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Household Textiles | by Charlotte M. Gibbs



Books on the subject of textiles have usually been written from the standpoint of the manufacturer or of the textile chemist. It has been the purpose of the writer to bring together in this book the general facts of most interest to the consumer. Those points have been chosen which will give a broader understanding of the textile market and aid in the selection and use of textile fabrics.

TitleHousehold Textiles
AuthorCharlotte M. Gibbs
PublisherWhitcomb & Barrows Boston
Year1912
Copyright1912, Whitcomb & Barrows Boston
AmazonHousehold Textiles
Fig. 7. Flemish Tapestry, early Sixteenth Century (Page 16).

Fig. 7. Flemish Tapestry, early Sixteenth Century.

-Preface
Books on the subject of textiles have usually been written from the standpoint of the manufacturer or of the textile chemist. It has been the purpose of the writer to bring together in this book the g...
-Chapter I. Early Development Of The Textile Arts
THE strict definition of textile is a fabric made by weavingor a material capable of being woven. For convenience, in the study of cloth, we include under the word textile not only the fibers ca...
-Prehistoric Textiles
In attempting to learn something of the beginnings of weaving and spinning, we are carried back to the earliest written records, and here we find descriptions of an industry already well developed. Fo...
-Primitive Peoples Of Today
Had we no history to read and no relics to study, if we look about us today we may see many examples of the early stages in development of the textile art. Tribes of people still exist whose civilizat...
-Historic Textiles
At the time when the most ancient records were written, textiles were being woven in parts of the Orient which in intricacy of design, richness of material, and splendor of color have perhaps never be...
-Colonial Home Industries
The textile industry of the later eighteenth and the early nineteenth century which we shall study is very different from the weaving of tapestry or of Oriental rugs. It is the simple home industry wh...
-Chapter II. Spinning And Weaving. Evolution Of Spinning
Spinning is the process whereby fibers are combined in such a manner that they produce a continuous thread. The origin of spinning is lost in past ages. Just when or how man first conceived the idea i...
-Evolution Of Weaving
Weaving is the process of interlacing two sets of parallel threads at right angles to each other, to produce cloth. The art of weaving has gone through an evolution similar to that of spinning. Again,...
-The Industrial Revolution
For a long period no great change came about in the machinery used for manufacturing cloth. The loom of the early eighteenth century did not differ greatly from that of the tenth century, and the spin...
-The Industrial Revolution. Continued
Thus have the arts of spinning and weaving developed from a fireside industry to one of the greatest manufacturing industries of our time. Household arts, requiring considerable manual skill, they hav...
-Chapter III. Classification Of Fibers
NATURE has been lavish in the supply of materials that she has placed in the hands of man, from which he may fashion shelter, clothing, implements, and ornaments. We have seen how savage woman learned...
-General Characteristics
Vegetable fibers are plant cells. Their structure is simple and they are largely made up of cellulose, with more or less foreign material, such as plant waxes, resins, etc. They are various parts of t...
-Minor Fibers
Ramie One of the most promising vegetable fibers used for centuries in India and China is just coming into use in this country. Ramie or China grass, from the stem of a stingless nettle, is a lustrou...
-Vegetable Silk
This name includes a number of fibers, the downy coverings of seeds of plants or trees. These fibers are not capable of being spun, but are used for stuffing mattresses or cushions. Kapok, or silk-cot...
-Chapter IV. Everything about Cotton Fabrics
History As has been stated, cotton is a vegetable fiber coming from the seed pod of the cotton plant. This plant is indigenous to many countries, and was used in different parts of the world at the d...
-Everything about Cotton Fabrics. Part 2
Cotton. Cultivation The time for planting cotton naturally varies in different climates. In the United States, in February, the fields are cleared of the last year's stalks, and the ground is plowed ...
-Everything about Cotton Fabrics. Part 3
Cotton. Preparation For Market When the seed pod has burst open, disclosing its treasure of snowy fibers, the time for hard and rapid work has begun. The problem of picking is sometimes a serious one...
-Everything about Cotton Fabrics. Part 4
Spinning The final spinning into yarn consists of drawing out the roving strand finer and giving it a twist. Two-ply yarn is made by twisting together two yarns, three-ply, three yarns, etc. The air ...
-Everything about Cotton Fabrics. Part 5
