Sometimes we hold up our stockings by wearing garters around the leg or by rolling the top of the stocking. This is injurious if it is so tight as to interfere With the circulation of the blood in the leg. When the garter makes a red mark on the leg, even though it does not feel uncomfortable, we should be warned that the garter is too tight. What happens when you wrap a string or rubber band tightly around your finger and leave it there?

Something More for the W. T. W. Club. - What rules should the club make about stockings? An interesting topic for discussion for one of your club meetings may be: "What have I learned about shoes and stockings that will be helpful to other people? " How many girls have been able to help their brothers and sisters buy shoes and stockings that fit properly?

Clothing That Permits Freedom of Movement. - The modern girl wears about half as many undergarments as her great-grandmother did. Many of the garments are combination one-piece garments, such as the knitted union suit, the combination suit and the underslip. The fact that most undergarments worn by the modern girl have no waist bands gives her more comfort and freedom of movement.

Another reason the modern girl has more comfort is that she wears no corset or if any, a small, light girdle corset which in no way restricts the waist line. The girl of to-day has less need for a corset than the old-fashioned girl because she keeps in good condition by exercise. The few girls who need corsets have weak muscles or are not in good condition physically. No girl should ever wear a corset that interferes with the organs of the body. The old-fashioned girl tried to have as small a waist line as possible. It seems hard to believe that any girl would deliberately injure herself by wearing a tight corset. Yet girls and women of our great-grandmothers' time wore their corsets so tight that it was necessary for them to have assistance in pulling up their corset strings. In order to achieve a waist that measured 16 to 18 inches around they tied their corset strings to a bed post and pulled with all their might. Fine ladies were put into their corsets by maids who pulled the strings so tightly that freedom of movement was impossible. This pulling in of the waist distorted the natural shape of the body and prevented the organs of the body from functioning properly. At the present time our ideas as to what makes a beautiful figure have so changed that we now admire the healthy, natural figure. If a corset is worn it must conform to the natural figure and in no way distort it. Notice the body of the girl in Fig. 41. Do you think this girl has ever worn a tight corset?

Fig. 41.

How Our Clothing Keeps Us Healthy 89

A Program for a W. T. W. Club Meeting. - 1. Have reports on the effect of wearing tight clothing. The girls who have studied physiology and hygiene should be able to make these reports. The list of references at the end of this chapter will help the girls who make these reports.

2. Arrange an exhibit of pictures from magazines or newspapers of girls with beautiful, natural figures and of historical pictures of ladies with unnaturally small waists.

3. Make rules about the wearing of tight clothing. How Our Clothing Helps to Keep Us Warm. - Every body knows that it is necessary to keep warm in order to avoid sickness. When a person gets very cold sickness is almost sure to follow. Colds, influenza, pneumonia and tonsilitis frequently result from exposure to cold. The normal temperature of the body is about 98 degrees. This remains the same all the time and does not change even a few degrees unless the person is ill. How is it possible for the body to keep the same temperature when we go from a well-heated house to the out-doors where it may be freezing cold? We may even remain out-doors for a long time but the temperature of the body will remain about 98 degrees. The body itself produces heat and when it is exposed to cold reacts in such a way as to furnish extra heat. However, it would not be possible for the body always to furnish sufficient heat to keep us well if it were not for our clothing which protects us from the cold and helps to save the body heat.

The following paragraphs will tell you what kind of clothing to wear in order to keep warm.

The Weave That Keeps You Warm. - The clothing which will keep one warm is the clothing which best holds the body heat, and prevents it from getting away. The warmest clothing is that which is a poor conductor of heat. This means that heat can not pass through it easily. The garment worn next to the skin is most important in saving the body heat. One would suppose that the more tightly woven a material is, the warmer it would be. However, this is not entirely true. A loosely woven or knitted material has many tiny open spaces which hold the air. Air itself is a poor conductor of heat and the heat from the body can not pass through these air-filled spaces readily. When we understand that it is really the confined air that saves the heat of the body we are ready to believe that the loosely woven or knitted garment is warmer than a tightly woven garment. Are you wearing any garment made from a material that is knitted or loosely woven so that you can see the little air spaces?

Of course, an open-mesh weave in an outer garment is not warm because the wind penetrates it so easily. For example, sweaters and little children's knitted suits are not really warm unless a cloth coat is worn over them, in which case they are very warm indeed. Two light-weight garments are warmer than one very heavy garment because the layer of air between the two garments helps to conserve the body heat. Sleeping under two light-weight blankets keeps one warmer than sleeping under one heavy blanket.

To Discuss with Your Class. - 1. What would be the best way to dress in order to keep warm in a cold room where there was no wind?