This section is from the book "Text-Book On Domestic Art", by Carrie Crane Ingalls. Also available from Amazon: Textbook On Domestic Art: With Illustrations And Drafts.
Hemstitch, drawn or open work sampler.
Material: Scrim, canvas or linen, 8 inches (warp) by 5 inches (woof). Fray each short end of sampler, 1 inch up, then overcast all edges that are not selvage, with No. 70 or 80 cotton thread. One end is left frayed, the other is fringed.
To fringe, take groups of 10 strands of the hanging threads, and tie them into a knot, 1/4 inch below unfrayed cloth.
Knots should be uniform.
One inch from top of plain fringed end, pull 8 woof threads.
Hemstitch, drawn or open work is made by pulling out warp or woof threads, grouping them together, to form a design, and connecting these groups with a hemstitch. There are numerous ways of grouping as well as hemstitching, and drawn or open work is not limited to hemstitching, but is carried into complicated patterns involving many lace and embroidery stitches.
On this hemstitched sampler, there are but 4 ways given, being simple and effective in design.
A fine thread is used for the hemstitch, unless a thread taken from the warp of the scrim or material, is preferred.
To work the first row, start on upper side of drawn threads, at left side, with needle on 2 or 3 threads of the goods. Take 5 warp threads, carry needle over them from left to right, bringing needle into goods again, 2 or 3 threads above open space, as before. Repeat to opposite edge of sampler. This is the easiest method of hemstitching, and may be used for towels, napkins, table cloths, etc.
To work the second row of hemstitching, pull out 8 woof threads as before, 1 inch from the last edge. Take stitches the same way, with same number of threads in each group. Do both edges. This gives the effect of parallel bars, and is sometimes called "ladder stitch."
To work the third row, pull out 8 woof threads, 1 inch from last edge, and take 6 (an even number) of warp threads to a group. Make one edge as the preceding rows are done, and on opposite edge, split the number of strands of threads, bringing needle up between them and taking also half of the strands in the next group. This method of work gives the diagonal lines.
To work the fourth row, pull out 8 woof threads, 1 inch from last edge. Thread a warp thread of scrim or material used, longer than width of sampler. Start at left, in center of pulled threads, and fasten securely to 3 of the strands.
The next 3 threads wind over the 3 succeeding threads, which turns the center of the groups, giving an oval effect. Take next stitch the same and so on to the end, keeping the scrim thread in center of space, and in one continuous line. This is a very simple and ornamental method of treating wide spaces.
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