Stockinet, 4x4 Inches.
Colored Cashmere. 4x4 Inches.
Fine Darning Cotton. Warp Threads of Muslin.
Warp Raveling of Cashmere. Silk of the Same Color.
Needle, No. 7-10 or Long-Eyed Darner.
Stockings, knitted underwear or sweaters brought from home.
Darning is the repairing of fabric by inserting new threads into a place which has been rubbed thin or worn into a hole. It differs from patching in that the broken part is woven back, while in the latter a piece of the same cloth is inserted into the hole. Knitted and woven materials are both usually mended in this way.
As it imitates the original texture it is almost invisible and the manner of weaving the threads makes it strong.
(1) Running Darn. Thin places in stockinet or in woven material, and broken places in the latter may be strengthened by running darns. A number of lines of running stitches are placed close together over the worn part on the wrong side and the stitch and the space alternate in succeeding rows. In stockinet, small loops should be left at the end of each row to allow for stretching or shrinkage, and the edges of the darn should be waved or diamond-shaped so the strain will be distributed. (Fig. 32.) The plain running stitch may be used in stockinet or ascending and descending loops may be taken with each stitch. In woven material the shape of the darn may be square and the loops need not be long.
(2) Stocking-web Darning. This manner of darning reproduces the original knitting of the garment. It is the method employed in factories where the machinery has torn the fabric. It is much used in countries where hand-knitted garments are used. It is a more difficult process than the ordinary way of inserting warp and woof and unnecessarily tedious where the darning of ordinary stockings or sweaters is concerned. The method is to clear away loose ends of the stockinet until the hole is square or oblong. Strands of thread are then stretched across the hole from the ascending and descending loops and the knitting stitches are built up with darning cotton on these strands. The strands are carefully removed when the knitting is completed. This method is difficult and is not taught generally in the schools of the United States.
(3) Warp and Woof Darns. This is a method in general use for repairing both stockinet and woven material. It may be plain weaving or it may accurately reproduce the pattern, as is often done in fine damask. (See Weaving.) In stockinet the warp threads may be inserted in the ascending and descending loops of the knitting, or, where this is difficult for beginners or unnecessarily exact for the class of material, an alternating running stitch may be used for both warp and woof.
Fig. 32.-Running Darn in Stockinet.
(4) Diagonal Darns in Stockinet. A rapid means of darning stockinet, and one which is sometimes used to good effect, is to insert threads diagonally across the hole in the stockinet instead of placing them lengthwise and cross-wise of the knitting. A very elastic darn is thus made. Care must be taken to catch every loop as the stitches cross the hole.
(5) Cloth Darns. These may be made by carefully inserting the broken threads. Plain or pattern weaving, or fine drawing may be used. (See Warp and Woof Darn and Fine-Drawing.)
(6) Kid Glove Darn. A slit in a kid glove may be neatly darned by over-handing the broken parts together. Where a hole is worn or more room is needed, the blanket-stitch can be made close together around the hole and held together by catching the loops, or succeeding rows of the stitch may be caught one in the other to form a lace work.