1 yard 36" wash goods, or 2 yards in a narrower width.
1 1/2 yards 1/2" cotton tape.
Thread No. 70.
Needle No. 8.
Aprons are an absolute necessity to anyone who is doing house-work. Even the schoolgirl who may merely assist with some of the lighter duties will find it very convenient to have an apron or two to slip on over her school dress while at work. An apron is more easily made, also much more easily laundered than a dress, and will therefore save considerable work.
It is practical to wear an apron of dark material when scrubbing or cleaning, or doing any sort of work which will soil it. A light colored apron looks more attractive for cleaner work. Kitchen aprons are usually made of calico, percale, gingham or chambray; such aprons should be made large enough to protect the dress.
The apron in this lesson, though somewhat unusual in style, is very easily made, covers the dress well and is easily put on and taken off; it therefore makes a very satisfactory kitchen apron.
Process of Calico Printing, Great Industries of U. S. Household Textiles, Gibbs. Whitcomb & Barrows.
No. 1. This apron is made from a commercial pattern. The straps in the picture are buttoned over without crossing to show the shape of the apron. When worn they are crossed in the back. This makes a very comfortable apron, as it cannot slip off the shoulders, is easily put on, may be opened flat for ironing, and covers the dress almost completely.
No. 2. This apron is more elaborate than No. 1. It should be made of a light gingham or percale and trimmed with bands of bias material of a contrasting color. It may be made from a commercial pattern, or by using three gores out of a five gored skirt pattern, pointing them at the bottom as in the illustration. A bib similar to this one may be cut freehand and pinned to the front gore of the pattern. The straps crossing in the back of this apron keep the bib from slipping off the shoulders; they are buttoned onto the band.
If the material is a yard wide and the proper amount has been torn off, simply straighten it (Chap. II, Par. 101). If the edges have been cut, even them (Chap. II, Par. 102). If the material is less than a yard wide, measure and tear off two pieces, each one yard long. As the material should be one yard (36" wide) pin the selvages of these two pieces together and tear off enough from one strip to leave a piece one yard wide (where the narrower material is used it is advisable to make two aprons at one time so the other half width will not be wasted).
Making the ends even, lay the sides and the two selvage edges of the two pieces of material together; baste and stitch with 1/4" seam (on sewing machine). (The selvages are likely to pucker when laundered, but this difficulty may be overcome by making three or four very short, crosswise cuts on the selvages).
You will notice in the illustration that this apron is simply a square of cloth turned cornerwise, with the point cut off at the top. To cut off this point, measure from the top corner out on each adjoining edge about 10". Mark on the edge with pins and turn back the corner of the cloth until a straight fold is formed between the two pins; crease sharply. Cut off the point, using the crease as a guide.
Finish the edges of the apron by trimming off the selvage, or selvages, and turn a 1/4" hem with a narrow first turning all the way around them; crease it firmly in place. Baste with even basting (Chap. II, Par. 103). The edges are trimmed with rickrack braid which should be basted on before the hem is sewed in place. To put on the rickrack, lay it on the hem on the wrong side of the apron so the points will extend over the edge and show on the right side. Baste it to the edge of the apron with short, even basting stitches (be careful to turn the corners neatly, mitering the rickrack if necessary, Chap. II, Par. 146). Stitch through the rickrack close to the edge of the apron with the sewing machine (Chap. II, Par. 164), then stitch through it again along the edge of the hem.
Before sewing on the tape, hold the apron up to you as it should be when completed and adjust the tape, placing it in the proper position on the top edge of the apron and making it the proper length. Pin it in place. To sew on the tape, turn under the raw edges, allow it to lap about half an inch on the under side of the apron and sew around the overlapping edges with hemming stitches. Adjust the tapes on the back of the apron in the same manner and sew them in place.
Cut a 5" square out of the material, taken from the top of the apron. Make a 1/4" hem across one edge for the top and finish with rickrack; round the corners of the opposite edge for the bottom. Turn under the raw edges 1/4" around the sides and bottom. Baste to the apron in a convenient position and stitch around the sides and bottom with two parallel rows of machine stitching (Chap. II, Par. 164), or one row of backstitching (Chap. II, Par. 107).
