A plain fell is a flat, smooth seam between two pieces of fabric made by putting two pieces of material together with one edge extending beyond the other and hemming the extended edge down.

In lower grades, the plain fell should be made on unbleached muslin; in higher grades, a narrower fell, both bias and straight, should be made and bleached muslin used.

Hem a fell cut on the bias by beginning at the wide part-of the garment and sewing towards the narrow part.

A fell may be made by sewing it with the edges even, and then trimming off the lower edge.

Materials. - The materials required are: A practice

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ILL. 24. - The Plain Fell Basted. 48

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ILL. 25. - Sewing the First Part of Plain Fell.

piece cut one and a half inches from the last seam; "sharp" needles for the first part and "ground downs" for the second part of the seam; cotton; scissors; ruler or tape measure.

1.   Place the muslin together with the upper edge extending one-fourth of an inch above the lower edge. See that the edges are kept parallel.

2.   Place the wrong side of each piece out.

3.   Baste with uneven basting one-eighth of an inch below the lower edge. See Illustration No. 24.

4.  Sew with a backstitch and three running stitches close to and under the basting. See Illustration No. 25.

5.   Take out the basting.

6.   Open the work out flat and rub it the entire length of the seam to prevent it from forming a fold on the right side.

7.   Turn down the edge that extends one-eighth of an inch on the wrong side.

8.   Press the turn down flat and baste it with even basting.

9.  Finish with hemming. See Illustration No. 26.

Note. - The second basting is sometimes omitted, and the edge is turned under with the point of the needle as it is hemmed.

Mistakes Likely to Occur.

1.   Badly prepared fell, the width being unsuitable to the garment.

2.   A puckered and clumsy, instead of a neat and flat, appearance on the right side.

French Fell.

In a French fell the frayed edges are completely hidden, and no stitches show on the right side. When finished, it

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ILL. 26. - Plain Fell Completed. 50 looks like a ridge or a cord, and is particularly satisfactory on curved or bias seams.

Pupils can baste the second part of the French fell with greater accuracy if they hold it up between them and the light while doing it.

The difference between a plain and a French fell will be seen from this table:

Plain Fell.

1.   Place the seam together with the wrong side of each piece out.

2.   Let one edge extend one-fourth of an inch beyond the other.

3.    Baste with uneven basting one-eighth of an inch below the lower edge.

4.   Sew the first part of the seam with three running stitches and a backstitch.

5.   Turn down the edge that extends and finish with hemming.

French Fell.

1.  Place the seam together with the right side of each piece out.

2.   Make the edges and ends exactly even.

3.    Baste with uneven basting one - eighth of an inch below the edge.

4.   Sew the first part of seam with one running and one backstitch.

5.   Turn the seam on the wrong side and finish with backstitching.

Materials. - The materials required for the French fell are: A practice piece as prepared for other seams;

"ground downs" or "between" needles; cotton; scissors; ruler or tape measure.

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ILL. 27. - French Fell.

1.   Place the material with the right side of each piece out and the edges and ends exactly even.

2.   Baste with uneven basting one-eighth of an inch from the edge.

3.   Sew with a backstitch and one running stitch directly under the basting.

4.   Take out basting.

5.   Trim off frayed edges.

6.   Rub the seam on the wrong side with the nail so that the sewing, when the seam is turned, may be kept at the edge.

7.   Turn the material over on the line of sewing so that the seam will be on the wrong side.

8.   Baste with uneven basting directly below the turns. Be careful that no frayed edges are seen on the right side.

9.   Sew with a backstitch. See Illustration No. 27.

Practical work. - A corset cover will give experience in making the French fell.

« Mistakes Likely to Occur IN the French Fell.

1.   First part of the seam not brought to the top edge when basting for the second seam.

2.   Frayed edges of the first seam showing on the right side when finished.

3.   Seam too wide.

English Fell.

This is really a plain fell, differing principally in the method of turning and sewing the first part. It is useful in making up sheer muslins, lawns, and similar materials where quickness of sewing rather than strength of seam is desired.

This seam does not require the second part to be basted.

Materials.—The, materials required are: A practice piece cut one and a half inches from the last seam; "sharps" for the first part and "ground downs" or "be-

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ILL. 28.—English Fell, Showing the Turning of the Edge and Sewing of the

First Part.

tween" needles for the second part of the seam; cotton; scissors; ruler or tape measure.

1.   Turn down the edge of one piece one-eighth of an inch on the right side.

2.   Place the raw edge of the other piece to this fold with the wrong side of each piece out.

3.   Baste one-eighth of an inch below the lower edge with uneven basting.

4.   Sew with running stitches one-eighth of an inch below the lower edge. See Illustration No. 28.

5.   Press the turned edge down flat.

6.   Finish with hemming.

Overseam and Fell.

This is a particularly strong seam, and is often used for joining bias materials together.

Materials. - The materials required are: A practice piece cut one and a half inches from the last seam; needles, "ground downs" or "betweens"; cotton; scissors; ruler or tape measure.

Paper may be used in practicing the folds necessary to make this seam.

1.   Put a double fold or turn on one side of the material, making the first turn one-eighth of an inch on the right side, and the second turn one-fourth of an inch back on to the wrong side.

2.   Turn the other piece one-fourth of an inch on the wrong side.

3.   Place the material together with the right side of each piece out,

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ILL. 29. - Overseam and Fell, Showing how the Edges are Turned.

4.   Baste with even basting.

5.   Overseam the two edges together.

6.   Flatten the seam out well.

7.   Turn the double fold over, and finish with a hem on the wrong side. See Illustration No. 29.

German Hemming or German Fell.

The German fell, like the plain fell, is made with two seams and does not show any frayed edges.

MateRials.- These materials will be required: A practice piece cut one and a half inches from the last seam; "ground downs" or "between" needles; cotton; scissors; ruler or tape measure.

1.   Turn down one piece one-eighth of an inch on the right side. (This represents the upper half of the seam.)

2.   Turn down the other piece one-eighth of an inch on the wrong side. (This represents the lower half of the seam.)

3.   Then place the lower fold just to the raw edge of the upper fold.

4.   Baste with even basting.

5.   Hem along the edge of the lower fold.

6.   Turn the upper fold over, and hem it down like an ordinary fell.

Reversible Seam or Counter Hem.

A reversible seam is a flat seam hemmed on both edges. It probably derives its name from the manner of turning it, or from the fact that a garment made with this seam may be worn either side out.

Time may be saved by practicing the turning and placing of the seam on paper before attempting it on muslin.

This seam is sometimes stitched instead of hemmed.

Materials.—The materials required are: A practice piece cut one and a half inches from the last seam; "ground downs" or "between" needles; cotton; scissors; ruler or tape measure.

1.   Turn down the edge of one piece one-eighth of an inch on the wrong side.

2.   Turn down the edge of the second piece one-eighth of an inch on the right side.

3.   Place the two folds one on top of the other, so that the frayed edges will not show on either side.

4.   Place one inch together at a time; hold it up to the light in order to detect any crookedness.

5.   Baste through the centre of the seam. Take an occasional backstitch to prevent the cloth from slipping while being sewed. On woolen goods baste across the seam from edge to edge like this:

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6. Hem first on the right and then on the wrong side.

Common Mistakes in the Reversible Seam.

1.   Edges turned unevenly.

2.   Seam basted so that it will not have straight edges.