Skirts are made of cotton, linen, woolen, or silk material. These materials vary greatly in weave, finish and width.
In selecting the material for any skirt the essential points to be considered are:
1. On what occasion is the garment to be worn.
2. What amount of wear it will stand.
3. What length of time it is intended to be worn.
4. What are the remodeling qualities of the goods.
5. How the goods may be cut to the best advantage.
The skirt shown in Fig. 51 is made of cotton material 1 yard wide. This width was chosen because the skirt can be cut out with almost no waste. Any cotton, linen, woolen, or mixed material may be used.
One must be careful when placing the pattern on the material to observe:
1. Whether the material has a right or a wrong side.
2. Whether the material has an up and down, or whether a nap.
3. Whether there is a distinctive pattern to be matched.
Fig. 51. - Back View of Skirt A, Two gatherings at the normal waist line and one at the high waist line will keep the fullness in place; B, C, side seam should follow the plumb line; D, back gores joined with a French side.
Figure 52 shows how to place the pattern on the material if it does not have a right or a wrong side or an up and down.
Figure 53 shows how to make a skirt with two gores and how to place the pattern on the material if it has a right and a wrong side and an up and down.
Fig. 52. - Pattern Placed on Material which has no Right or Wrong Side nor an Up and Down
The measurements needed for a skirt are: the waist measure, the hip measure, the front length, the side length, the back length. (See Fig. 5.)
The waist measure should be taken over the corset cover. It should be the size of the belt.
The hip measure is taken by standing behind the person to be measured and placing the tape line horizontally around the hips and about 7"
Fig. 53. - Pattern Placed on Material which has a Right and a Wrong Side and an Up and Down from the waistline. This measure should be taken quite loosely.
The length should be measured from the waistline to the floor. One should make sure that the line is horizontal around the waist; otherwise it will be impossible to get an even length. All the lengths (the front, the side, and the back lengths) should be taken from the waist to the floor. Then there should be deducted from one length the number of inches that one desires the skirt to be from the floor. For example, if the measurement from the waist to the floor is 42" and the skirt is to be 10" from the floor the front length should be 32". The side and back lengths should be measured accordingly.
Waist measure 26", hip measure 40", front length 32", side length 33", back length 33".
The Drafting of the Pattern (See Fig. 54).
Cut a piece of paper 36" wide and about 5" longer than the actual length of the skirt desired. The average length at the present time is 35". The paper should, then, be about 40" long and 36" wide. Take this paper and place it with the width, horizontally in front of you, and mark the corners A, B, C, and D.
AC represents the width of the paper and the woof of the material. AB represents the length of the paper and the straight of the goods.
Fig. 54. - Draft for Skirt
AL From A on the AC line measure one-half of the hip measure, and locate L.
AM On the AC line from A, measure a line the length of one-fourth of the entire waist measure and to this add 3/4" and mark that point M For instance, if the waist measure is 26", then 1/4 of it is 6 1/2" and if you add 3/4" to this amount you have 7 1/4". It is the length of the line thus obtained, or 7 1/4", that you must use in measuring on the AC line to locate M.
AE From A on the AB line measure a line 3" long, and locate E. (The distance between A and E is always equal to one-tenth of one-half of the width of the bottom of the skirt.)
EF From K draw a line 7 1/4" long and parallel to AM, and locate F.
MP Connect M and F by a straight line.
FG From the point F on the ME line, locate a point G which should measure as far from F as the difference between the front length and the side length of the skirt. For example, suppose the front length is 30", the side length 31". The difference will be one inch.
EGL Connect E and G by a slightly curved line and then connect G and L by a straight line. Mark this line "waistline."
EB From E on the center front line AB, measure the front length of the skirt, and locate K. From the waistline G measure down the side length. Place the end of the yardstick on the waistline. Let the other end come toward the bottom of the skirt. Mark dots with a pencil at the point which represents the length of the skirt. Move the yardstick (keeping it on the waistline) so that a series of dots will mark the bottom of the skirt. Place these dots at intervals of 2". To obtain the desired width take a tapeline and pin this around the bottom. This will help you to obtain a good curve. When the 32" point is reached (on the width of one-half of the skirt) place the yardstick again at L and make sure that the last dot is 33" (the length of the skirt) from the top. (See Fig. 52.) Always be sure that half of the width of the skirt KJ (28", 32", 36", or wider) intersects at the back with the length of the skirt LJ.
To prevent the skirt from having points or scallops in front and in the back, place the chart, or a right-angled corner, on the front KF and also on the back JL. At the corner K and the corner J, draw a line 3" long. Join the curve that represents the bottom of the skirt to these straight lines.
Do not remove the tapeline until you are sure that the length is perfectly even and that you have a good slightly curved line at the bottom.
KI Find the center of the bottom (which in this case is 16"), and locate I.
10 On the IK line measure 1 1/2" from I, and locate 0. This point is placed a little nearer to the front so that the side seam may hang perfectly straight. The seams in the skirts should always follow the plumb line.
OG Connect O and G by a straight line. This line indicates the side seam. Mark:
1. The front line EK with the words "center front straight of the material."
2. The back line LJ "center back, straight of the material."
3. On each side of the side seams OJ "bias."
4. Mark connecting points instead of notches, one at the center front, two at the side seams, and three at the back. (See Fig. 52.)
5. Mark full name on each gore.