This section is from the book "Progressive Lessons In The Art and Practice of Needlework", by Catherine F. Johnson. Also available from Amazon: Progressive Lessons In The Art And Practice Of Needlework.
67. How should a buttonhole be cut? Ans. A buttonhole should be cut in double cloth, the end generally 1/4 in. from the edge of the cloth, and as long as the diameter of the button.
68. What is the first thing to be done to a buttonhole after cutting it?
Ans. The buttonhole should be overcast immediately after being cut.
69. Where is the overcasting of a buttonhole begun? Ans. Begin to overcast a buttonhole at the lower left-hand end.
70. How is a buttonhole overcast? Ans. To overcast a buttonhole, hold it lengthwise of the left forefinger, keeping that pointed to the right, and having the folded edge of the cloth toward the wrist. Then begin at the lower left-hand corner and overcast the left-hand side. Then turn the buttonhole, bring the folded edge to the end of the finger, and overcast the right-hand side (see Fig. 45); then back in cross-stitches to the outer end of the buttonhole. Here make a cross-bar by overcasting one stitch to the right, and then one stitch to the left, until three cross-stitches have been made. (This makes a round, strong outer end to the buttonhole when worked.) Now cross-stitch the left-hand side back to the starting-point (Fig. 46).
Fig- 43 - Cloth oversewed, and stitched to the band turned up and basted.
Fig. 44. - Band finished.
Fig- 45 - Overcasting the right-hand side, making cross-stitches.
Then put the needle through to the under side, take one running stitch, and cut the thread. See buttonhole in canvas sampler. Represent on the blackboard the different steps of preparing and the way of holding a buttonhole.
71. How is a buttonhole worked? Ans. From the lower left-hand corner to the lower right-hand corner, then a straight bar is made across the lower or inner end.
72. How should the buttonhole stitch be made? Ans. In making a buttonhole stitch, the needle is put through the cloth, as for the overcasting, at the lower left-hand corner, then the thread from the eye of the needle is brought around the point of the needle from right to left, and the needle pulled through, bringing the loop up straight, care being taken that it passes over the other end of the thread. The stitches should be made very near together, especially at the round end.
Fig. 46. - Buttonhole overcast twice.
73- How should the straight bar be made at the lower end? Ans. Draw the worked edges together by making four stitches, one over the other, across the lower end of the buttonhole, then, beginning at the right-hand side, make five buttonhole stitches covering these, the middle stitch directly in the middle between the two sides of the buttonhole.
Draw these steps in buttonhole making on the blackboard.
74. Where should the button be sewed on? Ans. The button should be sewed on the other end of the band from the buttonhole, directly apposite the buttonhole, the edge of the button being a little inside of the edge of the band.
75. How should the button be sewed on? Ans. To sew on the button, the thread should be doubled, and a tied knot made in the end; then the needle put through the cloth from the right or upper side, leaving the knot where the button is to be sewed. Then put the needle up through the cloth and one hole in the button and down through an opposite hole until the needle goes through a little hard, then bring the needle up between the button and the cloth and wind the thread three times around the thread there, to stem the button, and then fasten the thread on the wrong side.
76. How is the whipping done? Ans. After cutting the edge evenly by one thread and marking with a cross-stitch the half and quarters, the edge of the ruffle is rolled under in a small, hard roll, on the wrong side between the thumb and first finger of the left hand, one inch at a time, and stitches like hemming stitches are made over it, except that the needle is put up under the roll and brought out at the top of the roll (Fig. 47). At every fifth stitch the thread is held firmly, and the ruffle is fulled as on a gathering thread.
77. How is this ruffle sewed to the sampler Ans. Pin the middle of the ruffle to the middle of the band; holding the sampler toward the person, oversew the ruffle to the band, sewing from left to right in order to make one stitch come in every little groove made by the whipping (see Fig. 48). Although the pupils have learned to oversew from right to left, the teacher should tell them that, in some kinds of work, a better effect will be produced by sewing from left to right; as, overcasting woollens that fray or ravel easily, oversewing a whipped ruffle to a band, herringbone stitch, etc.