This section is from the book "Scientific Sewing And Garment Cutting", by Antoinette Van Hoesen Wakeman. Also available from Amazon: Scientific Sewing And Garment Cutting: For Use In Schools And In The Home.
First there are eight measures to be taken as follows, A bust and waist measure; a front measure, which is taken from the hollow of the neck to the waist; a front width, which is one-fourth of the bust measure; a back length, which is taken from the neck to the waist; a back width, from one arm to the other; a side length, from under the arm to the waist; and a shoulder measure, from the neck to the point of the shoulder. If, as occasionally happens, the pupil is not equal to the mathematical calculations where it is necessary to divide parts of inches, each fraction of an inch in the measures may, for convenience, be made a whole one. This must be done by adding the part of an inch required to make the measures in even inches. This is not recommended, and should not be done when it can be avoided, as garments cut from patterns drafted in this way require much more fitting than when the exact measures are used.
When the measures have been taken and tabulated, draw a parallelogram, with half the bust measure for the base line A, and the front length with two and one-half inches added for the vertical line B. Draw the second horizontal dotted help line C and the dotted vertical line D, which completes the parallelogram. The help lines are drawn dotted to distinguish them from the cutting-lines which later on form the outline of the pattern.
Measure the side length from line A on the vertical lines B and D, and from these two points draw a dotted help line E. Measure the front length from line A on the vertical lines B and D, and draw a dotted help line F. Measure one-fourth of the bust measure on line A from the left-hand lower right angle of the parallelogram, and also on line C from the corresponding upper right angle, and draw a straight dotted help line G.
For the back, which is always the right-hand side, take half the back width, and measure it on the base line A from the lower left-hand right angle, and on C from the upper left-hand right angle of the parallelogram, and between these points draw a dotted help line H. From the angle of lines C and D down line D, measure one-half inch, point 1, and along C an inch and a half to point 2, and connect with a slightly curved cutting-line. From point 2, draw an oblique cutting-line to the intersection of lines H and F. Measure off the length of the shoulder on this line to point 3. From this point, draw a slightly curved line to the intersection of lines E and H, which forms the back arm scye. Add three-fourths of an inch to lines A and C at the right, and draw a dotted vertical help line I. Again add an inch to each of these lines, and draw a vertical cutting-line J. These additions of an inch and three-fourths to each side of the back are for the lap and the buttons; when the waist is finished, the two edges of the back should come exactly together at line D.
Measure two and one-half inches down line B from the angle of lines B and C to point 4, and the same distance on line C to point 5, and connect with a curved line which forms the neck. From point 5, draw an oblique line to the intersection of lines F and H, and, from the neck, measure the shoulder length to point 6. From point 6 to the intersection of lines E and H, draw a curve for the front arm scye.
A child's waist measure is often larger than the bust; when this is the case, add whatever the waist is in excess of the bust on both sides of line H below the arm scye. If the bust measure is more than the waist measure, lay off one-half of the difference on either side of line H along line A, slanting in the shape of a dart along line H from the intersection of lines E and H.
As has already been said, this pattern should be drafted and cut oy the pupil until it can be done with perfect facility. Then let the pattern of the front and back be laid on a double fold of the goods, and cut, allowing one-half an inch on the sides and shoulders for seams. Baste the shoulder and side seams along the line of the tracing, and after backstitching, trim one seam and fell. Face the neck and arm scyes with a bias piece one inch wide. Finish the bottom with a deep facing, and set buttons to correspond with the buttonholes in the bands of the drawers. To cut bias pieces for facing this waist or for any other purpose, begin at the corner, and fold back two inches. Fold over and over until a piece as long as the strips required is folded.
Divide the strip thus folded into parts as wide as is desired, and cut through. In this way long strips may be cut at one stroke of the shears. The back is finished by turning down the right side one and one-half inches, and the left side one inch. The buttons on the left side should be set three-fourths of an inch from the edge, and the buttonholes one-fourth of an inch from the right side. This brings the waist together along line D.