This section is from the book "Progressive Lessons In The Art and Practice of Needlework", by Catherine F. Johnson. Also available from Amazon: Progressive Lessons In The Art And Practice Of Needlework.
Fig. 27. - Representing a hole in a garment.
Fig. 29. - Patch basted on, ready for stitching.
Fig. 30. - Patch stitched in and overcast.
Fig. 31. - Patch completed, showing right tide.
Fig. 32. - Oversewed patch. Under or wrong side.
Fig. 33. - Oversewed patch. Upper or right side.
52. How is a gusset cut? Ans. Cut a piece of cloth 1 1/4 in. square, cut off 3/4 in. diagonally from one corner (Figs. 34, 35, 36, 37, 38).
Method of preparing and sewing in a gusset.
53. How is a gusset sewed i?n Ans. Place the apex of the triangle at the end of the seam. Oversew to the cloth 1/2 in. on each side, beginning at the apex. The remaining part is folded over on the under side of the work, carefully basted to lie smooth, and hemmed down (see Figs. 37, 38).
54. Why does a gusset make the seam stronger? Ans. A gusset makes the seam stronger because its folded edge is on the bias, and if it is strongly sewed at the corners, it is impossible to tear it.
55. How is a tuck made? Ans. A tuck is made by folding the cloth straight by a thread from edge to edge, and basting this fold at the desired width. A running seam close below the basting finishes the tuck.
56. How are the stitches made in basting for a tuck? Ans. The basting stitches are made one inch long for a tuck.
57. How long are the spaces between? Ans. The spaces between are
1/8 in. long.
58. Why should the stitches be longer than in basting an ordinary seam?
Ans. The basting stitches should be longer for a tuck because they make a better guide for the running stitches, which must be very straight.
59. How is the thread joined in running tucks? Ans. In running tucks make a tied knot that can be easily concealed between the folds of the tuck three stitches back.
60. What is the use of a tuck? Ans. A tuck is used for ornament, or in order that the garment may be lengthened at some future time by letting it down.
61. What is gathering? Ans. Gathering is making a line of running stitches, and drawing the thread so as to full or gather the cloth (Fig. 39, A and B).
62. What should always be done before gathering? Ans. The edge should be marked in halves and quarters by colored cross-stitches (see Fig. 41, A).
63. What should always be done after gathering? Ans. After gathering, the gathers should be stroked or laid.
64. How is the stroking done? Ans. For stroking, the gathers must be pushed close together on the thread, and the loose end of the thread fastened firmly about a pin set at the end of the running, so that it cannot slip. Then the work is held between the thumb and first finger of the left hand, the thumb being directly over the gathering thread; and with a large needle or pin in the right hand, working from left to right, each gather is pressed separately under the left thumb, while the pin strokes down a short distance between it and the next gather (Fig. 40). Then turn the work and stroke above the gathering stitches in the same way, but never so violently as to make a scratching sound with the needle.
Fig. 39. A. - Gathering.
Fig- 39, B. - Running.
Fig. 40. - Gathers stroked or laid.
65. How is a gathered piece of cloth prepared for sewing to a band, or binding? Ans. In preparing gathers for sewing to a band, find the middle of the band, and mark it with a line of small basting stitches (see Fig. 41, B); pin the middle of the band to the middle of the gathered piece. Then pin the ends of the gathered piece to the same edge 1/8 in. from the ends of the band. This 1/8 in. of the band is left to turn in, to finish the ends. Then place the gathers evenly in each half of the band, and baste the gathered piece and band together, holding the gathers toward the person (Fig. 42).
Fig. 41. - Cloth marked in the centre to match band.
66. How should gathers be sewed to a band? Ans. Fasten the ends of the band securely to the gathered piece by oversewing together the edge of the gathered piece and band from the right and left top corners down to the line of gathers; here take three oversewing stitches. (If this is done securely, the garment will wear out before the band rips at the ends.) Now, holding the gathers toward the sewer, make a back-stitch over each gather. The basting is then taken out. Now turn the band up from the gathers, crease, and baste the band in position of Fig. 43; turn in, baste, and oversew the ends of the band, the loose side of which, having been turned over 1/8 in., must be pinned down over the line of stitching. Then baste and hem it down. In hemming down this edge of the band, take up one gather in each stitch (Fig. 44).