This section is from the book "Scientific Sewing And Garment Cutting", by Antoinette Van Hoesen Wakeman. Also available from Amazon: Scientific Sewing And Garment Cutting: For Use In Schools And In The Home.
The fourth and last model of this grade is a five-inch square of flannel in which is cut a right angle opening, the shape of a tear. First baste this piece of flannel onto a piece of cardboard, then, with silk the exact color of the material, darn straight across in a very fine running stitch, taking up the nap only, carefully drawing the thread just even with the cloth which is being mended. Continue this until the incision is perfectly closed. When this model is completed, let the pupil review all the darning that has been taught, not on canvas, but on fabrics. The work should be prepared and completed without assistance from the teacher, and with the neatest precision, before the pupil is permitted to begin the work of the next grade.
Fourth Model. Right-angled Tear.
What is the last work in this grade? Ans. A flannel darn and a review of all the darning.
What is the flannel or tear darn? Ans. It is a three-cornered opening representing a tear.
How is it prepared for darning? Ans. It is basted very carefully onto cardboard, in such a way that it lies perfectly smooth, with the edges together.
How is the darning done? Ans. With silk the exact shade of the goods, and with stitches that take up the nap only, and are very close together.
Do the stitches run both ways? Ans. No; they only extend straight across the opening.
How many kinds of darning have now been taught? Ans. Four kinds, - stocking darning, linen darning, the knitted darn, and the tear darn.
What is the first work of the fifth grade?
Of what use is hemstitching?
For what is the marking taught in this grade used?
Explain how linen hemstitching is done.
How is marking done? What is the second model of the fifth grade?
How is it trimmed?
In cutting ruffles, how much fullness should be allowed?
Should facings, as a rule, be bias or straight?
How many measures are taken before beginning to draft drawers?
What are they?
What geometrical figure is first drawn in drafting a pattern for drawers?
Draft a pattern for drawers from measures given.
What are help lines, and how are they drawn?
What are cutting lines, and how are they drawn?
Is the pattern laid on a single or double piece of the goods when cutting the drawers?
What is a fell?
In sewing up drawers, how can one be sure that the two parts will not be both for one side?
What is a placket?
How is a placket faced and finished?
What darn is taught in this grade?
In what way is this darn different from the stocking and the linen darns?
How many darns have been taught ?
What are they ?
Why is it necessary to know different sorts of darns ?
How must all darns be prepared ?