This section is from the book "Text-Book On Domestic Art", by Carrie Crane Ingalls. Also available from Amazon: Textbook On Domestic Art: With Illustrations And Drafts.
One-third yard white linen, cut oval or round, 12 inches in diameter, containing design for satin, eyelet, cut work applique, or any combinations of these.
The edges of sampler are finished with the buttonhole stitch, designed in scollops.
Work buttonhole edge first, as explained in the embroidery stitch sampler. Use cotton, which is bought in the skein, as heavy as the linen will permit for the outside edge. Numbers 10 to 18, with the embroidery needle to suit.
If design is original, the drawing may be carried out to suit certain stitches, but if a boughten design, choose carefully the most effective stitch or stitches for each pattern.
The satin, eyelet, outline and French knots have been explained, and the Italian cut work and applique explained beyond, will give a sufficient range for working out the average center piece.
Cut work is a combination of edge and filling in stitches; the material on which it is worked, being cut out, after the design is worked. The filling stitches may be done on the surface of the material, or, the material worked in with them, both giving a wide range of work particularly when combined with the lace stitches.
Hardanger, Hedebo, and Italian are methods of cut work.
Drawn work could also be included under cut work, it being necessary to leave either the warp or woof threads as a foundation for working the stitches.
Applique is something like patchwork, a design being drawn first, and goods of another material basted on wrong side to cover outline, and worked with an over and over or buttonhole stitch around the edge of the design. The foundation material is then cut away carefully, leaving the applied fabric. Applique in lace is very effective. See illustration.
Methods of working embroidery pieces:
Line or boundary stitches, as well as button-hole and eyelet, are best worked without a hoop to hold them; but cut work, applique, and solid work, shaded in colors with filo, silks, etc., make it necessary to use the embroidery hoop to keep the goods smooth and firm.
Embroidery hoops are made (round or oval), in all sizes within about 18 inches in diameter, and can be held in the hand, or made to fasten to a table. They consist of two rings or hoops, one smaller than the other, to fit inside of each other closely. The best make, have a piece of felt wound on the outer circle of the smaller size, to protect the material.
If sheer material is used, it should first be mounted on a firm cloth.
When material is delicate in color, and un-washable, fold over embroidered part, as soon as finished.
An old or slightly indented thimble is best suited when working with filos and silk threads, as the threads are easily roughened.
Do not pull or snap threads, always cut.
Embroidery should be ironed on the wrong side, over a thick pad, to allow the design to stand in relief.
To wash silk or colored embroidery, use a pure white soap like Ivory, with warm water, (never boiling), and do not let soak in the water. Dry between cloths, to prevent colors running, and iron as soon as possible.