For work in the hand, Crewel-Stitch is perhaps, on the whole, the easiest and most useful of stitches ; whence it comes that people sometimes vaguely call all embroidery crewel work ; though, as a matter of fact, the stitch properly so called was never very commonly employed, even when the work was done in "crewel," the double thread of twisted wool from which it takes its name. Crewel-Stitch proper is shown at A on the sampler opposite, where it is used for line work. It is worked as follows : - Having made a start in the usual way, keep your thread downwards under your left thumb and below your needle - that is, to the right; then take up with the needle, say 1/8|th of an inch of the stuff, and bring it out through the hole made in starting the stitch, taking care not to pierce the thread. This gives the first half stitch. If you proceed in the same way your next stitch will be full length. The test of good workmanship is that at the back it should look like back-stitch (Illustration 12 (Crewel-Stitch Sampler (Back))), described on page 30.

The Working Of A On Crewel Stitch Sampler

The Working Of A On Crewel-Stitch Sampler

To Work A

11. Crewel Stitch Sampler

11. Crewel-Stitch Sampler

12. Crewel Stitch Sampler (Back)

12. Crewel-Stitch Sampler (Back)

Outline-Stitch (B on sampler) differs from crewel-stitch only in that the thread is always kept upwards above the needle, that is to the left. In the doing it one is very apt to untwist the thread, and it wants constantly re-twisting. The stitch is useful for working single lines and for outlining solid work. The muddled effect of much crewel work is due to the confusion of this stitch with crewel-stitch proper.

Thick Crewel-Stitch (C on sampler) is only a little wider than ordinary crewel-stitch, but it gives a heavier line, in higher relief. In effect it resembles rope-stitch, but it is more simply worked. You begin as in ordinary crewel-stitch,

The Working Of B On Crewel Stitch Sampler

The Working Of B On Crewel-Stitch Sampler

To Work B

To Work

but after the first half-stitch you take up 1/8th of an inch of the material in advance of the last stitch, and bring out your needle at the point where the first half-stitch began. You proceed, always putting your needle in 1/8th of an inch in front of, and bringing it out 1/8th of an inch behind, the last stitch, so as to have always 1/4th of an inch of the stuff on your needle.

Thick Outline-Stitch (D on sampler) is like thick crewel-stitch with the exception that, as in ordinary outline-stitch (B), you keep your thread always above the needle to the left.

In Back-Stitch (E), instead of first bringing the needle out at the point where the embroidery is to begin, you bring it out 1/8th of an inch in advance of it. Then, putting your needle back, you take up this 1/8th together with another 1/8th in advance. For the next stitch you put your needle into the hole made by the last stitch, and so on, taking care not to split the thread in so doing.

The Working Of G On Crewel Stitch Sampler

The Working Of G On Crewel-Stitch Sampler

To Work D

To Work E

To Work F

13. Crewel Work   The Stem Only Worked In Crewel Stitch.

13. Crewel-Work - The Stem Only Worked In Crewel-Stitch.

To work the SPOTS (F) on sampler - having made a back-stitch, bring your needle out through the same hole as before, and make another backstitch above it, so that you have in what appears to be one stitch, two thicknesses of thread; then bring your needle out some distance in advance of the last stitch, and proceed as before. The distance between the stitches is determined by the effect you desire to produce. The thread should not be drawn too tight.

You begin Stem-Stitch (G) with the usual half-stitch. Then, holding the thread downwards, instead of proceeding as in crewel-stitch (A) you slant your needle so as to bring it out a thread or two higher up than the half-stitch, but precisely above it. You next put the needle in 1/8th of an inch in advance of the last stitch, and, as before, bring it out again in a slanting direction a thread or two higher. At the back of the work (Illustration 12 (Crewel-Stitch Sampler (Back))) the stitches lie in a slanting direction.

To work wider Stem-Stitch (H). After the first two stitches, bring your needle out precisely above and in a line with them, and put it in again 1/8th of an inch in advance of the last stitch, producing a longer stroke, which gives the measure of those following. The slanting stitches at the back (Illustration 12 (Crewel-Stitch Sampler (Back))) are only two-thirds of the length of those on the face.

