3................

4................

Dress bloomers

1. Gingham

2. Percale

3................

4................

Undergarment bloomers 1. Sateen

2................

3................

4................

You may wonder why it is that some of these materials are especially suitable for certain kinds of bloomers. If you will examine the samples closely and compare the weaves with the pictures of weaves in Fig. 45 you will learn one reason why this is true. A magnifying glass is a great help in examining the materials. You will note that gingham and percale have the same kind of weave as shown in the first part of Fig. 45. This is the most common of weaves and is called the plain weave or tabby weave. A simple way of making the plain weave on a small cardboard loom is shown in Fig. 46. Perhaps you have done a small piece of weaving on a loom similar to this. The long straight threads are called warp threads and the threads that pass back and forth are called filling threads. Can you describe the way in which the filling threads cross the warp threads in the plain weave? This weave makes a strong, firm cloth that launders well.

Fig. 45.

Chapter V How To Make Bloomers 95Chapter V How To Make Bloomers 96Chapter V How To Make Bloomers 97

Fig. 46.

Chapter V How To Make Bloomers 98

1. Pick out all the samples that were brought in which are made with the plain weave.

2. Count all the dresses which the girls in the class are wearing that are made with the plain weave.

Twill Weave. - If you examined your samples carefully you found that some of them were made with a weave like that shown in the second part of Fig. 45. A strong, diagonal effect is quite evident. Galatea is an example of this type of weave which is known as the twill weave. By examining Fig. 45 you can see how the filling threads pass over and under the warp threads. The twill weave is the strongest, firmest and most durable of all the weaves Therefore, it is easy to see why galatea is a most suitable material for gymnasium bloomers. Examine your clothing to see how many girls in the class are wearing materials made with a twill weave.

Satin Weave. - There is still a third kind of weave that is different from either the twill weave or the plain weave. It has a smooth, lustrous surface on the right side and is known as the satin or the sateen weave. It will be easy to remember this because the name of one material suitable for bloomers is sateen. Examine the third weave in Fig. 45 and notice that the threads are woven together in a way which leaves long threads on the surface of the cloth. When you examine the surface of a piece of sateen you can see these little threads which lie on the surface and give the sateen a smooth, lustrous appearance. Materials made of the satin weave are not so durable as those made from the plain or twill weave because these threads are apt to catch and wear. However, sateen is a popular material especially for bloomers worn as undergarments because it is soft and comfortable. It is also used for gymnasium bloomers although it is not as durable as galatea. Ordering Your Material. - The amount of material necessary for you to buy is printed on the envelope of your pattern. However, you should know how to estimate the amount of material without referring to the pattern, because the amount given on the pattern may not be the right amount for your bloomers. A good seamstress knows how to estimate the amount of material needed for a garment without referring to a pattern. Fig. 47 shows how the bloomer pattern is laid on the folded material. If your bloomers measure twenty-seven inches from the waist to the knee how much material will you need for the pair of bloomers? Work with a partner as you did when you made your kimono and take measurements from waist to knee. Should the length of the bloomer be longer than this measurement? Make out an order slip like the one below and have your teacher approve it before you buy your material.

Fig. 47.

Chapter V How To Make Bloomers 99

Name......................

Kind of bloomers............

Name of material............

Cost per yard................

Length of bloomers ..........

Amount needed..............

Total cost ..................

It is well to consider at this time what other materials such as thread, elastic and buttons will be needed.

Cutting the Bloomers. - In making garments a great deal of attention is always given to the lengthwise and crosswise of the material. Lengthwise, of course, is the direction of the material that corresponds to the selvedge edges and is sometimes called the up and down of the material. These up and down threads are the same as the warp threads and are generally stronger than the crosswise or filling threads. Most garments are cut so that the lengthwise of the material runs lengthwise of the garment. You will remember that kimonos and nightgowns are cut this way. This is also true of the bloomers. In the case of the kimono the material was folded lengthwise so as to cut both sides of the garment exactly alike. It is also necessary to cut the two legs of the bloomers exactly alike but the pattern is too wide to permit the material to be folded lengthwise. Can you tell from Fig. 47 how the material should be folded? Folding material with a right and wrong side also prevents cutting the two halves of the bloomers for the same leg.

Commercial patterns have directions and diagrams printed on the envelops that are helpful in using the pattern.