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Scientific Sewing And Garment Cutting | by Antoinette Van Hoesen Wakeman



This work on Scientific Sewing and Garment Cutting owes its publication to the constant and increasing demand for information in regard to the system which it explains. This demand has been created by the unqualified success of this form of manual training in the school where it has been taught, substantially as here set forth, for the past six years.

TitleScientific Sewing And Garment Cutting
AuthorAntoinette Van Hoesen Wakeman
PublisherSilver, Burdett & Company
Year1898
Copyright1898, Silver, Burdett & Company
AmazonScientific Sewing And Garment Cutting: For Use In Schools And In The Home
Silver, Burdett & Company

Silver, Burdett & Company

New York Boston Chicago

-Preface
This work on Scientific Sewing and Garment Cutting owes its publication to the constant and increasing demand for information in regard to the system which it explains. This demand has been created by...
-Publishers' Note
It will be noted in connection with the diagrams presented in this book, that the authors have indicated lines by a single letter. This is for conciseness; and no confusion need arise if the general s...
-Introduction
The system of instruction set forth in this book makes sewing and garment cutting an educational factor identical with manual training. It has been the primary aim of the authors to lead the pupils to...
-Clothing And Its Uses
There is no authentic history of the beginning of sewing, neither is there any detailed account of the various stages of clothing, although it is certain that the skins of beasts take precedence of al...
-Color
Color is an important subject. The author will only attempt to present a few facts in regard to it, which are expressly relevant to the topics treated in this manual. Beauty in the outer world is o...
-Chapter I. Outfit For Sewing Department
While it is absolutely necessary that the outfit for a sewing department be complete, it may be very simple and inexpensive. The one described is of this character. It is adequate for a class of from ...
-Chapter II. First Grade Work. Preliminary Remarks
The work of this grade usually occupies between five and six months. It is intended for children of from six to seven years of age, although it has been found equally valuable for beginners in sewing ...
-The First Model
The first model is a piece of Penelope canvas five inches long and four inches wide. The double-thread canvas should be used. When the needles are placed in the pupils' hands, it should be explaine...
-Basting
The first stitch of this system of sewing is the basting stitch. It is begun eight threads from the top and ten threads from the right-hand edge of the model. In putting in this stitch, two threads ar...
-The Backstitch
The second stitch in the first model is the backstitch. It is well to ask the questions in regard to the conditions of the hands, and the position to be assumed and maintained when sewing, at the begi...
-Overhanding
First of all, have each pupil double the model together along the third line from the last row of backstitching. That this may be clearly understood, let the teacher fold a model before the class. Whe...
-Hemming
As in the preceding stitches, after counting a space of six threads of the canvas, begin the first line of hemming by taking a slanting stitch of two threads, leave one space, and take another slantin...
-The Flannel Stitch
Unlike the four preceding stitches, the flannel stitch is worked from left to right. Although it will be necessary for the teacher to begin the first line, the pupil should now be sufficiently accusto...
-Blanket Stitch
Six threads from the flannel stitch and ten threads from the left-hand edge of the model, begin the blanket stitch by taking up on the needle four threads of the canvas vertically, keeping the thread ...
-The Second Model
For the second model in this grade, cut a piece of canvas eight and a half inches square. It will be observed that this canvas, while similar to that used for the first model, is still quite different...
-The Second Design
The second design of this model is a union of the backstitch and the overhand stitch. With the exception of the one in the center, each design is repeated on the opposite side from the one on which it...
-Third Design
The third design is composed of the flannel stitch and two lines of hemming. In beginning this design, count four threads from the last line of backstitching, and put in a line of hemming in red. Coun...
-Finishing Of The Second Model
The fourth design is a repetition of the second, begun four threads of the canvas from the last line of hemming of the third design. Four threads from this design is a line of blanket stitch extending...
-Materials And Their Manufacture - Wool
There was once a little white lamb, with mild eyes and a short woolly tail, that lived near the Pacific Ocean in a pretty green valley with high mountains on either side. When this little lamb was ...
-Chapter III. Second Grade Work
Provided the pupil devotes forty minutes twice a week to sewing, the work in this grade will occupy a school year. The one model for this grade is a canvas bag ornamented with simple designs, which...
-The Model
The material of this model is No.1 Ada canvas, which, while soft and like cloth in many ways, is yet so coarse that the threads can be easily counted. It is eighteen inches long and nine inches wide; ...
-The First Design
Like the last model of the first grade, the designs of this are worked from the center. First let the pupil put the long edges of the model carefully together, and crease the center. From the center t...
-The Second Model Design
Between the first and second designs, there is a space of six threads of the canvas. Count seven threads to the left; crease the model between the seventh and eighth threads, and put in a line of over...
-The Third Design
For the third design, leave a space of six threads of canvas, and between the sixth and seventh threads put in a line of backstitching. Count three threads, and put in a line of basting, taking up two...
