This section is from the book "Text-Book On Domestic Art", by Carrie Crane Ingalls. Also available from Amazon: Textbook On Domestic Art: With Illustrations And Drafts.
Go back into same hole as needle came out of, and take another stitch the same length, letting needle separate the loop of preceding stitch. This stitch resembles the crochet stitch or the stitch on the automatic machine, and is very effective for some kinds of embroidery.
The herring-bone stitch is a slant stitch, and worked in 2 different ways. When the stitches are caught on the vertical, they are called catch stitch or fish bone. When the stitches are caught on the horizontal, they are called cat stitch, and if each stitch joins the preceding one, it becomes the cross stitch.
Both are worked from left to right.
To make the catch stitch, turn sampler until the guide lines are horizontal. With thread on right side, of goods on lower line, make a slanting stitch to the top line, taking up 1/16 inch of goods on the vertical. Keep thread under the needle, so the upper thread crosses the under. Make another slanting stitch in the opposite direction, sticking needle in on lower line about 1/4 inch from the first stitch, taking up 1/16 inch of goods on the vertical. The thread is held under the needle as before. Repeat these stitches to end of line.
The cat or cross stitch is worked the same as the catch stitch, except the goods is taken up on the horizontal instead of the vertical, giving an entirely different effect.
Both of the stitches have many variations.
Single feather stitches, with all its variations, is a form of buttonhole stitch, and may be worked vertically or slanting.
Those worked on sampler are vertical. Start at top of parallel lines, with needle coming up on right side in center of space. One-quarter inch below this point, on right line, take a vertical stitch 1/4 inch deep. Hold thread under needle as in embroidery buttonhole stitch, before pulling thru. Cross to opposite line 1/4 inch below this last point, and make another vertical stitch 1/4 inch deep, with thread under needle. Cross to right side again, and keep reversing to bottom of line.
This stitch is used for all kinds of ornamental line work, and, like its name, gives a feathery effect to a straight line.
The double feather stitch is worked the same as the single, with two vertical or slanting lines on each side, before crossing to opposite side.
Each stitch is the same depth (1/8 inch), and grouped together closely - the second below the first, with same direction of stitch. Variations of this in slanting and spacing, give entirely different effects, the greater the slant, the more feathery the result.
The triple feather, briar or coral stitch, is another form of feather stitch, with three stitches one below the other, worked on either side before crossing to opposite side. Make each stitch 1/8 inch deep, grouping closely. It may be worked vertically, slanting, or rounding, the latter way giving it the name, "coral."
With variations of these last three stitches, many designs may be worked in solid.
The ladder or Creton stitch is another method of working the buttonhole stitch. It has a firm edge on both sides, with a diagonal cross stitch between. Start at top of left double line, make a horizontal stitch the width of the space, coming up in the first position again. Take a 1/4 inch vertical stitch, with thread under needle, on the right line, putting needle at top end of previous stitch. This makes a diagonal stitch between the lines. Cross to opposite side, take 1/4 inch vertical stitch on this line, with thread under needle, making a reverse diagonal stitch between space. Proceed with each stitch in the same manner, crossing from one side to other, ending at base of line with a horizontal stitch like the first one. The back of this stitch shows two parallel lines of short stitches like the whole back stitch on the right side.
The lower half of sampler has six designs showing different methods of filling-in stitches. In the upper half of this space, draw three petal-shaped leaves, with depression in center top like heart, in a l 1/4-inch square.
Cut from paper first, and outline on material, one in center of space and one on either side, at equal distance. Draw direction of stitches before commencing to embroider.
Flowers with stamens, etc., have their lines radiating from the center, unless worked in satin stitch, while leaves radiate from center base.
If one false stitch is taken when embroidering, take out before going further. Patching over wrong stitches shows, while cutting thread and joining, weakens it. Do not pull silk threads, but cut, as pulling roughens the fiber, and stretches the design out of shape.
The first petal is worked in long and short or Kensington stitch, and has as its name implies, one long and one short over stitch, the same on both sides, varying in length to give the desired effect in size and shape, by direction of stitch.