1. What is the purpose of the binding on the filing pocket?
2. What methods would you suggest for hanging a filing pocket?
3. What plan do you like best for making sleevelets to be used in the kitchen? Why?
4. Name and explain all the stitches used in making the cap.
5. What sort of material would be suitable for adust cap? Why?
6. Why is it better to keep silverware in a case rather than loose in a drawer?
7. What sort of material is most suitable for a silverware case? What is it worth per yard?
8. What points should be considered in selecting material and designing a school bag?
9. What kind of cloth is most suitable for dusting purposes? If you have used oil or furniture polish on the cloth how should the cloth be treated after using it?
10. Why is a coarsely woven material most suitable for a towel?
11. What is the price per yard of good towel crash?
12. Why is the larger roller towel less desirable than the small hand towels?
13. What is the purpose of a dresser scarf? What kind of material would you select for this purpose?
14. What points would you consider in selecting the color and design for a dresser scarf?
15. What stitches would you use in making a dresser scarf?
16. Why is an apron an important garment about the house?
17. What kind of material is most suitable for kitchen aprons?
18. Explain the difference between calico and gingham.
In the spring and fall before buying new clothes for the coming season the left-overs should be gone over carefully. With a comparatively small amount of work many of the old garments may be made wearable thereby effecting a considerable saving in the outlay of money. With the experience you should have had in sewing after completing this section, you should be able to do much of the simple remodeling that may be necessary on your own clothes.
After discussing the matter with your mother and studying the suggestions given below, perhaps she will be very glad to let you do this work, or at least assist her.
1. With a Hem.
A wide hem, if it is not worn or discolored on the lower edge, may be ripped and folded up again as far as necessary to make the skirt the right length. It should be basted and then stitched in place with the sewing machine.
2. With a Facing.
If the hem must be unfolded the full width to make the skirt the desired length, face it. This may be done by stitching another piece of material, preferably about the width of the hem, on the bottom edge, turning it to the wrong side and finishing it the same as a hem. This piece should correspond with the material in the skirt; it may be cut on the bias, or if the skirt is gored, a straight strip may be fitted to the bottom of the skirt. Extra fullness in the upper edge of the facing may be pleated in. If the skirt is made of wash material which has been laundered, the strip used for facing should be shrunken. This may be done by wetting it thoroughly and pressing it when partially dry.
3. With a Set-on Piece.
Where neither of the above methods can be used, a straight or ungored skirt may often be satisfactorily lengthened by setting on a piece of some contrasting material at the bottom; plaid or a striped material may be used on plain goods, or plain goods set on figured material. This strip should be cut wide enough to lengthen the skirt as much as needed and also provide material to turn back on the right side the width desired. It should be neatly stitched in place.
4. With Insertion or Lace.
An under skirt may be lengthened by cutting it in two crosswise and setting in a band of embroidery insertion, using a lapped seam (Chap. II, Par. 139); or lace insertion may be used, sewing it in the same as directed for the dresser scarf (Page 103), except that in this case you baste the lace 3/8" over the raw edge instead of cutting the material out under it.
5. With Tucks.
If there are tucks in the skirt these may be ripped and carefully pressed to provide the required length. (It is better to pull the threads of the stitching than to cut them as there is great danger of cutting holes in the material if you use the scissors or a knife.)
When the edge of a cotton garment is worn it may be trimmed and the raw edges turned in and stitched. A neater way is to rip the hem, fold it back on the right side of the material, stitch it in far enough from the edge to escape the worn places, then turn it back (to its original position) and baste and stitch in place. This second method should be used on woolen garments.
Where the buttonholes are badly torn, or the material under the buttons, hooks or eyes has been torn away, it is well to rip the band back to a strong place and set on a new piece, making it a continuation of the band. Work new buttonholes, or sew the necessary fastenings on the renewed band.