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School Needlework. A Course of Study in Sewing Designed For Use In Schools | by Olive C. Hapgood



The importance of instruction in sewing in the Public School is now generally recognized. As manual training comes into greater prominence, new methods and helps are necessary. The demand for these was felt by the author, and this book is the result of practical experience in the class-room. Its purpose is to assist both teacher and pupil; lightening the teacher's labors by saving constant repetition, and giving the pupil a manual for reference, with the hope that the information thus acquired will assist in fitting her for the duties of life. Simplicity with completeness has been the aim throughout.

TitleSchool Needlework. A Course of Study in Sewing designed for use in Schools
AuthorOlive C. Hapgood
PublisherGinn & Company
Year1893
Copyright1893, Ginn & Company
AmazonSchool Needlework: A Course Of Study In Sewing Designed For Use In Schools

School Needlework. A Course of Study in Sewing designed for use in Schools

By Olive C. Hapgood, Teacher of Sewing in Boston Public Schools

"Learn the sound qualities of all useful stuffs, and make everything of the best you can get, ivhatever its price. . . . and then, every day, make some little piece of useful clothing, sewn with your own fingers as strongly as it can be stitched; and embroider it or otherwise beautify it moderately with fine needlework, such as a girl may be proud of having done."

John Ruskin.

Teacher's Edition

Boston, U.S.A. Ginn & Company, Publishers

Copyright, 1893, By Olive C. Hapgood.

All Rights Reserved.