Crewel and Outline Stitches worked (J) side by side give somewhat the effect of a braid. The importance of not confusing them, already referred to, is here apparent.

Crewel-Stitch is worked solid in the heart-shape in the centre of the sampler. On the left

To Work G

To Work H

14. Crewel Work In Various Stitches

14. Crewel Work In Various Stitches

side the rows of stitching follow the outline of the heart ; on the right they are more upright, merely conforming a little to the shape to be filled. This is the better method.

The way to work solid crewel-stitch will be best explained by an instance. Suppose a leaf to be worked. You begin by outlining it ; if it is a wide leaf, you further work a centre line where the main rib. would be, and then work row within row of stitches until the space is filled. If on arriving at the point of your leaf, instead of going round the edge, you work back by the side of the first row of stitching, there results a streakiness of texture, apparent in the stem on Illustration 13 (Crewel-Work - The Stem Only Worked In Crewel-Stitch.). What you get is, in effect, a combination of crewel and outline stitches, as at J, which in the other case only occurs in the centre of the shape where the files of stitches meet.

To represent shading in crewel-stitch, to which it is admirably suited (A, Illustration 41 (Offshoots From Satin And Crewel Stitches)), it is well to work from the darkest shadows to the highest lights. And it is expedient to map out on the stuff the outline of the space to be covered by each shade of thread. There is no difficulty then in working round that shape, as above explained.

In solid crewel the stitches should quite cover the ground without pressing too closely one against the other.

To Work Solid Crewel-Stitch

15. Crewel Stitch In Twisted Silk

15. Crewel-Stitch In Twisted Silk

It does not seem that Englishwomen of the seventeenth century were ever very faithful to the stitch we know by the name of crewel. Old examples of work done entirely in crewel-stitch, as distinguished from what is called crewel work, are seldom if ever to be met with. The stitch occurs in most of the old English embroidery in wool; but it is astonishing, when one comes to examine the quilts and curtains of a couple of hundred years or so ago, how very little of the woolwork on them is in crewel-stitch. It is only in the main stem and in some of the outlines of the detail given on page 31 that the stitch is used, though the illustration (13) was chosen because it contained more of it than any other equal portion of the handsome and typical English hanging of which it is part. And it appears to have been the prevailing practice to use crewel-stitch for stems and outlines, and for little else but the very simplest forms. The filling in of the leafage, the diapering within the leaf shapes, and the smaller and more elaborate details generally were done in long-and-short-stitch, or whatever came handiest. In fact, the thing to be represented, fruit, berry, flower, or what not, seems to have suggested the stitch, which it must be confessed was sometimes only a sort of scramble to get an effect.

Of course the artist always chooses her stitch, and she is free to alter it as occasion may demand; but a good workwoman (and the embroidress is a needlewoman first and an artist afterwards, perhaps) adopts in every case a method, and departs from it only for very good reason. It looks as if these ancestors of ours had set to work without system or guiding principle at all. No doubt they got a bold and striking effect in bed-hangings and the like ; but there is in their work a lack of that conscious aim which goes to make art. Theirs is art of the rather artless sort which is just now so popular. Happily it was kept in the way it should go by unconscious adherence to traditional pattern. We, unfortunately, have broken with tradition.

Quite in the traditional manner is Illustration 14 (Crewel Work In Various Stitches). One would fancy at first sight that the work was almost entirely in crewel-stitch. As a matter of fact, there is little which answers to the name, as an examination of the back of the work shows plainly enough. What the stitches are it is not easy to say. The mystery of many a stitch is to be unravelled only by literally picking out the threads, which one is not always at liberty to do, although, in the ardour of research, a keen em-broidress will do it - not without remorse in the case of beautiful work, but relentlessly all the same.

The only piece of embroidery entirely in crewel-stitch which I could find for illustration (15) is worked, as it happens, in silk; nor was the worker aware when she worked it that she was doing anything out of the common. Another instance of crewel-stitch is given in the divided skirt, let us call it, of the personage in Illustration 72 (Stitches In Combination).

Beautiful back-stitching occurs in the Italian work on Illustration 97 (Simple Stitching On Linen), and the stitch is used for sewing down the applique in Illustration 102 (Leather Applique Upon Velvet).