-The Fourth Design
Leaving a space of six threads, put in a line of hemming by taking up two stitches and slanting over two. Count three threads, and put in a line of stem, or, as it is often called, outline stitch. Thi...
-Hemstitching
The designs being finished, the next work is the top of the model. It will be remembered that a thread of canvas was drawn, and a red basting placed to mark the limit of the designs. Draw out this red...
-Joining And Finishing The Model
Fold the model with the long sides together so that the two short sides are even, and overhand the hemstitched sides, carefully matching the threads. The attention of the pupil should be especially ca...
-Materials And Their Manufacture - Flax
A cotton field, with its opening pods, or, as they are called where cotton is raised, bolls, is a beautiful sight; so also is a field of blooming flax. The one is like a sea of gleaming silver, the ot...
-Thimbles
Just fancy how awkward it would be to wear a thimble on your thumb. Yet for a good many years after thimbles were invented they were worn only on the thumb. Because of this they were called thumb-bell...
-Chapter IV. Third Grade Work
Up to this point the pupil has been engaged in becoming familiar with the needle and thimble and the different stitches used in sewing. Now the scissors are added to the implements which will be const...
-Third Grade Work Second Model
The second model in this grade is a piece of canvas, six and one-half inches square, upon which the first two kinds of darning of the course are done. Let the pupil measure, draft, and cut this square...
-Third Grade Work Third Model
For the third model in this grade, which is for the knitted darning, cut a piece of cardboard three and one-half inches long and two and one-half inches wide. Draw straight lines one-half an inch from...
-Materials And Their Manufacture - Cotton
There was once a small black seed, which, with many others quite like it, was put into the ground one day in March on an island in the Atlantic Ocean, at the mouth of the Savannah River. If this li...
-Chapter V. Fourth Grade Work
In this grade the work is altogether on garment fabrics; the knot is introduced, and the first garment of the course is drafted and cut. Up to this time the models have been small, and the necessity f...
-First Model
A length of gingham two inches wide and twenty-nine inches long, which should be divided into halves and quarters and marked, is first measured and cut by the pupil. Then thread a No. 8 sharp needle w...
-Fourth Grade Work Second Model
The first of the two buttonhole models of this grade is a strip of felt cloth nine inches long and one inch wide, in which are cut eight buttonholes an inch apart. Let the pupil practice cutting butto...
-Fourth Grade Work Third Model
The third model is the gingham apron, which is the first garment drafted and cut. Two measures are taken, one across the chest from one arm to the other, and the other from the center of the chest to ...
-The Silk Bag
Cut a straight strip of silk or ribbon fifteen inches long; if ribbon, six inches wide, if silk, seven inches wide. In each end of this piece of silk or ribbon, cut, two inches from the side edge, and...
-Materials And Their Manufacture - Spools
Up in the Highlands of Scotland, there grew a tall, slender, graceful tree, with shining white bark and delicate feathery green leaves. The name of this tree was birch; and it belonged to a very large...
-Thread And The Manufacture Of Cotton
Did you ever think through how many hands the cotton must pass before it can become a nice, strong, smooth thread, several hundred yards long, and wound evenly upon a spool? In the beginning, when ...
-Chapter VI. Work Of The Fifth Grade
There are four models in this grade, two of which are garments. The latter should be drafted, cut, and finished without assistance from the teacher, who simply directs what is to be done, as the pupil...
-Fifth Grade The First Model
The first model of this grade is a square of rather coarse linen, measuring six inches on each side, which is for practice in finer hemstitching than has been done before, and the first work in linen ...
-Fifth Grade Second Model
The second model in this grade is a little fancy sewing apron, which may be made of white cambric, barred mull, nainsook, or any kind of light printed goods. There are three measures taken, - a waist ...
-Plain Sewing Apron
The lower part of this sewing apron is like the one already described. For the upper part, take a measure from the highest part of the shoulder to the waist, and another from one arm to the other acro...
-Fifth Grade Third Model
More difficult than anything that has yet been cut and drafted are the drawers of this model. As in the apron, the first thing is to draft and cut a paper pattern. First take two measures, - a loose w...
-Fourth Model
The fourth and last model of this grade is a five-inch square of flannel in which is cut a right angle opening, the shape of a tear. First baste this piece of flannel onto a piece of cardboard, then, ...
-Materials And Their Manufacture - How Silk Is Made
Silk is not only a very beautiful, but a very wonderful fiber, for it is made either by insects or worms. There are many insects that make themselves little houses out of silk spun from their bodies. ...
-Chapter VII. Sixth Grade Work
The mechanical process of cutting garments by chart, which has been so long in use, seems, upon first examination, to be much more simple and teachable than the scientific method of this system. That ...
-Child's Underwaist
First there are eight measures to be taken as follows, A bust and waist measure; a front measure, which is taken from the hollow of the neck to the waist; a front width, which is one-fourth of the bus...
-Underwaist Of Manilla Paper
In order that the pupil may gain practice without waste of material, let the measures be taken and reduced to quarter inches, and a waist be drafted and cut of manilla paper. In drafting this paper wa...
-Underskirt With Shoulder Straps Or Waist