Ginn & Company

The Atbenaeum press

Boston

-Preface
The importance of instruction in sewing in the Public School is now generally recognized. As manual training comes into greater prominence, new methods and helps are necessary. The demand for these wa...
-Part I. General Directions
Dear Girls: You have now become old enough to prepare for woman's duties; one of these is the art of sewing, which we will take up as simply as possible. By following the given directions carefully, y...
-The Following Articles Are Needed
1. Half a yard of bleached or half-bleached cotton cloth for a trial-piece and sample work. 2. Spools of white cotton, Nos. 40-80, also one of No. 50 colored cotton for basting. 3. A well-fittin...
-Directions For Putting Away The Work
1. Before folding the work, run the needle in and out of the cloth, near the last stitches, so as to keep it secure and aid in finding the place at the next sewing lesson. 2. To fold the work, smoo...
-Directions For Sewing
1. Be very careful to have clean hands. 2. Sit in an erect position, never resting any part of the arm on the desk. 3. Do not fasten the work to the desk or knee. 4. Never sew without a thimb...
-Needles
A needle is a small piece of steel, pointed at one end, and having an eye at the other to receive a thread. Needles are of various sizes and shapes, according to the uses for which they are intende...
-Thread
A small twist made from flax, silk, cotton, or wool, is called thread. Thread made from flax is called linen thread, and is very strong. Thread made from silk is called silk or twist, and is used when...
-Threading The Needle
1. Sit erect, bringing the needle and thread as close to the eyes as necessary. 2. Roll the end of the thread between the thumb and cushion of the forefinger, so as to twist it tightly. 3. Hold ...
-Knots
To make a knot, as in Fig. I, wind the thread around two or three fingers, and crossing it, put the end through the loop. To Bring A Knot Close To The End Of The Thread 1. With the thumb and for...
-Cloth
Cloth is a fabric woven from cotton, wool, linen, or silk. Cotton is the cheapest, and silk the most expensive in price. From cotton are made many qualities of unbleached, half-bleached, and bleached ...
-Scissors And Cutting
A pair of scissors is an instrument used for cutting, consisting of two blades crossing each other, and moving on a pivot. Scissors are of many sizes. Large scissors are called shears (Fig. 2, c), ...
-Part II. Plain Sewing
Sewing is work done with the needle and thread. The following directions should be before the pupil during class work.1 Fig. 5. - Measure. The above represents a three inch rule, to use wh...
-Drills
Directions 1. Place the thimble on the second finger of the right hand. ...
-Drill No. 1
For practice in using the needle and thimble. Materials A needle and a thimble. Directions 1. Place the thimble on the second finger of the right hand. 2. Hold the pointed end of the ne...
-Drill No. 2
For practice in the motion of stitching, hemming, etc. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 50 thread, and a strip of white cotton cloth. Fig. 6 - Showing the work and hands in position. Dire...
-Drill No. 3
For practice in the motion of basting, running, gathering, etc. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 50 thread, and a strip of cotton cloth. Fig. 7. - Showing the work and hands in position. ...
-Drill No. 4
For practice in the motion of overcasting. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 50 thread, and a folded edge of cotton cloth. Fig. 8. - Showing the work and hand in position. Directions 1. Ha...
-Drill No. 5
For practice in the motion of over-handing. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 50 thread, and a folded edge of cotton cloth. Fig. 9. - Showing the work and hand in position. Directions 1...
-Canvas-Work
The stitches in sewing can be easily learnt on canvas, using bright-colored single or split zephyr, according to the quality of the canvas. Fig. 10. - Showing different stitches taken on canv...
-Creasing And Pinching
A crease for sewing is made by folding the cloth, and pressing the edge until a line is made, which serves to sew on. Materials A ten-inch strip of bleached or half-bleached cotton cloth. (A mo...
-Creasing
1. Hold the cloth firmly with the hands as in Fig. 11. 2. Beginning at the upper right-hand end of the cloth, turn down towards you the edge one-fourth of an inch in depth, for three or four inches...
-Pinching
1. At the right end of the crease, lay a half-inch fold between the thumb and forefinger of the right hand. 2. Lay another over this, and so on, until all the cloth is folded. 3. Pinch the folds...
-Basting
Basting is done by taking long stitches to keep the cloth in place for sewing. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 50 colored thread, pins, and a half-yard strip of cotton cloth, with one of the long si...
-Stitching
