This section is from the book "Scientific Sewing And Garment Cutting", by Antoinette Van Hoesen Wakeman. Also available from Amazon: Scientific Sewing And Garment Cutting: For Use In Schools And In The Home.
A length of gingham two inches wide and twenty-nine inches long, which should be divided into halves and quarters and marked, is first measured and cut by the pupil. Then thread a No. 8 sharp needle with No. 40 thread, doubled, and put in a line of running one-fourth of an inch from each edge. In doing this running, the stitches should be slipped off the needle without taking it out of the cloth, as by removing the needle a stitch is made uneven. Draw up the thread, twist it around a needle or pin placed at the end of the gathers; hold the right side of the work toward you, and place the gathers with a needle, holding the thumb directly over the gathers as they are placed. This must be done firmly and carefully. If any sound is heard, it shows that the needle is being drawn too roughly across the cloth and may injure it.
Then let the class cut two gingham bands eight inches long and two inches wide, and fit the gathered pieces to them. When the bands have been carefully basted onto the gathered piece, hem them on by taking up each gather as a stitch. Turn and hem down in the same way.
Puff. First Model.
What is the first model of this grade? Ans. A strip of gingham two inches wide and twenty-four inches long.
What is the first work on this model? Ans. To divide it into halves and quarters, and after marking it, to put in a line of running one-half an inch from each edge.
What number needle and thread is used? Ans. No. 8 needle and No. 40 thread.
How should the thread be prepared? Ans. It should be drawn between the thumb and finger of the left hand, or across a piece of wax, to prevent its kinking; and then doubled.
Is the needle taken out of the cloth in doing this running? Ans. It is not; the stitches are slipped off.
Why is the needle left in the cloth in running for gathering? Ans. If it is taken out it makes an uneven stitch.
Upon what does the length of the gathering stitch depend? Ans. It depends on the length of the cloth to be gathered.
When the running is finished, what is done? Ans. The threads are drawn up, and the gathers carefully stroked.
How long and how wide are the bands at the edge of this model? Ans. Eight inches long and two inches wide.
How is the gathered piece adjusted to these bands? Ans. The band is divided into halves and quarters, which are placed even with the divisions of the gathered piece after it is drawn up.
How are the three pieces put together? Ans. The bands are basted onto the gathered piece and then hemmed on, taking up a gather with each stitch. Then the bands are turned, basted, and hemmed in the same way on the other side.