This section is from the book "Text-Book On Domestic Art", by Carrie Crane Ingalls. Also available from Amazon: Textbook On Domestic Art: With Illustrations And Drafts.
(a) Corset cover.
(c) Night gown with sleeve.
Plain tailored shirt waist.
Plain five gored dress skirt.
Kilted or pleated skirt.
For Woolen Materials: Seven gored skirt. Nine gored skirt.
The value of drafting patterns and making dresses by the girl at school can not be overestimated. It should not only relieve the mother at home from the continual strain of dressmaking, which renders the clothing of a daughter so much more expensive than a son, but it should also teach the girl important facts - the labor of clothing herself; the comfort and beauty of a homemade wardrobe; the importance of textiles; in fact, the economics of this home industry; and, if necessary, a trade.
To draft a pattern, measurements of the person to be fitted must be taken accurately. A tape measure is used, and the 4ths, the 8ths, 16ths, etc., of an inch must be thoroughly understood at the outset. All measurements should be tested, so, when cut out on the cloth, there will be no mistakes. Only one-half of a paper pattern is drafted - as, the left half of the waist. The opposite side is cut at the same time from the goods, which is folded double, with either the two right or the two wrong sides facing each other.
No allowance is made for seams in any of these drafts, unless specially mentioned, as in cutting, it is not always possible or necessary to allow the same amount of space on all seams. However, by tracing around the edges of the paper pattern, any width can be allowed that is desired.
The fitting or sewing line is that edge of the paper pattern, where the seam is to be joined or turned, consequently it is traced and all seams must be matched and basted on these lines.
A lengthwise fold is a warp fold.
A crossway fold is a woof fold.
Neither are seams.
The alteration seams should have an allowance of 3/4 of an inch, and they will be explained as each garment is drafted and made.
Study the proportions of yourself and others, as well as of the perfect model given, and know what is lacking to make certain measurements correct. After cutting the plain pattern, make variations from it if desired - designs of lace, tucks, etc.. may be worked up - but the fundamental lines must not be destroyed or made disproportionate thru ornament. It is therefore advisable to first make one plain pattern of each draft.
A yardstick or 45-inch rule for drawing long lines; good quality drafting paper, 36x18 inches; long shears and scissors (steel, not cast); tailor's chalk (mixed colors); and tracing wheel. The cutting table should be large enough to include the full length of a gown, and wide enough for at least the widest single pattern, as the back gore of skirt. For the schoolroom, a fitting room is necessary for trying on dresses and other garments.
This room should have a cheval glass, hand mirror, pin cushion filled with long, good steel pins, and a round 2-ft. diameter or yard-square stand, 6 or more inches from the floor - the adjustable ones are best - for draping or turning up the bottom of a garment.
Combination forms in 32, 34, 36 bust measure, or the single bust forms in these sizes, and the separate skirt models in 38 and 40 hip, are necessary. If the choice in purchasing lies between a small and a large sample, take the smaller, as it can be padded, while the larger would be impossible to use.
A sleeve form is also a great convenience and help.
Proportions of a Model
Waist, 24 inches.
The neck should be 1/2 the waist.
The wrist is 1/2 the neck.
The armseye is about 2 inches more than neck.
Around elbow 3 inches less than around arms-eye.
Height equals distance from fingertip to fingertip, arms outstretched.
Hips should be 15 inches larger than waist.
Hand, 2 inches larger than wrist.