Stitching is done by taking a stitch backward on the upper side of the cloth, and a longer stitch forward on the under side, making the stitches meet. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 50 thread, and ...
-Half-Backstitching
Fig. 17. - Showing the stitches and the needle in position. Half-backstitching is the same as stitching, except that the needle is put only half-way back, thus leaving a space between the sti...
-Hemming
A hem is a fold, made by twice turning over the edge of a piece of cloth, and then sewing it down. Materials No. 9 needle, No. 70 thread, and a strip of cotton cloth. To prepare the hem, mak...
-Running
Running is done by passing the needle in and out of the material at regular intervals. The rule for running is to take up two threads of the cloth and pass over two threads, but the light in the av...
-Running And A Backstitch
Running and a backstitch consists of two or more running stitches and a backstitch, taken alternately. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 50 thread, and a half-yard strip of cotton cloth, doubled and b...
-Overcasting
Overcasting is done by taking loose stitches over the raw edge of cloth, to keep it from ravelling. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 60 thread, and a stitched strip of cotton cloth. Fig. 23....
-Overhanding
Overhanding is done by sewing closely over two edges of cloth. The edge of the cloth may be either a selvedge or a creased fold. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 60 thread, and either two selvedge st...
-Gathering And Placing Of Gathers
Gathering is done by running the needle in and out of the cloth, passing over twice as much cloth as is taken up. It is used in joining a full part to a plain part, as an apron to a band. Materials...
-Gathering
Practise Drill No. 3 (page 15). 1. Find the middle of the creased edge, and mark the place by cutting a small notch in the edge (Fig. 28), or by making a cross-stitch with colored thread, one inch ...
-Placing Or Stroking Of Gathers
1. With the right side towards you, begin at the left-hand edge. 2. Hold the work between the left thumb and forefinger, as in Fig. 30, keeping the thumb below the gathering thread. 3. Put the p...
-Double Gathering Or Gauging
Double gathering is done by making two rows of gathering, with the stitches of the second row directly under those of the first. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 40 thread, and two pieces of cotton c...
-Double Gathering On Single Material
1. Gather one-fourth of an inch from the raw edge. 2. When the end is reached, remove the needle, but do not draw up the thread. 3. Make a crease one-fourth of an inch below the gathering. 4....
-Shirring
Shirring is done by making several rows of running, parallel with each other. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 40 thread, and a piece of cotton cloth half-a-yard long and twelve inches wide. The clot...
-Scalloped Edge
A scalloped edge is used as a fancy heading for fulness. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 60 thread, a strip of soft woollen cloth, and strong silk or thread to match in color. 1. Fold one of th...
-Honey-Combing Or Smocking
Honey-combing is drawing fulness together for ornamental effect. Materials No. 8 needle, a piece of fine woollen cloth eleven inches long and three and a half inches wide, silk to match, and a r...
-Honey-Combing
1. On the right side of the cloth, and beginning at one end, mark the entire length, as in Fig. 34, placing red dots in the place of diamonds, and blue dots in the place of circles. Fig. 35. ...
-Bindings
A binding or band is used to strengthen and cover the raw edges of a seam. Binding. No. 1 Sewed by stitching and hemming. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 50 thread, pins, scissors, and a piece...
-Binding No. 2
Sewed by setting-in the gathers. Materials Same as for Binding No. 1. Fig. 39. - Showing gathers set into a band. Preparations 1. Mark the middle of the band by a cross-stitch, and cut ...
-Setting-In Of Gathers
1 . Begin as for hemming, but make the stitch vertical on the side towards you. 2. Take up, close below the gathering thread, one gather and then a thread or two of the band (Fig. 39). 3. Take t...
-Binding No. 3
Sewed by overhanding. Materials Same as for Binding No. I, with the larger piece of cloth gathered for overhanding to a binding (page 41). Fig. 40. - Showing gathers overhanded, with ne...
-Facings Or False Hems
A facing is a fold applied to the edge of a garment for protection and finish, and has the appearance of a hem. Materials No. 8 and No. 9 needles, No. 50 and No. 70 thread, pins, and two pieces ...
-Facing
1. Place the facing lengthwise on the piece of cloth, and pin the ends together. 2. Baste them together one-fourth of an inch from the edge. 3. Half-backstitch under the basting. 4. Take out ...
-Button-Holes
