Carl H. Clark
The planking having been completed and smoothed off it may be left for the present and some of the inside fittings put in. These fittings should be put in before covering the boat with canvas, as they may then be fastened with through rivets, and be much stronger than otherwise. The gunwales having been fitted as already described, and fastened by riveting through the top streak, the ends of it are fitted with knees as shown in Figs. 6 and 7.
These knees are to be of natural growth and are 1 in. thick in the small boat, and \\ in the larger. They fit in against the top streak as shown in Figs. 7 and 10 and the gunwales are let into them and fastened by rivets through the top streak. In as light construction as that being described, all fastenings wherever possible, should be riveted through, as screws or nails do not hold sufficiently strong in the light stock. The knees at the stern may, however, be fastened to the sternboard with brass screws.
The strips to support the seats should next be fastened in place, extending the full length of the boat. For the small boat these strings are 3xl 1/2 in. of either pine or cypress, and are fastened with their upper edges 6 1/2 in. below the gunwale. They should be through riveted, with the head of the rivet on the outside of the plank and the burr on the inside of the strip, a rivet being driven through each frame. For the large boat these strips are 1/8x2 in. and are fastened 7 1/4 in. below the gunwale. The strips, besides supporting the seats, materially stiffen the boat. The seats are next to be fitted; they are $ in. thick and 8 in. wide in the small boat and 9 in. wide in the larger. The ends are notched to bear against the frames and should be clear of the plank about \ in. Each seat ha3 four knees, as shown in Figs. 5 and 6; they are of hackmatack or other suitable knee stock, fin. thick for the 9 ft. boat, and 7/8 in. thick for the 12 ft. They are shaped as shown to fit between the seat and frame, and are notched out around this gunwale. A rivet should be driven through the upper end of the knee and the gunwale to the outside of the top streak and another through the lower end and the seat. The remainder of the fastenings may be brass screws driven into the knee from the outside, and into the seat. The seats should be of pine or similar light stock or, if desired, mahogany may. be used. If the edges are beaded it adds a finish and makes a more workmanlike piece of work.
The after seat is shaped as shown and is 12 in. wide in the narrowest part in the 9 ft. boat, and 15 in, for the 12 ft. It rests on and is fastened to the supporting strips with brass screws.
Several heavy floor timbers must be fitted to support the engine bed; they rest on the top of the frames in the same manner as already described, and are 1$ in. thick and about 3 in. deep above the keel. Their tops should all be in the same level to facilitate fitting the bed. For fastening, the ends should be well riveted through, and screws driven at intervals, with a heavy screw into the keel amidships.
All the outside fastening being complete, the boat is ready to cover with canvas, after all projecting nail or rivet heads have been driven tight, or else filed off even, so that the surface is smooth again. As there maybe some rather wide seams which would cause cracks in the canvas after some use, the outside should be covered with two or three layers of tough manila paper. It will be necessary to put this on in rather narrow strips over the seams on account of the curvature of the surface, as all wrinkles must be carefully avoided. Shellac should be used to stick on the paper, a liberal amount being used, as the paper must be thoroughly protected from the water. The space to be covered with paper should be covered with shellac, the paper laid on, and it in turn shellacked, each layer being treated the same. The various pieces should overlay as seldom as possible, so as to keep the same thickness all over. Any unevenness in the final coating should be rubbed down with sandpaper after the shellac is dry. This paper coating also adds to the strength of the boat.
The next work is to put on the canvas covering, which is, perhaps, the most troublesome part of the whole work. Canvas for this purpose should be of No. 12 weight for the small boat and No. 10 for the large one. It can be obtained in all widths, and should be wide enough to put on in one piece. For fitting the canvas the boat should be fastened down securely, as a considerable amount of force will be exerted in pulling the canvas into place. For fastening the canvas, copper tacks about 5-16 in. long are to be used; some difficulty may be found in driving them into the oak, in which case tinned iron tacks may be used, but only where necessary.
The outside of the boat should be well covered with rather thick paint. The canvas is then laid on and tacked along the straight part of the keel; and is split at the ends where the curves of bow and dead-wood begin. The ends are then carried over so as to make it fit as nearly as possible and tacked temporarily; the middle portion is then drawn tight and tacked to the lower edge of the top streak with tacks about 1 in. apart. It may then be tacked on either side of the middle, working gradually towards the ends, care being taken to pull it out lengthwise at the same time, to avoid wrinkles around the boat. It should be drawn as tight as is possible, one or two persons drawing it out while another drives the tacks