Cotton. Finishing When cotton cloth comes from the loom, with the exception of coarse, unbleached muslins, it is by no means ready for the market. If the yarn has been bleached and dyed before weavin...
-Chapter V. Everything about Wool Fabrics
Origin The most important fiber of animal origin is the wool of the domestic sheep. There are many animals whose hairy coverings are used for textile fabrics, but the sheep furnishes the most typical...
-Everything about Wool Fabrics. Part 2
Wool. Cultivation The cultivation of sheep for wool consists in keeping the animal in the most healthy condition possible, in careful breeding, and in shelter from the worst rainstorms. Care must be ...
-Everything about Wool Fabrics. Part 3
Wool. Preparation For Market The woolgrower, when the proper season of the year has arrived, gathers his flocks for shearing. The time varies in different climates, but is in the spring when the shee...
-Everything about Wool Fabrics. Part 4
Woolen And Worsted Various distinctions are given between these two yarns; viz., that woolen is made from short wool and worsted from long wool, and that woolen is carded and worsted combed. While bo...
-Everything about Wool Fabrics. Part 6
Wool. Finishing The cloth which comes from the loom is far from being a finished product; in fact, so much is yet to be done that there are establishments whose only business is finishing woolen and ...
-Everything about Wool Fabrics. Part 7
Extract Rags which contain a mixture of cotton and wool have the cotton separated out by a process of carbonization. The rags are treated with dilute acid, usually sulphuric, dried, crushed to destro...
-Chapter VI. Everything about Silk Fabrics
We now have to deal with a fiber which is very different in structure and physical characteristics from any other of those commonly used. In origin, although an animal fiber, silk differs from wool an...
-Everything about Silk Fabrics. Part 2
Silk. Physical And Chemical Structure And Characteristics As an animal fiber, silk has some characteristics resembling wool, but in its physical structure it is very different. While wool consists of...
-Everything about Silk Fabrics. Part 3
Silk Reeling The quality of raw silk as it reaches the manufacturer has been determined largely by care and skill used in reeling the silk filaments from the cocoon. The process is one which requires...
-Everything about Silk Fabrics. Part 4
1. Stripping, Or Ungumming In this process the silk yarn is softened in a soft-water solution of a good cocoa-nut or olive oil soap. The hanks are hung in vats and the water is gradually heated to 20...
-Chapter VII. Everything about Linen or Flax Fabrics
Linen or flax is the fiber obtained from the layer of bast cells just inside the outer bark of the plant Linum usitatissimum, or flax. The fiber is firmly attached to the woody tissue in which it lies...
-Everything about Linen or Flax Fabrics. Part 2
Linen. Cultivation Flax culture must be divided into two branches, culture for fiber and culture for seed. In the United States flax is raised almost entirely for the seed. Linen is woven to a certai...
-Everything about Linen or Flax Fabrics. Part 3
Linen. Drawing And Spinning Drawing, the next process, consists in pulling the hackled fibers out into a rope, which may then be drawn out finer and given a slight twist, producing roving. Finally th...
-Chapter VIII. Bleaching And Dyeing Fabrics
Within the last sixty years the processes of bleaching and dyeing have changed from rule of thumb methods, handed down from generation to generation, and carried on most successfully by those who inhe...
-Bleaching And Dyeing Fabrics. Continued
Operations Preliminary To Dyeing When the fibers come into the hands of the dyer, either in the form of raw fiber, yarn, or cloth, they are in a more or less impure condition; besides the natural imp...
-Dyeing
The object of the dyer is to produce on a given material any desired color, with a certain standard of fastness. The demand may be for fastness to light; it may be for fastness to washing or, better, ...
-Dyeing. Continued
Classification Dyes are usually classified into four groups, according to their general properties.1 a. Acid dyes. 1 Matthews. Laboratory Manual of Dyeing and Textile Chemistry, p. 58. b. Basic ...
-Printing on Fabrics
Before the dawn of history man had learned how to decorate the surface of his fabrics with colors. The primitive South Sea Islander applies color to his bark cloth by dipping a fern leaf into his dye ...
-Chapter IX. Adulterations And Buying Textile Fabrics
In the foregoing pages the effort has been made to show how modern machine methods, modern scientific knowledge, and modern competition have changed the character and increased the quantity of textile...
-Adulterations And Buying Cotton
Cotton we have found to be cheap and plentiful, and the demand for cotton cloth may easily be met with good material. It is manufactured into a great variety of fabrics, and is capable of replacing to...
-Adulterations And Buying Wool