A button-hole is a slit cut and worked in a garment to admit a button. Button-Hole Stitch for Beginners. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 40 colored thread, and a folded and basted strip of cotton...
-Button-Hole Stitch
1. Make a small knot in the thread. 2. Place the folded edge of the cloth across the cushion of the forefinger of the left hand, allowing the tip of the finger to show. 3. Hold the cloth firmly,...
-Cutting
Cut the slit by a thread of the cloth, one-fourth of an inch from the folded edge, and a little longer than the diameter of the button. ...
-Barring
1. Make a small knot in the thread. 2. With the folded edge from you, place the slit across the cushion of the left forefinger (Fig. 42). 3. Hold the slit firmly between the thumb and forefinger...
-Button-Hole Stitch Or Purl
1. Draw the needle halfway through at the left side, and one thread beyond, taking up about four threads of the cloth. 2. With the needle pointing towards you, take the two threads at the eye of th...
-Finishing
1. Without turning the cloth, draw the needle down through the first button-hole stitch taken, bringing it up on the opposite side, where the side and end barring meet. 2. Draw this stitch so tight...
-Joining The Thread
1. If the thread should prove too short, put the needle through the slit, and turn to the other side of the cloth. 2. Fasten lightly beside the last stitch. 3. After threading the needle, insert...
-Buttons
Buttons are made from many materials, and in many sizes and shapes. The cheapest are made of porcelain, which is pressed into moulds and baked. Vegetable ivory buttons are made from the seeds of th...
-Eyelet-Holes
An eyelet is a hole made and worked in a garment, to receive a small cord or the loop of a button. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 40 thread, a stiletto, and a piece of cloth folded and basted. ...
-Hooks And Eyes
Hooks and eyes are manufactured from wire by machinery. Two hundred hooks and the same number of eyes, each being made by its own machine, can be manufactured in a minute. The wire, on being unwound f...
-Eyes
1. Make a knot in the thread. 2. Place the loop of the eye a little beyond the folded edge of one of the pieces of cloth. 3. Hold the loop firmly between the left thumb and forefinger. 4. Beg...
-Hooks
1. Taking the other piece of cloth, lap the two pieces as desired. 2. Put the hook into the eye already sewed on, and place it in position. 3. Holding the hook firmly between the left thumb and ...
-Loops
A loop is a catch made in a garment, to take the place of an eye. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 40 thread, and a folded and basted piece of cotton cloth. 1. Make a knot in the thread. 2. H...
-Gussets
A gusset is an angular piece of cloth, inserted in a garment, to strengthen and enlarge an opening. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 60 thread, pins, scissors, and a piece of cotton cloth five inches...
-Setting-In The Gusset
1. With a small knot in the thread, draw the needle through from the wrong side of the gusset, at point a (Fig. 50). 2. Holding the wrong side of the cloth towards you, insert the needle from the r...
-Gusset And Facing
1.. Make a paper pattern the desired size, having the gusset in the proportions of Fig. 54. 2. Fold the pattern at the dotted lines (Fig. 54), and place this edge on an exact bias fold of the cloth...
-Placket
A placket is an opening made in a garment. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 60 thread, and a piece of cotton cloth five inches square, hemmed on three sides. 1. At the middle of the side not hem...
-Tucking
A tuck is a fold made and sewed in a garment for ornament, or that the garment may be lengthened when necessary. Materials No. 8 and No. 9 needles, No. 50 and No. 90 thread, a sharp-pointed lead...
-Plaiting
A plait is a fold made in a garment, for fulness or trimming. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 50 thread, pins, and a piece of cloth nine and a half inches long and four inches wide, with a narrow he...
-Felling
A fell is a seam hemmed down to protect the edges. Materials No. 8 and No. 9 needles, No. 50 and No. 80 thread, and two pieces of cotton cloth, each five inches long and two inches wide. ...
-Straight-Way Fell
1. Place the pieces of cloth together, with one edge one-eighth of an inch below the other, and baste a narrow seam (Fig. 58). 2. Sew the seam with a running and a backstitch. 3. Take out the ba...
-French Seam
A French seam is a neat manner of joining materials that fray. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 60 thread, scissors, and two pieces of calico, each five inches long and two inches wide. 1. Place...
-French Hem On Damask
French hemming is used in hemming table-linen Materials No. 9 needle, No. 70 thread, and a strip of cotton cloth or table-linen. French Hem 1. Crease a narrow hem. 2. Holding the wrong ...
-Slip Or Blind-Stitch
