Materials For Practice

Linen. 6x6 or 10x10 Inches

Cotton, No. 100. D. M. G. No. 25-60 for Embroidery. No. 16 for the Filling.

Needle, No. 8-10.

(Two letters stamped in the center or at the end.)

Application

Letters on handkerchiefs and household linen, decoration and lettering on underclothing, decoration on collars and cuffs. Fringe on towels and doilies.

Use

For marking handkerchiefs and household linen and for ornamenting clothing, table covers and ecclesiastical draperies. It is used on all materials.

Fitness

The close over and over stitch with or without a previous preparation in filling makes a substantial design which will wear for years and have a chaste and beautiful effect.

Rule For Satin Stitch

Satin stitch (Fig. 47) requires patience to learn and skill in the working. It is usually worked in a frame. Hoops may be purchased in which the work may be stretched. For the marking of household linen, in letters of from one to two inches in size, it is possible to do good work without a frame. The stitch may be either flat or raised. In letters it is customary to fill in well the parts enclosed in double lines. The preparation must be done with the greatest care and precision as irregularities in the padding show in the finished work. Some workers begin by following all the lines of the design with a short irregular running stitch which takes the slightest hold in the material and leaves the most of the stitch on the surface. When the design is in double lines the stitch is taken just inside of the marking. In padding the space between the lines the outline stitch (Fig. 48) or the chain stitch (Fig. 41) are both used. The work must be done in the opposite direction from the satin stitch and be kept within the stamped lines. The lines of padding are made up and down within the space, and one row fits exactly into the other. The number of lines of padding is increased where the letter widens and decreased where it narrows. In a wide portion several rows of stitches may be piled one on top of the other so that a rounded effect may be secured. Where veins occur in a leaf or a letter the line is left clear, but the surface is well padded alongside of the vein. Finish all the filling of the letter before beginning the satin stitch. The whole effect of the padding should be neat and compact, but the linen must not be drawn.

The satin stitch is taken from side to side of the design and toward the worker. Very little material is taken up where the line is single. When the line is double the stitch is taken from line to line. Where veins occur the stitch will be taken from the outside to the vein or from the vein to the outside, according to the direction of the work. The stitches should be close together without overlapping. The padding must be completely covered. The stitch may be at right angles with the lines of the pattern or it may be 3lanted in either direction. When the letter has been begun, however, the same slant must be kept throughout, except where it has to be temporarily altered at the curves. The usual direction is at right angles with the lines of the design, i. e., directly across the pattern. Where there are curves in the design, the stitches will need to be crowded on the inner side, but no gaps must occur in the outer edge. The work must be as smooth on the wrong side as on the right. Where single lines occur the satin stitch is also used. A. very small hold should be taken in the linen and the stitches should have a smooth, cordlike effect. The irregular running stitch taken in the filling will help to secure the effect if it is carefully done.

Begin the satin stitch at the extreme end of some part of the pattern. To fasten the thread take a running stitch through the design to the point of beginning. If it is a curve care must be taken to keep the stitch continually in the same relation to the pattern. Bring the needle to the right side and put it back directly opposite. Let the stitches closely follow one mother. Draw them close that the outline may be clear and the work firm. The work should appear in the end like a solid mass and not have individual stitches pushing themselves into view. Finish off the thread in the work and begin another carefully either by a running stitch in the unfinished part or concealed in the finished work. Where a letter is not continuous the ;thread must not be taken across underneath from one part to the other unless he distance is almost imperceptible, but the thread must be fastened off and ;he work begun again. It is usually well to pad with rather fine embroidery cotton, as, with beginners, coarse cotton will often push up between the stitches. The experienced worker judges from the character of her design. Fine embroidery cotton should be used for the satin stitch on fine linen.

Rule For Tying Fringe

Draw a number of threads in the material where the top of the fringe is to come. The tying should be done before

Fig. 47. a, Filled; b,

Fig. 47.-a, Filled; b,

Straight Satin Stitch; c, Sloping Satin Stitch.

raveling out the entire fringe. Fasten the cotton first in the solid material just above the drawn threads, and then in the drawn threads. The linen is laid over the first finger of the left hand and held tightly with the thumb and the second finger. Lay the cotton straight along the drawn threads, put the needle on the left side of the cotton, pass it under several of the drawn threads, bring it out under the right side of the cotton and draw it up tightly to hold the threads. This will make a tie in the cotton. Continue this on the four sides. Some prefer to hold the tied fringe close under the solid linen, others leave a small space between. For ordinary linen No. 100 cotton is fine enough for the tying. When it is finished, fringe out the linen.

Hemstitching is sometimes used to hold the fringe in place of tying. A small overcasting stitch may also be used to keep the fringe neat when it is laundered; the effect is not, however, as good as the hemstitching or the tying.

Practice

Take a piece of linen 6 x 6 inches. It should be moderately fine and the threads should draw easily. If desired a piece of linen 10 x 10 inches can be made into a face towel. Two letters from 1 inch to 2 inches in length should be clearly stamped on it. These letters should not be elaborate. The old English text is good. Carefully pad between the double lines and use the irregular running stitch on the single lines. Embroider the letters with the satin stitch according to the rule. When the letters are completed. draw five or six threads (on all four sides) about 3/4 of an inch from the raw edges. These threads should be tied before fringing (see Rule for Tying Fringe). When the threads are tied cut the raw edges carefully so they may be perfectly even, and draw the threads up to the tie.

Suggestion

Satin stitch for marking and fringe tying for the raw edges may be used on small towels, table cloths, napkins and doilies. The French convent embroidery used on underclothing is to a great extent made up of satin stitches, combined with French knots, blanket-stitches and others. Garments simply decorated in this way should be brought to the classes if possible and discussed. Art lessons should be utilized for designs for collars, cuffs, underclothing and blouses. The flax flower lends itself well for this purpose and linen is an excellent center for correlation with geography, his-tory, art and home.