6. What kind of material is suitable for undergarments?

7. What is a ruffle? Name some garments on which the ruffle is frequently used. Explain.

8. Of what material should pajamas be made for very cold weather?

9. Design and explain how you would make pajamas for some-one who expected to sleep out of doors in cold weather.

10. What is a placket? Name four or five garments requiring plackets and explain how the placket should be made in each.

11. Of what material should a boy's shirt be made?

12. Why is linen particularly desirable for table cloths and napkins?

13. Design an embroidery luncheon set. Calculate the cost of all the materials, estimate the time that it will require to complete it. Counting your time worth 20c per hour, what would be the worth of the complete set?

14. How would you undertake to remove an unknown stain from a white linen towel?

15. How would you prepare a good general purpose cleaning fluid?

16. What precautions are particularly necessary in doing any kind of garment cleaning?

17. What cleaning and pressing of garments have you tried at home?

Suggestions For Home Application

After you have completed the work of this section you should be able to do a great deal of your own sewing. However, you will likely meet many problems which, on account of lack of space, were not dealt with in this text. The following suggestions may assist you in some of your home problems.

1. The ruffle for a petticoat may be gathered very satisfactorily on the sewing machine, using the special attachment which accompanies the machine.

The greatest difficulty found in using a machine gatherer is in adjusting it to the proper fullness, so that the ruffle may fit the part of the garment where it is to be placed without re-adjusting the gathers. When you are gathering a ruffle on the machine try the following method of adjusting the ruffle to the goods: Divide the garment where the ruffle is to be placed, in halves or fourths; divide the ruffle in a corresponding manner. Measure one division of both the skirt and the ruffle; find the proportion existing between them. For instance, if the space on the garment is 18" and the length of the space on the ruffle is 24", the proportion will be 18" to 24" or the gathered ruffle is to be 18/24, or 3/4 the length of the ungathered ruffle; take a piece of cloth and adjust the gatherer until it will gather this piece to 3/4 of its length; that is, if the piece is 8" long, adjust the attachment to gather it to 6". When the attachment is properly adjusted, gather the ruffle.

2. Tucks make very attractive trimming for drawers; they may be made quite easily on the sewing machine with a little practice by using the tucker attachment. This adjusts the width of the tucks and the spaces between them. Do not attempt to make tucks on a garment until you have practiced making them on another piece of cloth. Be careful to study the instructions given in the book of directions which accompanies your machine.

If the tucks are made before the seams are joined, you must be very careful to make them even in width and spacing (particularly at the ends where they are to be joined). If the tucks are made alter the seams are joined, they will be continuous and for that reason will make a better appearance. It is a little difficult to tuck over the seam however, and where this is to be done, the seams must be very small and flat.

Very narrow tucks may be made successfully without using the tucker, in the following manner: Fold and stitch the first tuck in the desired position. With a tape line or cardboard gauge, measure from the fold of this tuck to the place where the fold of the next tuck is to come. Crease on a thread and stitch the second tuck in place. Continue in this way until all the tucks are laid.

3. Embroidery used for a ruffle on a petticoat usually wears around the bottom while the upper part is still in good condition. If you have any petticoats which have become worn in this way, try this method of repairing them: Trim off the worn portion of the embroidery and the drop ruffle. Hem them with narrow hems and sew lace around the bottom of the embroidery wide enough to reach the bottom of the under part of the skirt. Sew lace on the drop ruffle also, if it is needed to make the skirt a little longer.

4. If you have a plain narrow petticoat, a simple way to make it wider is to cut it between the gores with a straight cut from the bottom towards the top a distance of about 12". Lay a piece of material under the opening, spread it open like a V and stitch in the extra piece with lapped seams. A ruffle may be put on at the bottom if desired.

5. If the prevailing style calls for narrow petticoats and yours are all full and wide, rip the ruffle off the back gore, cut out the gore, making the skirt as much narrower as desired, cut a piece out of the ruffle to make it fit the skirt, join the ruffle again with French or felled seams and sew it back in place. The ruffles may be removed from the skirt and the fullness taken off each gore, the ruffle made smaller, as suggested above, and replaced. The condition of the garment should govern the amount of work that you use in remodeling it.

6. A boy's shirt usually wears out first around the neck and cuffs. If you can find any shirts at home in this condition cut off the collar bands and cut the necks to a V shape in front and face the opening. Cut the sleeves short enough to reach just to the elbow and hem with 1/2" hems, make any other repairs necessary. These shirts will be very comfortable for summer.

7. Luncheon sets instead of table cloths may be used in the summer time to great advantage, as they are easily laundered and give a cool appearance to the table. Examine the table linen at home and select a table cloth which is beginning to wear out. Cut out the good part and make a luncheon set, stitching the hems on the machine and finishing them with double overcasting used in the last lesson of this section.