A slip or blind-stitch is used to fasten a hem lightly. Materials No. 9 needle, No. 70 thread, and a strip of Cotton cloth. 1. Fold and crease a hem half-an-inch wide. 2. Baste about a fou...
-Edgings And Ruffles
An edging is a trimming on the border of a garment. Lace Edging. Lace edging is made of fine threads woven into a net. Materials No. 9 needle, No. 70 thread, pins, half-a-yard of inch-wide...
-Lace Edging
1. Holding the scalloped edge towards you, make a narrow hem at the right-hand end of the lace. 2. Holding the right sides of the lace and cloth together, place the hemmed end of the lace at the to...
-Whipping
Whipping is forming gathers by overcasting a rolled edge of fine material, and drawing up the thread. Materials No. 6 and No. 8 needles, No. 40 and No. 60 thread, pins, scissors, a strip of pape...
-Stockinet Darning
Stockinet darning is used in filling in a hole with thread, so as to supply the part that has been destroyed ; or in strengthening a place which shows signs of weakness. Practice in Weaving. Mat...
-Lattice-Work
1. Turn to the measure (page 13). 2. On one side of the cardboard half-an-inch from the end, and one-fourth of an inch from the edge, make a dot with the pencil. 3. On a line with this dot, make...
-Grafting
Grafting is joining two pieces of stockinet in such a manner, as to render the joining invisible. Materials A long-eyed needle, two pieces of coarse stockinet, and yarn the quality and color of ...
-Swiss-Darning
The stitches in Swiss-darning are taken in a manner similar to grafting, and are worked over the stitches in the stockinet, to strengthen a thin place. Suggestions A patch in stockinet can be pu...
-Stocking-Web Stitch
Stocking-web stitches are used for filling in a hole in stockinet, so as to present the same appearance as the woven stockinet, and are made on a foundation of strands. Materials A long-eyed nee...
-Cloth Darning
Cloth darning is used to strengthen worn places, or to draw together the edges of a tear or cut. Straightway-Darn. Materials No. 9 needle, No. 80 red, blue and pink thread, and two pieces of ...
-Straightway-Tear
Darned with vertical stitches. A blue thread represents the tear. 1. Crease across the middle of one of the squares of cloth. 2. Leaving an inch and a fourth at each end, make a running on the c...
-Patching
A patch is a piece of cloth, sewed on to a garment to repair it. Hemming on a Patch. Materials No. 9 needle, No. 80 thread, scissors, pins, and a piece of cotton cloth, five inches square; fo...
-Hemming On A Patch
1. Crease the garment, represented by the large piece of cloth, through, and across the centre (Fig. 74). 2. Mark the centre by a pin-hole, and half-an-inch from the centre on each crease, make a p...
-Overhanding On A Patch
Materials Same as before, with the cloth for the patch three inches square. 1. Crease the garment, represented by the large piece of cloth, through, and across the centre (Fig. 74). 2. Cut ...
-Catch-Stitching On A Patch
1. Crease the garment, represented by the large piece of flannel, through, and across the centre (Fig. 74). 2. Mark the centre by inserting a pin; and one inch from the middle of each crease, inser...
-Bias Piecing
Bias piecing is the joining of two diagonal edges of cloth. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 60 thread, pins, scissors, and a piece of calico five inches square, cut by a thread. Fig. 80. - ...
-Piping
Piping is a cord covered with material cut on the bias, and is used to strengthen and finish the edge of a garment. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 60 thread, a small cord eleven and a half inches l...
-Corners Mitred
To mitre a corner is to join two edges of cloth, so that they form a right angle. To mitre Two Strips of Cloth. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 60 thread, scissors, and a piece of calico five inc...
-To Mitre Two Strips Of Cloth
1. Fold and crease the square diagonally from corner to corner. 2. Cut on the crease. 3. From one of the pieces cut two bias strips, each strip being one inch wide. 4. Place the right sides o...
-To Mitre The Corners Of A Hem
Materials No. 8 needle, No. 60 thread, pins, scissors, and a piece of cotton cloth five inches square, cut by a thread. Fig. 84. - Showing the corner creased for cutting. Fig. 85....
-Loops Of Tape
Fold the middle of the tape so as to form a point, as in Fig. 86. Overhand the inner edges for three-fourths of an inch, beginning at the ends. Fold the ends under, one-fourth of an inch, and place th...
-Hem-Stitch
Hem-stitching is a method of hemming, in which the threads of the cloth are drawn and separated. Materials No. 8 needle, No. 50 thread, and a lengthwise strip of linen crash. Hem-Stitch, From...
-Hem-Stitch, From Left To Right
1. Draw the threads, and baste the hem as before. 2. Fasten the thread in the hem, at the left-hand side. 3. Pointing the needle towards you, take up three or four cross-threads. 4. Draw the ...
-Catch Or Herringbone-Stitch
