Age: 14-18 Years; 18-24 Years

The expansion of the drawers type into knickers shows the application of a shaped (circular) waistband. Any fulness in front is disposed of by darts.

The upper portion of the back is gathered (pleated if in thick material) into a straight band and fastened to the circular band by buttons and button-holes (Diag. 156).

Side openings at waist and knee are finished as described already.

It is advisable to make up from the simple drawers type two or three movable slips (lining) or washing material, in fact, worn calico nightdresses, calico combinations or calico knickers might be adapted economically for this purpose, to wear with cloth knickers. These have taken the place of the under flannel petticoat to a great extent, and are to be recommended, being warmer, more comfortable, and quite as hygienic. In making up, the machine may be used for all seams.

Combinations combine the slip bodice and drawers type, and are certainly more economical than two separate garments.

But combinations of calico, etc., have neither the elasticity nor warmth that knitted combinations possess, and are not recommended for children or old people.

Combinations are made from 2 1/2 to 3 yards (adult size), and are made up by the processes employed already in the slip bodice and drawers types.

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Diag. 156.

Note that the upper part of the seat is gathered and attached to the lower part of the bodice back.

The darts at the waist line should not be cut until all else is completed, and then they should be sewn to match the other seams (Diag. 157).

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Neck, armholes, kneebands may be constructed and decorated at the same time by the application of some of the varied stitchery known now; or a whipped frill may be sewn on as a finish.

For the general making up the machine may be used. Whipping and sewing on a frill require growth and skill of hand, for fine material - be it fine calico, linen, or silk - has to be handled in small quantities. Much handling creases and depreciates the symmetry of the frill, which should follow the principles of gathering, stroking, setting in. Folds, if hemmed or machined, should be narrow, to avoid the bulging induced by gathering up deeply folded material that has not been constructed by suitable stitchery. The frill on the combinations shows vertical hemming grouped and varied by small tacking or darning stitchery. The whipping stitch is worked from right to left, beginning with two or three hemming stitches.

Roll three-quarters of an inch at a time towards the worker, moving the raw edge backwards and forwards with the thumb over the left forefinger, which should be kept pretty motionless, till a tight roll is secured.

Move (whip) the needle from the back to the front in a slanting direction clear under the roll, with about \ inch space between each whip, stitch and keep the thread quite easy (Diag. 158.) Test the work by drawing the material up every three-quarter inch. (If the needle come through the roll it is fatal, as the frill will not draw up and the thread breaks.) Place the right side of the whipped-up frill to the right side of the garment and arrange the fulness equally all round with pins. Seam the frill (fulness) to the garment from the wrong side; the needle is inserted in a slanting direction, and lifts lightly the top of each separate whipped-up roll (Diag. 159), and the thread falls regularly between each of the rolls made. Paper patterns are presented free by many papers ; patterns are bought for a trifle, but with one and all it is better to compare the pattern with the body, to see if all is correct, and if it be a fairly tight-fitting garment like the combinations, it is a safe plan to cut out the pattern in cheap, unbleached calico, as the slip bodice type was cut out, and fit this to the body.

Lesson III Expansion Of Types Into Knickers Combin 165Lesson III Expansion Of Types Into Knickers Combin 166

Note, the neck and armhole in bought patterns are generally larger than required, and look carefully whether turnings have been allowed for, or not.

Before cutting out in the actual fabric, be sure that the pattern is placed rightly with regard to the way of the selvedge and those parts that have to face (blouses, shirts).

Skirt patterns, if too long, should not be shortened either at top or foot, but should have a tuck or two run at a sufficient distance from the foot, not to interfere with the important lines of the pattern.

If the pattern be too short, insert a piece of paper a similar distance from the foot edge. Gores are widened in a similar manner. In fitting take up at the shoulder seams or let out at the seam under the arms.

The baby's cap(Diag. 160) illustrates material whipped and set into a small crown of button-hole stitchery and eyelet holes.

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Diag. 160.