This section is from the book "School Needlework. A Course of Study in Sewing designed for use in Schools", by Olive C. Hapgood. Also available from Amazon: School Needlework: A Course Of Study In Sewing Designed For Use In Schools.
1. Blanking, or cutting out the round disk from the sheet. 2. Stamping, or raising the figure. 3. Annealing, or softening after the stamping. 4. Pickling, or removing the oxide produced by the annealing. 5. Drawing or shaping the front. 6. Annealing. 7. Pickling. 8. Cleaning, or removing by acids the scales produced upon the surface during the manufacture of the metal. 9. Lacquering the inside. 10. Drying the lacquer, which has been applied to the inside of the front, in order that in the process of fire-gilding no gold may be wasted by attaching itself to the inside. 11. Cleaning, or preparing for the gold. 12. Gilding, showing the result after the gold has been applied. The application of this gold is by what is known as the "fire gilding process," in which the gold is first dissolved in mercury, and applied to the surface of the metal. After this the mercury is volatilized in an oven and passes up the chimney from the oven, leaving the gold in chemical contact with the surf ace of the metal. 13. Scratching, or brightening by rubbing with a bunch of fine wire. 14. Coloring, or bringing out the color of the gold. 15. Burnishing, or brightening the surface of the letters with a burnishing-stone.
1. Cutting and bending the wire for the eye. 2. Blanking, or cutting out the round disk from the sheet. 3. Heading, or attaching the eye to the back. 4. Charging, or placing of the soldering paste about the wire. 5. Soldering. 6. Cleaning, by immersion in acids. 7. Stamping into shape, including the embossing of the letters. 8. Silvering. 9. Burnishing.
1. Closing, or uniting of the front and the back, both of which have been separately finished.
2. Edging, or burnishing of the extreme edge. 3. Bottoming, or burnishing of the edge and the back. 4. Beveling, or burnishing of the edge and the front side. 5. Finished button.