This section is from the book "School Needlework. A Course of Study in Sewing designed for use in Schools", by Olive C. Hapgood. Also available from Amazon: School Needlework: A Course Of Study In Sewing Designed For Use In Schools.
1. Turn to the measure (page 13).
2. On one side of the cardboard half-an-inch from the end, and one-fourth of an inch from the edge, make a dot with the pencil.
3. On a line with this dot, make nine more dots exactly one-eighth of an inch apart.
4. Mark the opposite side with dots exactly parallel to the other dots.
7. Make the second row by taking up those threads, which were passed over before.
Fig. 63. - Showing the weaving or lattice-work of threads over cardboard.
8. When the row is finished, leave a short loop of the zephyr at the opposite end, and holding it firmly, draw the zephyr until it is straight.
9. Continue in this manner, always taking up the threads passed over in the previous row.
Coarse canvas can be used instead of cardboard, and in the place of zephyr, a small cord or coarse thread can be used.
A long-eyed needle, No. 7 needle, No. 50 thread, scissors, a small spool of embroidery silk, a piece of cardboard or heavy paper three inches long and two and a half inches wide, and a piece of woollen stockinet, cut four inches lengthwise by a rib of the stockinet, and three inches and a half across.
1. Place the cardboard on the wrong side of the stockinet, leaving half-an-inch at each side to be folded over the cardboard.
2. Baste one of the lengthwise edges of the stockinet, having it folded exactly by a rib.
3. Drawing the stockinet smoothly across, fold the opposite side by a rib, and baste.
4. Fold and baste the ends.
5. In the centre of the stockinet, cut a circle, three-fourths of an inch in diameter.
6. Holding the stockinet lengthwise, begin at the right side, half-an-inch from the edge of the circle (Fig. 64, a).
7. Pointing the large needle from you, take two stitches, leaving half-an-inch of the end of the silk to be cut off afterwards.
8. With the needle pointing towards you, make the next row of three stitches, taking up the threads of the stockinet, that were passed over in the preceding row.
9. So continue, making each row a little longer at both top and bottom, as in Fig. 64, till the centre of the circle is reached; then decrease in the same proportion (Fig. 64).
Fig. 64. - Showing a hole cut, and partly darned.
10. Be careful to put the needle through the loops of the stockinet, at the edge of the circle.
11. Cross the darn in the same manner, making perfect lattice-work, (Fig. 64).
The stockinet is put on the cardboard to keep it in place while being worked, and silk is used that the stitches may be easily seen, and also that the lesson may be interesting. In mending a stocking, hold the work across three fingers of the left hand. A darning ball can be used, which prevents the fingers from being pricked, but it is apt to stretch the stocking and the darn. The darning can be done on either side of the stocking, and should be worked as far as the stocking shows signs of weakness; it should first be worked vertically and parallel to the ribs of the stocking. Loops of about one-sixteenth of an inch can be left at each end, to provide for shrinkage; stretching the darn slightly, when it is finished, will take up these loops.
The edge of a darn must never be made on one thread, as a single thread is not strong enough to bear the strain; a diamond or oval shape is better. It is wise to darn a thin place before a hole appears. In mending a large hole, draw out the rough ends, and, using a fine needle and thread, bring the loops or threads as near as possible to their proper position. To retain the proper shape of a large darn, begin the crossing at the middle instead of the end. The darning yarn should correspond in color and quality to the stocking. If too coarse a yarn is used, a hard bunch is made.
For what is stockinet darning used? How should the stockinet be held? Where should the darning begin? How is the first row made? How is the second row made? How continue? What care should be taken at the edge of the circle? How should a darn be crossed? In mending a stocking how should the work be held? What are the best shapes for darning?