For this underskirt take the length one inch shorter than the dress-skirt, and to this add two inches for a hem. For a child of from three to five years of age, take two and one-half widths of cambric...
-Materials And Their Manufacture - Hosiery
Any fabric which is knitted comes under the head of hosiery. Until 1589 all knitting was done by hand. At that time William Lee, a clergyman born at Woodbridge, England, and a graduate of Cambridge Un...
-Felt
Felt is a kind of cloth which is not formed of woven threads, but is beaten and pressed together. It is used mostly for hats, and is made of wool and the hair of the rabbit, hare, muskrat, and beaver....
-Printed Fabrics
It was in India that the printing of fabrics in various patterns and colors originated. The first printing of fabrics in Europe was near London in 1676. The processes of printing cloth are very com...
-Chapter VIII. Seventh Grade Work
Any kind of work which is so perfectly planned and executed that there is nothing left to be suggested or desired has reached the dignity of an art, and is a source of much pleasure to the worker. Eve...
-The Gingham Patch
The material for this model is a piece of domestic gingham six and one-fourth inches wide and thirteen and one-fourth inches long, figured in quarter-inch checks. From the upper left-hand corner of th...
-Child's Dress
The next work of this grade is the making of a dress for a child from three to five years of age, or for the big doll, if there is one belonging to the department. The measures for the waist of this l...
-Boy's Blouse Waist And Kilt Skirt
For a boy's blouse waist, take measures and draft as for a child's waist, adding four inches to the length, and an inch to half the front, and the same to half the back, at the bottom of the waist, ma...
-Knee Trousers
The little trousers which finish the work of this grade are intended to be buttoned onto an underwaist. The measures required are a waist measure, the length of the leg from the waist to the knee, and...
-Materials And Their Manufacture - Needles
Did you ever consider how much work it must be to make a needle? Each one must be absolutely perfect or it would be utterly useless. And what a fine, delicate little instrument it is; very different i...
-Emery
It would not be easy to tell from what part of the world come the fine, irregular, sharp crystals that make your needle so smooth when you run it through your emery bag. Perhaps this emery has been...
-Pins
Although such pins as we use now, for so many different purposes that it would be very difficult to enumerate them, are of a comparatively recent date, pins of some kind seem always to have been used....
-Chapter IX. Eighth Grade Work
The principal work of the last grade in this system of sewing and garment cutting is the drafting, cutting, and making of an infant's outfit and of a dress for a young girl. The latter is usually the ...
-The Linen Patch
For this model, take a piece of rather fine linen six and one-half inches wide and seventeen inches long. Three and one-fourth inches from each end draw two threads, and turn a hem for hemstitching. ...
-Infant's Outfit
Up to this point the sewing has been done by hand; in making the infant's outfit, machine sewing is first introduced. While the class makes the entire outfit, the different pieces are made by individu...
-The Flannel Band
This band should be twenty-four inches long and nine inches wide. Turn down one inch on the two opposite sides and the same on the two ends. The hem should be turned in this way that the corners may b...
-The Shirt
The material of which this shirt is made is fine linen. The measures used are twenty-four inches for the bust measure; eight inches for the front length, with two inches added for the neck; six inches...
-The Pinning Blanket
Cut two thirty-six-inch lengths of flannel which is thirty-six inches wide, and seam the two together. Turn a two-inch hem on the two sides and across the bottom, and catch-stitch on the right side. T...
-The Flannel Skirt
Cut two lengths of thirty-six-inch flannel thirty-one inches long. Join both sides, and catch-stitch the seams. Turn a two-inch hem at the bottom, and catch-stitch. In the center of one width, cut a s...
-The Cambric Skirt
This skirt is of two lengths of thirty-six-inch cambric thirty-four inches long. After these lengths are joined on both sides, a five-inch hem is turned and stitched, and the bottom is finished with l...
-The Wrapper
The same measures are used in drafting the wrapper which are used for the waist, except that the drawing is extended twenty-eight inches beyond the waist, and one and one-half times the width is added...
-The Sack
The waist pattern, with one inch added to each of the side seams in excess of the allowance for seams, and one and one-half inches added to the length, with a slight curve below the line E, forms the ...
-The Dress
Whatever the style of the dress, it should measure one yard from the neck to the lower edge of the hem. If it is a dress with a waist, the skirt is similar to the cambric skirt, and the waist identica...
-Girl's Waist
Take the measures as for the child's waist. Then draw a parallelogram as for that waist, with half the bust measure for the base line A, and the front length with two and one-half inches added for the...
-Waist Of Manilla Paper
When the measures have been taken, let them be reduced to quarter inches. Lay the pattern on the manilla paper in such a way that the front is on a fold of the paper, allowing an inch at the back for ...
-The Sleeve, The Skirt, And Review Work
The sleeve is measured, drafted, and cut on the same plan as the sleeve of the child's waist. As the pupil is now familiar with the principles of the system, it is an easy matter to make such alterati...
-Spinning And Weaving
Spinning is the art of twisting together a number of filaments or fibers in such a manner that a thread or line of greater length than the single fibers of which it is composed is produced. So ancient...









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previous page: Educational Needlecraft | by Margaret Swanson and Ann MacBeth
  
page up: Needlework Books
  
next page: Sewing - Handicraft For Girls | by Idabelle McGlauflin