The adulterations of wool are more serious than those of cotton. The excellent qualities of wool, its warmth, its ability to keep its shape and smoothness through long wearing, the richness of materia...
-Adulterations And Buying Linen
Because of the high value put on linen, it is, like silk, often adulterated. Although similar to cotton in chemical structure, it is very different in physical characteristics, and these physical char...
-Chapter X. The Hygiene Of Clothing Materials
With the great movement throughout the country for public health, there seems little excuse for ignorance regarding fabrics that conserve health, yet the general public is ignorant or indifferent, or ...
-The Hygiene Of Clothing Materials. Continued
The same characteristics which make a fabric warm give to it the ability to care for the perspiration. A loosely woven mesh material will absorb moisture more readily than one closely woven. The air i...
-Chapter XI. Design And Color In Textile Fabrics
The problems of design and color in textile fabrics are somewhat complicated. No general rules for selection may be given, for there are many factors influencing the choice; among these are the use to...
-Color In Textile Fabrics
The importance of color in clothing and house fur-nishing is even greater than that of design. The effect of a good design may be ruined by poor color combination, and an excellent color scheme will d...
-Color In Textile Fabrics. Continued
The combinations giving least contrast are those in which different tones of the same color are used. Here the contrast is only that of light and shade, or value. Care must be exercised that the diffe...
-General Principles In Textile Fabrics
As stone and marble immediately place some limitation upon the kind of design to be used for their embellishment, so rugs and fabrics of various kinds place restrictions upon the decorator. Although w...
-General Principles In Textile Fabrics. Continued
Another field for design in dress is that of accessories, rather than of the dress as a whole. Here greater possibilities lie before the designer. A band, a bit of embroidery, or a medallion, to be us...
-Chapter XII. Textile Labor Conditions And Efforts To Improve Them
The United States Government is publishing a report of nineteen volumes on the condition of woman and child wage-earners in the United States. The size of this report suggests the vastness of the labo...
-Textile Labor Conditions And Efforts To Improve Them. Part 2
1 Burnley, James. The Story of British Trade and Industry. The chief manufacturing industries of the colonies for many years were those carried on in the home, and women had comparatively little plac...
-Textile Labor Conditions And Efforts To Improve Them. Part 3
Prior to 1860 hours of labor for children in industry were reduced in the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Ohio to ten a day. The age limit differed in thes...
-Textile Labor Conditions And Efforts To Improve Them. Part 4
Through the efforts of organizations and individuals matters have been much improved and excellent legislation has been passed in all parts of the country, but the work is only begun. Laws are not at ...
-Textile Labor Conditions And Efforts To Improve Them. Part 5
I. Wages 1. Equal value to receive equal pay regardless of sex. 2. No saleswoman over eighteen years of age to receive less than $6.00 a week. 3. Wages paid by the week. 4. Minimum payment to each...
-Chapter XIII. Textile Arts And Crafts Movement
The introduction of machinery for the manufacture of almost all articles necessary to satisfy human needs and desires began an era of decline in the beauty and the honesty of useful things. Painting a...
-Textile Arts And Crafts Movement. Part 2
In 1848, at Oxford University, there was formed a society of painters, sculptors, and writers, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. These men were destined to have a great influence on art and literature. ...
-Textile Arts And Crafts Movement. Part 3
A true understanding of the significance of the movement requires some investigation into the broad field of its work. As the name implies, Arts and Crafts is an effort to associate art and industry; ...
-Textile Arts And Crafts Movement. Part 4
In mountain communities of Kentucky, Tennessee, the Carolinas and New Hampshire, old crafts which had almost disappeared have been nourished and given new life, and delightful products of the loom, al...
-Appendix A. Laboratory Tests For Textile Fibers
Of the many tests which may be used to distinguish one fiber from another, only enough will be given here to serve the purpose of those who wish to analyze, in a simple manner, the fabrics commonly fo...
-Appendix B. Bibliography
The books here listed are those which have been used by the author for reference. Abbott, Edith. Woman in Industry. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1910. Baines, E. History of Cotton Manufacture in Grea...







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