This section is from the "Hand Sewing Lessons" book, by Sarah Ewell Krolik. Also available from Amazon: Hand Sewing Lessons: A Graded Course For Schools And For The Home.
Cotton, 5 inches square. Cotton, 21/2 x5 inches, cut lengthwise.
Firm, unbleached cotton, 5 inches square, for design in back-stitch (Seepages 100, 101.)
Fold the edge back and finish with flannel stitch. (Page 63.)
A backstitch is taken back to form a continuous line of stitches. A half-backstitch is taken half way back. Illustration 14.
Fold the first square lengthwise, and cut as directed in Illustration 13.
Draw a thread of the warp 1/4 inch from the edge on the straight side of one of these sections. Backstitch on this line to join the oblong piece, and overcast the seam. Join the bias edges with half backstitch. Have upper edge wider, and baste evenly close to the narrow edge. Sew the seam with the wider edge toward you. Turn the extra width over the narrow edge and hem, so as to cover both edges and form a flat fell. Pink the edges by clipping them when held up and over the end of the forefinger between the thumb and second finger. With practice, this can be done rapidly.
Counter-felling is used in machine sewing, to join parts of garments where a strong seam is required. For example: the side seams of under-waists. Make a 1/4 inch fold on the wrong side of one edge to be joined, and one on the right side of the other edge. Place them together, so that the raw edges will be inside, and the
Illustration 14. Represents Model 10 (Backstitching, Half-Backstitching, And Felling).
width of the seam will be 1/2 inch. The folded edges are stitched, if the garment is made by machine, and hemmed, if made by hand.
Double-felling is used when a flat seam is required. Make a narrow hem on each side of the edges to be joined, and overhand the edges of hems, or stitch a seam and hem the edges back on each side of it.
Models 10 And 11 Represent:
1. Two straight edges joined with a backstitch.
2. Two bias edges joined with a half-backstitch.
3. A bias and a straight edge joined with two running and a half-backstitch.