Catch-stitch is a kind of cross-stitch, used to secure the edges of flannel. Materials A long-eyed needle, a knot of split zephyr, and a piece of canvas. Fig. 89. - Showing catch-stitch...
-Catch-Stitch
1. Work from you, holding the canvas over the left forefinger. 2. Insert the needle from underneath, at the lower left-hand corner. 3. From the place where the zephyr comes out, count to the rig...
-Feather-Stitch
Feather-stitching is used for ornamenting garments, etc Materials A long-eyed needle, a knot of split zephyr, and a piece of canvas. Fig. 91. - a, Showing single feather-stitches, taken...
-Chain-Stitch
Chain-stitching is a method of embroidering, by which the stitches resemble a chain. Materials An embroidery needle, embroidery silk, and a strip of cloth. 1. Work towards you, holding the ...
-Kensington Outline-Stitch
Kensington outline-stitching is done by taking a long stitch forward on the upper side, and a short stitch backward on the under-side of the cloth, and is used to form a line for ornament. Material...
-Blanket-Stitch
Blanket-stitching is used to secure and ornament the edges of woollen material. Materials An embroidery needle, embroidery silk, and a strip of flannel. 1. Work from left to right, holding ...
-Embroidery Knots
Embroidery knots are used for ornamentation. Materials An embroidery needle, embroidery silk, and a piece of flannel. Embroidery Knot No. 1 1. Holding the flannel over the left forefinger,...
-Marking
Page 126 consists of capital letters; page 127 consists of small letters and upright numerals; page 128 consists of small letters, suitable for fine material, and slanting numerals. The material, t...
-Part IV. Drafting, Cutting, And Making Garments
A few general directions for the cutting of garments are here given. A table or lap-board, large enough to lay the entire pattern upon, is required; also paper, sharp shears, weights, pins, tape-me...
-Matching
A plaided, striped, or figured cloth requires great care in cutting. If the breadths of a skirt made from a checked or evenly plaided material are cut off in the middle of a check, the breadths will r...
-Drafting
The following rules for drafting are given as suitable in ordinary cases, but the drafter should use discretion in regard to personal taste and prevailing styles. In the illustrations, each square ...
-Two-Breadth Apron
A two-breadth apron, one yard long, having a four inch hem, requires two and one-fourth yards of material. 1. Find half of the length of the material, tear across, or fold and cut on the fold. 2...
-Child's Bib
Take a piece of paper fifteen inches long and eleven inches wide. 1. With the long side of the paper horizontally in front of you, write your name and school at the upper left-hand corner of the pa...
-Pockets
Take a piece of paper fifteen inches long and six inches wide. 1. Place the narrow side of the paper horizontally in front of you. 2. Write your name and school at the lower part of the paper. ...
-Child's Drawers. (Age, 8 Years.)
Take a piece of paper twenty-two inches long and fourteen inches wide. 1. Place the narrow side of the paper horizontally in front of you. 2. Write your name and school two inches from the left-...
-Night-Dress Yoke
(Bust Measure, 32 Inches.) Take a piece of paper seventeen inches long and nine inches wide. Place the long side of the paper horizontally in front of you. Write your name and school three in...
-Child's Sack Tier
(Age, 2 Years.) Take a piece of paper one yard long and twelve inches wide. Place the narrow side of the paper horizontally in front of you. Mark the upper left-hand corner A, the upper right-ha...
-Sleeve
1. Make a dot ten and one-half inches below A; one inch to the right of this dot and parallel with it, make another dot; mark the last dot K. 2. Make a dot three inches below A; mark it L. 3. Dr...
-Cuff
1. Make a dot four inches above H; mark it I. 2. Make a dot six and one-half inches to the left of I and parallel with I; mark it J. 3. Draw a line from I to J. 4. Make a dot four inches exac...
-Gored Skirt
To make a gored skirt one yard long, having a four inch hem, three and one-third yards of material, one yard wide are required.1 Tear off three breadths, each forty inches long. ...
-Front-Breadth
1. Fold the lengthwise edges of one of the breadths together. 2. Hold the folded edge towards you. 3. Make a dot at the right-hand side, ten and one-half inches above the folded edge; mark it A....
-Side-Breadths
1. Fold the lengthwise edges of another breadth together. 2. Hold the selvedges towards you. 3. Make a dot at the right-hand side, sixteen and one-half inches from the selvedges; mark it A. 4...
-Back-Breadth
Cut this breadth thirty (or more) inches wide. Cut the band three and one-half inches wide, and one inch longer (to allow for lapping and making) than the waist measure. Making In a gored ski...
-Drawers. (Age, 12 Years And Upward.)
