This section is from the "Hand Sewing Lessons" book, by Sarah Ewell Krolik. Also available from Amazon: Hand Sewing Lessons: A Graded Course For Schools And For The Home.
The first set of stitches cross diagonally in one direction, and the second set in the opposite direction.
Illustration 40 (b). Pupil's name in cross-stitch.
Illustration 41. (1) and (2); . Rolled gathers, and method of sewing them on.