means. An ele...
-The Forging Process
By the forging process the parts to be united are heated to a temperature considerably less than that of fusion. It is sufficient to put into contact the two metals brought to white heat and hammer t...
-Hydrogen Welding
The application of hydrogen to welding was introduced a few years since by L'Oxhydrique Internationale, Societe Anonyme, Brussels. To effect a satisfactory hydrogen weld it is necessary to obtain not...
-Comparison of Hydrogen and Acetylene Welding, Hydrogen Welding, Acetylene Welding
Installation The cost of the hydrogen plant is from 7 to 15. The cost of the acetylene plant varies from 36 to 72, consequently four to five hydrogen plants could be obtained for the same expens...
-Chapter IV. Blowpipes
General Remarks - Daniel's Burner - Hydrogen Blowpipe - Schuckert - L'Oxbydrique Internationale - Oxy-hydrogen Blowpipe Plant - Draeger-Wiss - Acetylene Blowpipe - High-pressure Type - Low-pressure Ty...
-Acetylene Blowpipe
The intense heat generated by the oxy-acetylene flame has resulted in various constructions of blowpipes for this welding system. It is, however, not practicable to compress acetylene in cylinders, a...
-Acetylene Blowpipe. Part 2
Thickness of Plate in m.m. Size of Blowpipe to use. Speed of work in foot run of weld per hour. 1 3 50 1.5 4 40 2 5 35 ...
-Acetylene Blowpipe. Part 3
The hydraulic safety valve is supposed to have been previously charged with water, and the gas regulator securely attached to the oxygen cylinder. The blowpipe apparatus is now ready for use, with th...
-Acetylene Blowpipe. Part 4
It is easily seen what extreme attention is necessary to succeed in manipulation of this kind. If it is badly done, a poor adhesion is obtained; if it is well done, the relatively large quantity of me...
-Chapter V. Welding Of Sheet Iron
Patent Welded Tubes - Seamless Tubes - Pioneer of Water Gas Welding - Various Methods used - Schematic View of Welding by Coke Fire and Water Gas - Articles of Complicated Form - Relative Strength of ...
-Steel Pipes
Steel Pipes made at the works of Messrs. Stewarts & Lloyds, Limited, by the Ferguson patent process, although introduced only so recently as 1896, are already in use to a very great extent, and they a...
-Life of Steel Pipe versus Cast-iron
The question of the life of steel pipes versus cast-iron is one which has long been exercising the minds of engineers. As it is not practicable to sit down and wait for the necessary time (which reall...
-Relative Corrosion of Wrought Iron, Soft Steel, and Nickel Steel
{Paper read by Professor Henry M. Howe at the International Congress on Testing Materials of Construction (under the auspices of the Paris Exposition, 1900). The facts presented were based on the det...
-Chapter VI. Welding Applied To Steam Boilers
General - Welding Instead of Riveting - Advantages and Disadvantages of Welded Boiler Joints - Difficulties of Riveted Joints - Repairs on Steam Boilers : Cracks - Locating the Cracks - Strength of Ri...
-Repairs On Steam Boilers
It is customary when a slight crack appears in a boiler plate to repair the leak by drilling small holes at the ends of the crack in order to prevent it from spreading any further, and then caulking t...
-Repairs On Marine Boilers
Nearly all waters contain foreign substances in greater or less degree, and though there may be a small amount in each gallon, they become of importance where large quantities of water are evaporated....
-Repairs On Marine Boilers. Part 2
Fig. 101. - Repairs by Oxy-Acetylene Process. Fig. 102. - Repairs by Oxy-Acetylene Process. FIG. 103. - Repairs by Oxy-Acetylene Process. Fig. 104.- Repairs on Main Boilers by Electric Weld...
-Repairs On Marine Boilers. Part 3
Fig. 112. - Repairs to Lower Front Plate by Electric Welding. Fig. 113. - Repairs to the Bottom Shell Plate by Electric Welding. Electric Welding Breadth. Thickness. Area....
-Repairs On Marine Boilers. Part 4
Fig. 118. - Test Pieces from Oxy-Acetylene Welded Plates. After the repairs were carried out on the boilers, the usual hydraulic pressure test was applied, when the results were found satisfactory....
-Welding Of Tanks
In the majority of cases welding does away with a lot of preparatory work, caulking of edges, pulling apart of rivets and other fastenings, operations always expensive, and which are always to be avoi...
-Chapter VII. Cutting Metals
General - Congress of Liege - M. Jottrand, La Societe l'Oxhydrique - MM. Jottrand and Lulli Process - Installation for Cutting Metals - Speed of Cutting - Metropolitan Railway, Paris - Hydrogen Proces...
-Cutting Metals. Continued
In illustration of the rapidity which above all characterises the oxyhydrogen cutting, J. B. van Brussel gives some interesting examples in a paper recently read by him, abstracts of which appear in t...
-Chapter VIII. Reports Upon Acetylene Welding
Dr. Hilpert - Griesheim-Elektron - Dr. Michaelis - Belgian Steam Users' Association - French Steam Users' Association (Veritas) - German Steam Users' Association - Manchester Steam Users' Association ...
-Reports Upon Acetylene Welding. Part 2
The repairs on steam boilers must generally be done in a small space. The welder requires the welding apparatus as near as possible, and as the space available prevents the fixing of a cumbrous appar...
-Reports Upon Acetylene Welding. Part 3
The Bayerischen Revisions Verein (the Bavarian Steam Users' Association), in its technical reports for 1907, states: - Taken all in all, there are in Germany for the present a few firms only which o...
-Chapter IX. Acetylene Welding Accidents
General - Explosive Limits of a Gas - Explosive Limits of Acetylene - Danger of Acetylene Installations - Prefect of Police, Paris - Conseil d'Hygiene Publique et de Salubrite Regulations - Explosion ...
-Acetylene Welding Accidents. Continued
Dr. H. Rasch, Geheimerat (Technical Councillor), Hamburg, finishes his long report as follows: - The accident, which did not cost any life, proves that the manufacture of the compressed acetylene-az...
-Chapter X. Legislation
Order of Council re Petroleum Acts - Order in Council re Explosives Acts - Home Office Conditions for Acetylene Generators - English Acetylene Associations' Regulations. Legislation relating to Calci...
-Chapter XI. Useful Addenda
British Thermal Unit - Combustion of Carbon, Acetylene, Hydrogen, and Coal Gas - Coefficient of Heat - Consumption of Combustible Gases - Pressure, Weight, and Volume of Air - Temperature of Fusion, M...









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previous page: The New Metal Worker Pattern Book | by George Watson Kittredge
  
page up: Metalwork Books
  
next page: The Tinman's Manual And Builder's And Mechanic's Handbook | by Isaac Ridler Butt