1. Place the narrow side of a sheet of drafting-paper horizontally in front of you. 2. Write your name and school five inches from the left-hand side of the paper and five inches above the lower ed...
-Child's Waist (Opening In The Back). (Age, 3 To 10 Years.)
Take a piece of paper sixteen inches long and twenty inches wide. 1. Place the long side of the paper horizontally in front of you. 2. Write your name and school three inches from the left-hand ...
-Waist
1. If the waist measure is less than the bust measure, divide their difference by two, and make a dot this distance on line 7 at each side of line 5; mark them H and I. 2. Draw a straight line from...
-Hints For A Plain Basque
There are over four hundred different systems of dress-drafting used in the United States, and any one of these to be of use requires constant practice. Patterns are now easily obtained, and by usi...
-Doll's Patterns
On page 158, patterns are given for doll's garments. By using inch squared paper, and drawing the patterns in the same proportion, as they are given in the one-fourth inch squares, patterns will be ob...
-Teacher's Supplement
Fig. 112. - Demonstration Frame. Teaching The Lessons Every pupil should be thoroughly instructed in the meaning of general phrases; as, work towards you, from you, from right to left...
-Simultaneous Teaching
In the instruction of classes, especially if they are large, good results can be obtained by simultaneous teaching. Class work is more effectual than individual work; the lesson being as easily dictat...
-Trial-Piece
The pupils, when learning, should always have a sample of the required stitch. A convenient trial-piece for the lower classes is prepared, by basting together the edges of two strips of cloth, one, ei...
-Stitches
The check of gingham is of assistance to the pupils when learning, as they may be instructed to make a definite number of stitches in each check. The warp and woof of cloth may be distinguished by str...
-Course Of Sewing
The following course of sewing, drafting and cutting has been found practical in a grammar school course of six years, but it may be re-arranged and adapted to a shorter course. First Year Posit...
-Practical Suggestions
Although teachers may have different methods in regard to details; those presented in the lessons have been found to be practical for service, and easily acquired by the pupils. In beginning with a...
-Dark Days
Teachers should be careful that the pupils do not strain their eyes by working in a poor light. On dark days, talks, which are of great assistance and benefit may be given on relevant subjects, as nee...
-Fancy-Work
In the public schools embroidery or fancy-work is not generally encouraged; but a little attention given to it before Christmas is greatly enjoyed by the children. They may be allowed to bring the pre...
-Scissors
It is not advisable for young pupils to have scissors in their bags, as they lack judgment in their use. Class scissors should be kept in a strong box lined with felt or velvet. Pupils may practise cu...
-Dropping Articles
To prevent the disturbance caused by dropping articles, have the pupils keep their spools, emery, etc., in their bags during the sewing lesson. ...
-Sinistrous Pupils
The broadening of the popular mind begins to change many formerly fixed opinions. One of these is in regard to the left hand. Formerly a sinistrous person was considered an oddity. Now, instead of tea...
-Sampler
To make a sampler similar to Fig. 116, a piece of cotton cloth twenty-four inches long and eighteen inches wide is required. Make a narrow hem at the sides. At the middle of the lower edge cut in s...
-Blackboard
A blackboard should be divided by light-colored lines, into inch squares, using a different color for every ninth or twelfth line. A permanent blackboard may be made by marking out the squares with pa...
-Compositions
The various forms of manual training furnish subjects for language work, both oral and written, and sewing as a distinct and recognized form of manual training, should receive, from both the sewing te...
-Examinations
Oral or written examinations may be given; if the latter, they may take the form of a composition. The preparation of the trial-piece is a good test in regard to the simple stitches. ...
-Exhibitions
An exhibition at the close of the year's work is a great incentive, especially when all the sewing of the year, from the trial-pieces to the cut and made garments of all descriptions, is exhibited. ...
-Mounting Models
The models obtained from the lessons may be mounted for exhibition in a kindergarten mounting-book or a scrap-book. An inexpensive book may be made of manilla paper, securing the leaves together with ...
-Boys' Sewing
Boys are now being taught sewing in the lower classes of many of the public schools, and it has been found helpful in forming habits of quietness, neatness and accuracy, besides teaching then to repai...
-Collection Of Work
