This section is from the book "Progressive Lessons In The Art and Practice of Needlework", by Catherine F. Johnson. Also available from Amazon: Progressive Lessons In The Art And Practice Of Needlework.
36. How is the flannel prepared for the embroidery edge stitch? Ans. The flannel is prepared for the embroidery edge stitch by first marking out on card-board scallops of the required size. Draw a straight line 3 in. long, 1/2 in. from the lower edge of the cardboard. Mark off this line by dots 1 in. apart, and half way between each two make a dot on the lower edge of the card-board. Connect these dots by half circles and cut them out with the scissors. Then lay the card-board evenly on the edge of the cloth, and mark the scallops on it with a lead pencil, holding the side of the pencil with care perpendicularly against the edge of the cardboard. Then, making a dot on the cloth just 1/8 in. above the centre of the curve in each scallop, connect the ends of each outside curve by a line drawn through this point. This marks out the space covered by the stitches. With fine darning or tambour cotton make running stitches on the lines marked out, to strengthen the edge.
37. How is the embroidery edge stitch made? Ans. Fasten the thread, to begin the embroidery edge stitch, by taking two or three running stitches between the two curves of the scallop, and bring the needle up at the left-hand point of the first scallop, just on the lower edge of the lower curve, holding the edge toward the person. Then hold the thread down with the left thumb, and put the needle through to the lower side on the upper edge of the upper curve, just over this point, and bring it up again on the lower edge of the lower curve, close to where it came up at first, and over the thread held down by the thumb. The stitch is then tightened by drawing the thread downward. This is repeated, taking care to keep the stitches as close as possible. The central stitch of the scallop should be 1/8 in. long and vertical, the others should shorten and slope gradually to each end.
38. How is a patch made in flannel? Ans. To mend a hole in flannel, a square piece of the material with the edges cut even (not turned in) is basted over the worn or torn place and on the wrong side; this is herringbone-stitched very finely all around the edges, using No. 10 needle and No. 100 cotton. The worn place is then cut out square, and the even edge herringbone-stitched, in the same manner, to the patch (see Figs. 58, 59).
39. Why are the edges of the patch not turned under, as in making a similar patch on cloth? Ans. Because turned edges in flannel are clumsy and unnecessary, as the material will not ravel when held by the herringbone stitches.
40. Of what material is the pocket of the sampler made? Ans. The pocket on the sampler is made of crash.
Fig. 58. - Flannel patch herringboned to the under side.
Fig- 59 - Flannel patch finished, showing upper or right side.
41. How is the pocket cut? Ans. Cut by a thread a piece of crash for the pocket 6 1/2 in. x 4 1/2 in.
42. What is the first step in preparing the hem for hemstitching? Ans. To prepare for the hemstitched hem, draw six threads across the crash 3 in. from the end.
43. What is the next step in preparing the pocket? Ans. After drawing the threads for the hemstitching, turn the edge of the piece of crash down 1/4 in. and baste them with No. 40 cotton and No. 8 needle.
44. What is the second step in preparing the hem? Ans. The second step in preparing the hem is to fold it down and baste it so that the edge of the fold already made lies evenly along the upper edge of the space left by the drawn threads.
45. How is the hemstitching done? Ans. To begin the hemstitching, make a tied knot in the thread and take two or three running stitches on the under side of the fold, then bring the needle to the lower side at the left-hand edge. Now, holding the work over the first finger of the left hand, the hem toward the person, hold the left thumb over the thread and put the needle down between the fourth and fifth threads, take up the four threads to the left, bring the needle up, and pull the loop thus made close to the edge of the hem. Holding the thread firmly under the left thumb, take an edging stitch over the edge of the hem close to the right of the four threads just taken up. Then take up four more threads and repeat. Always work on the side on which the hem is turned, and from left to right (Fig. 60, A, B).
46. How is the thread joined in hemstitching? Ans. Tie a knot in the fresh thread. Draw the needle through the upper fold of the hem, two stitches back, working over these stitches, and proceed as before.
47. What number needle and what number thread are used in hemstitching the pocket? Ans. In hemstitching the pocket, No. 60 cotton and No. 9 needle are used.
48. How should the ends of the hem be finished? Ans. The ends of the hem should be oversewed; it is better to do this before the hemstitching, as it sometimes prevents unequal stretching.
49. What number cotton and what number needle are used for the buttonhole on the pocket? Ans. For this buttonhole, No. 70 cotton and No. 10 needle are used for overcasting, and No. 9 needle and No. 40 cotton in making the buttonhole stitch.
Fig. 60, A. - Hemstitching.
50. How are the letters made on the pocket? Ans. To begin the marking stitch, the needle is brought through to the upper side at the place for beginning the letter, the end of the thread being held on the under side until secured by the first stitch. The stitch is made by putting the needle through to the lower side two threads to the right and two threads upward (in marking on canvas or coarse crash) and bringing it up two threads below, perpendicularly. This makes the under half of the stitch. Next, the needle is put through to the lower side two threads upward and two threads to the left, bringing the thread diagonally across the lower half of the stitch and completing it. The pupil can see, from the letter she is copying, where the needle should be brought up to begin the next stitch, which is made in the same way. After finishing the first initial, four threads are left and a period made with a single cross-stitch. Leave four threads and begin the next initial, and so on.