This section is from the book "Progressive Lessons In The Art and Practice of Needlework", by Catherine F. Johnson. Also available from Amazon: Progressive Lessons In The Art And Practice Of Needlework.

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For darning woollen material, use a ravelling of the same if possible. Otherwise, use a fine worsted thread, splitting it if necessary and matching the color of the cloth (see Fig. 65).

In darning on silk or linen fabrics with fine floss, sewing silk, or ravellings of silk, the loops should be left shorter than in other darning, as the linen and silk threads do not shrink like cotton and wool threads.

Fig. 65. - Darned with ravellings.

IV

Mexican work (Fig. 66),

As preliminary to general embroidery, is introduced in this grade. It gives a child valuable artistic training. Some children have natural gifts which are awakened and trained in this work in ways that are invaluable in after life. As a saving of school time, pupils may be allowed to take this work home and work on it there, when they show sufficient appreciation of neatness. It should be noticed that this primary Mexican work is practised in hemstitching and in herringbone stitch.

Cutting: - V.

The scissors practice of the lower grades now becomes the wholly practical work of cutting patterns and garments. The pupils in this fourth year learn the use of the tape measure by measuring for patterns of plain undergarments. The measures are taken by the pupils on a child of the age and size to be fitted. These measures are written on the blackboard, where they are used in drawing a diagram according to the method explained in the class work. The pupil makes a similar diagram on paper.

vi. How to measure for drawers pattern: For the length, place the end of the tape measure at the waist line on the upper part of the hip, and measure to three inches below the knee. Draw the oblong 3 in. longer than that measurement, to allow for the upper slope (see scale of measurements). The width of the oblong is governed a little by the size of the pupil, and according to the teacher's judgment. 15 in. is the right width for an average size pupil of ten to fourteen years of age. For length of waistbands, pass the tape measure around the waist loosely; allow 2 in. more than the waist measure, as this length makes the front and back band. The pattern for children's drawers is so made that the front and back of the body may be either of equal or unequal length.

Fig. 66.- Mexican work.

A scale of measurement for drawers of different sizes is here given, and the following diagram is drawn from a 22 hip to knee measure. The oblong is made 3 in. longer than this measure, to allow at the upper part of the pattern a slope of 3 in. from the folded edge to the back and front, if front and back are made the same length. The length of the seat usually determines the width of the oblong, and the judgment of the teacher is here exercised when the size of the pupil must be considered, as the oblong can be made wider or narrower.*

* A blackboard ruled into inch squares with red lines, every ninth line of some other color, to show the quarters of the yard, is a great help in the teaching and learning the proportions of diagrams.

Sectional paper 1/4 in. scale is an aid to accurate and rapid work; every point and line may be drawn readily at the teacher's direction. It is also useful in reducing and drawing patterns.

These lessons on diagrams should be thoroughly learned before the drawing of them is attempted.

Measurement from Upper Part of Hip to 3 in. below the Knee. | Lower end of Upper Slope. | Width of Upper Front Slope. | Width of Upper Back Slope. | Short Front Length, if desired. | Length of Seat. | Width from Folded Edge to Length of Seat is the width of the oblong. | Hem. | Edge for first turning of Hem. | Fold for Hem when turned for Sewing. |

18 | 3 | 8 | 10 | 2 | 14 | 14 | 11/2 | 91/2 | 9 |

20 | 3 | 8 | 1O | 2 | 14 | 14 | 11/2 | 91 | 9 |

22 | 3 | 10 | 12 | 2 | 15 | 15 | 11/2 | 91 | 9 |

24 | 3 | 13 | 15 | 2 | 16 | 16 | 11/2 | 101/2 | 10 |

27 | 3 | 13 | !5 | 21/2 | 18 | 18 | 11/2 | 101/2 | 10 |

30 | 4 | 13 | 15 | 21/2 | 18 | 18 | 11/2 | 121/2 | 12 |

VII. Pattern of drawers for a child of ten to twelve years (Fig. 68): -This pattern consists of three pieces, - one-half of the drawers, and the front (Fig. 67, A) and back (Fig. 67, B) band. These bands are cut lengthwise of the cloth and sewed to the garment in the manner described in answer to question 65 in the second year. Make three buttonholes in each band, 1 3/8 yds. of cloth 36 in. wide is needed for drawers of this size.

Fig. 67.

Fig. 68.

1. Draw upon the blackboard an oblong 15 in. x 25 in., with the shorter sides horizontal, making the left vertical a dotted line, to represent the line at which the cloth or paper is doubled.

2. From the upper left-hand corner of the oblong, measure 3 in. down on the dotted line, and mark the point A, for the lower end of the upper slope. From the upper end of the left vertical, measure to the right 10 in. Mark the point B, for the width of the upper front slope. From the same end measure to the right 12 in. Mark the point C, for the width of the upper back slope. Connect A-C by a straight line for the back slope.

3. From point B draw downward a dotted vertical line of 2 in., mark this point X. Connect A-X by a straight line for a short front length, if desired.

4. From the upper end on the right vertical, measure down 14 in.

Mark the point D, for length of seat. Connect C-D for the back slope. Connect X-D for the front slope.

5. From the lower end of the left vertical line, measure upward 11/2 in.

Mark the point G, for width of the hem. From that point draw to the right a dotted horizontal line of 9 in. Mark the point E, for the fold of the hem. Connect D-E by curving gradually to the left. This gives the curve for the leg.

6. From the left end of the lower horizontal, measure to the right

91/4 in. Mark the point F. This leaves on the seam a slope for the hem. Connect E-F. Draw the pattern on paper. Cut from A to C, C to D, to E, to F; and cut from A to X and X to D.

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