At the close of each lesson, the work should be collected in such a manner that it may be readily distributed. This may be done by having a large bag for each row, always beginning to collect at one e...
-Kindergarten Sewing
Sewing over outlines pricked on cards gives profitable variety to manual work. The object of this kind of work is various. By it the child acquires the use of the needle. He becomes familiar with the ...
-Primary Sewing
The tactile sense, a child's sense of touch, should be developed from the very first, and should be cultivated throughout his entire course of education. The methods of kindergarten teaching are ba...
-Educational Sewing Squares For Primary Work
One of the various objections to primary sewing has been the difficulty in preparing useful and interesting work. The Educational Sewing Squares meet this difficulty. The designs are representations...
-Lessons
Sewing to a little child has a charm, because mamma does it. At first, especially if the child has not attended a kindergarten, it is difficult for the little hands to use the needle, thread, thimble ...
-Course Of Sewing For Industrial Schools
In a large school it is necessary to have a test class, in which the pupils are examined as to their ability and proficiency. Preparatory Department. (Educational Sewing Squares In Use.) Overc...
-Advanced Classes. (Main School.)
The More Advanced Pupils May Be Divided Into Four Grades In Plain Sewing, With Special Classes For Button-Hole Making, Millinery, And Embroidery Work. First Grade Unbleached cotton undergarments...
-Facts For Observation Lessons
(To Be Used In Connection With The Sewing Cabinet.) ...
-Cotton
The cotton plant grows on plantations in warm countries. Most of the cotton used in the world is raised in the United States, where the two principal varieties are short-staple cotton or cotton having...
-Wool
Wool is obtained chiefly from the sheep, also from the alpaca, angora, and cashmere goat. It is brought mainly from Australia, South Africa, and South America, but the highest grade is obtained from t...
-Linen
Linen thread and cloth are made from the fibres of the flax plant. The coverings in which the Egyptian mummies have been found enveloped, prove that flax has been used from the remotest times in the m...
-Silk
There is no more interesting subject than the source and manufacture of silk. The manufacture of silk doubtless originated in China. Although some silkworms are raised in this country, the greater par...
-Scissors And Shears
Scissors and shears are made in various sizes and styles; strictly speaking, every pair over six inches in length should be called shears. Those made from steel are manufactured almost entirely in Ger...
-Pins
Pins similar to those now in use were not known in ancient times, when thorns, and bone, wooden, gold or silver skewers were used to fasten the clothing. In the sixteenth century, when first manufactu...
-Thimbles
Thimbles have been in use only about two hundred years. They are made of metal, celluloid, or aluminum, with either an open or closed top. The indentations on the surface are made to hold the head of ...
-Cloth-Covered Button
In the manufacture of cloth-covered buttons, two round pieces of cloth, one for the covering and one for the shank, two collets of tin and a thick paper filling are used. The tuft of strong linen is p...
-Flat Metal Button
The four-holed metal button is manufactured from collets or disks cut from sheet metal. The under collet of the button is cut from tin, the upper collet from brass. Then the collets are shaped and the...
-Hollow Gilt Button With Shank
This button consists of three pieces of brass, - the front, back and the wire eye. The manufacture is described in the following steps, which may be readily understood if samples are shown. Front ...
-Emery
Emery is a variety of corundum, and is ranked among the hardest of minerals. It derives its name from Cape Emeri on the island of Naxos, Grecian Archipelago, where the best variety is obtained. It is ...
-Wax
Bees-wax is an animal secretion, formed by the bees, and constitutes the material of which the cells of the honey-comb are composed. After the honey is removed, the wax is dirty, tough and yellow. To ...
-School-Cabinet
A very interesting school-cabinet can be made by procuring the following named articles,1 and pictures of the different machines used in their manufacture. They may be put into mounting-boxes or faste...
-Classics For Children
Choice Literature; Judicious Notes; Large Type; Firm Binding; Low Prices. Hans Andersen's Fairy Tales. * First Series: Supplementary to the Third Reader. * Second Series: Supplementary to the...
-Books For Teachers
Courses And Methods Courses Of Studies And Methods Of Teaching By John T. Prince, Agent Mass. Board of Education. 12mo Cloth, x + 344 pages. Teachers' price, 75 cents. Part First gives course...









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