Take a few running stitches the direction of the first embroidery stitch, coming up on right side, on point at center base. Stick needle to left, 3/8 inch up on line, and bring up from the wrong side 1/16 inch above center base to left.
Alternate length of stitches, being careful to follow outline exactly, working from left side to right.
The stitch at the depression in top of leaf, should be vertical with point at center base.
The second petal is worked in the satin or French embroidery stitch, which is a flat, even, over stitch, covering a whole or part of a design, in sections when too large, and leaving no material visible between stitches. It has variations, can be flat or padded, worked vertically, horizontally or slanting, with both sides alike. There is a method of making a short stitch on wrong side to save silk or thread, but it is unsatisfactory compared with the first way of working.
The satin stitches in second figure, slant from either side of center converging slightly toward base.
Draw direction of stitches before working.
Start at center point, with slanting stitch 1/4 inch long, following out line at left. Come up for second stitch at base, just above first stitch. Increase length and slant of each stitch to fill space, working from right to left. The division of stitches comes thru center, leaving no material visible.
The third petal is worked in solid long and short or Kensington, with the satin stitch on the turned-over part of petal.
Take same paper pattern, and draw direction of stitches, then fold over top on left side. Notice direction of stitches on this part. To work this, start at center base, from left side to right as in petal 1, following outline, below turned-over edge. The second time around, fill in with the same kind of stitches, lapping the first ones slightly, so no join or space is visible.
The turned-over edge is worked with the satin stitch, the direction of the lines drawn, making stitches parallel.
The solid long and short stitches are the most satisfactory for color-embroidery work, where shading, tinting, etc., are necessary.
A split stitch may also be used, it being worked in the same manner as the long and short, putting the needle thru the center of a thread when lapping.
In remaining space of sampler make three designs for all over stitches. Draw a 1-inch diameter circle with 4 diagonals in center, and two rectangles 1x1 1/2 inches, the longer sides parallel with the buttonhole edge, on either side of circle.
The rectangle at left is filled with the darning stitches in upper half, and the seeding stitches in lower half.
Both are simple and quick methods of filling large surfaces, when solid work is not desired.
The darning stitch is a small even running stitch, worked on parallel lines with alternate effect in spacing.
Commence at right, making 5 rows as in sampler.
Seeding is made up of parallel lines of the half or quarter back stitches, with alternate effect in spacing, as the darning stitch. Make 5 rows.
The second rectangle is worked in the honeycomb stitch.
The honey-comb stitch is a kind of buttonhole stitch, similar to the ladder stitch, being worked horizontally instead of vertically.
Start at left side, with a 1/4 inch vertical stitch keeping thread under needle, as illustrated. Space between stitches should be about 1/4 inch apart also. At end of first line, bring needle thru from wrong side, near last stitch, to keep in shape, and come up 1/4 inch for second line, with thread always under needle. Take the stitches in the second row in the center of the above stitch, drawing the thread down slightly to make a sex-tagonal design. Fill the rectangle in this way.
The diagonals of the circle in center design are worked in bullion with French knots at end of each.
The bullion stitch is a knot stitch, made by winding the end of the thread around the needle before drawing thru, as many times as is necessary to cover the line drawn. Start at end of one of the diagonals on edge of circle, coming up on right side. Stick needle 1-16 inch from center of circle, bringing up in same hole as first stitch, on edge of circle. Before pulling thru, wind thread that comes from eye of needle, 12 times around needle, holding remaining end of thread down firmly, with thumb of left hand, until the needle is returned to center of circle, in the same hole. Drawing thread tightly, gives the stitch an effect of a firmly twisted cord.
Make second stitch in the same way, on next diagonal at right, and so on, till all the lines are covered.
This method of work is very effective in small flowers, such as wheat, star-shaped flowers, etc.
The French knots, which are at the end of each diagonal, are worked by bringing needle to right side of material, on spot to be covered, winding thread 2 or 3 times around needle (the more it is twisted, the larger the knot), and putting needle back into same hole, drawing it out on the next spot to be worked. Hold remaining thread down firmly till pulled thru, as in the bullion stitch.
French knots are used for centers of flowers, and filling in small spaces.
Press sampler on wrong side, and attach date finished.