This section is from the book "Scientific Sewing And Garment Cutting", by Antoinette Van Hoesen Wakeman. Also available from Amazon: Scientific Sewing And Garment Cutting: For Use In Schools And In The Home.

In order that the pupil may gain practice without waste of material, let the measures be taken and reduced to quarter inches, and a waist be drafted and cut of manilla paper. In drafting this paper waist, allow one-eighth of an inch for the side and the shoulder seams. When it has been drafted and cut, join the seams by backstitching. After making a few of these, the pupil will be able to handle materials with ease, and the waste which mistakes entail will be avoided.

If the difference between the bust and waist is four inches, one dart is sufficient, and there is no slant at the back; if the difference is five inches, there should be one dart, and one inch slant at the back; if the difference is seven inches, there should be two darts, and one inch slant at the back.

What is the first work of the sixth grade? Ans. Drafting, cutting, and making an underwaist.

How many measures are taken for an underwaist? Ans. There are eight measures taken for the underwaist.

What are they, and in what order are they taken? Ans. They are taken in the following order: The bust and waist measure; the front length from the neck to the waist; one-fourth of bust measure; the back length from the neck to the waist; the back width from one arm to the other; the side length under the arm; the length from the neck to the point of the shoulder.

Can this pattern be cut without using parts or fractions of inches? Ans.

Yes; by making the measure a whole instead of a part of an inch. The part of an inch must always be added and not subtracted.

Will a waist fit as well when the measures are made in even inches? Ans. No; it will require much more fitting.

What is done with the measures as they are taken? Ans. They are set down at the right on the drafting-paper in the order in which they are taken.

After the measures are taken, what is the next thing to be done? Ans. Draw a parallelogram with half the bust measure for the base line A, and the front length with two and one-half inches added for the vertical line B.

What sort of lines are C and D of this parallelogram? Ans. They are dotted help lines.

Why are help lines drawn dotted? Ans. To distinguish them from the cutting-lines that form the outline of the pattern.

What is the next thing to be done? Ans. Measure on lines B and D from line A the side length, and draw a dotted help line E.

Which is the next measure used? Ans. The front length is measured from line A on lines B and D, and the dotted help line F is drawn from one to the other.

What is the next step in drafting this waist pattern? Ans. Measure one-fourth of the bust measure on line A from the left-hand lower right angle and from the left-hand upper right angle on C, and draw a dotted help line from one to the other.

Which side in this system is always the back? Ans. The right-hand side.

How is this pattern for the back drafted? Ans. Take half the back width on lines A and C, measuring from the upper and lower right-hand angles, and from these points draw the dotted help line H, and from the angle of lines C and D measure one-half an inch down line D, point 1, and an inch and one-half along line C, point 2, and connect with a slightly curving line for the back of the neck.

How is the shoulder line obtained? Ans. From point 2 to the intersection of lines H and F draw an oblique line, and mark the shoulder measure, point 3.

How is the back arm scye obtained? Ans. A slightly curved line is drawn from point 3 to the intersection of lines E and H.

How is the lap for the buttons and buttonholes at the back formed? Ans. Add three-fourths of an inch to lines A and C at the right, and draw a vertical help line I; again extend lines A and C one inch, and draw a vertical cutting-line J.

How is the right side of the back of the waist finished? Ans. By turning in an inch and one-half and hemming.

How is the left side of the back finished? Ans. By turning in one inch and hemming.

Where are the buttonholes cut? Ans. In the left side, one-quarter of an inch from the edge.

Where are the buttons set? On the right side, three-fourths of an inch from the edge.

How is the curve for the front part of the neck drafted? Ans. Measure two and one-half inches down line B from the angle of C and B, point 4, and the same distance on line C to point 5, and connect with a curved line.

How is the shoulder of the fronts drafted? Ans. From point 5 draw an oblique line to the intersection of lines F and H, and from the neck lay off the shoulder measure to point 6.

How is the front arm scye obtained? Ans. From point 6 to the intersections of lines E and H, draw a curve.

If the waist measure is larger than the bust measure, what change is made in the pattern? Ans. Half the difference is added along line H, gradually slanting to the arm scye.

If the bust measure is more than the waist how is the pattern changed? Ans. One-half the difference between the waist and bust measures is laid off on line A from line H, these points being connected by slanting lines with the point of intersection of lines E and H.

When the pattern has been drafted and cut, how should the waist be cut? Ans. It should be laid on a double width of the goods and cut.

How much should be allowed on the shoulder and side seams? Ans. One-half inch on each.

How should this waist be put together? Ans. The side and the shoulder seams should be basted, backstitched, trimmed, and felled.

How should the neck and arm scyes be finished? Ans. With bias facings, an inch wide.

How should these facings and all bias pieces be cut? Ans. Begin at the corner of a piece of cloth and fold back two inches, then fold over and over until a piece as long as the strip required is folded. Divide this strip into parts as wide as is required, and cut through.

How is the bottom of the waist finished? Ans. With a straight facing, two inches wide.

How is the back of this waist closed? Ans. With button and buttonholes.

How are the buttons on the lower part of the waist set? Ans. To correspond with the buttons in the band of the drawers.

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