Arthur H. Corby, before the Sanford Science Students Asso.

With all the tool steels working on steel at high speeds, the continual rubbing of the shaving on the upper surface of the tool wears more or less of a pit on the surface. At the same time, on the extreme point of the tool a small accumulation of portions of the material being cut gathers, being practically welded to the tool. Now, the position of the pit on the upper surface of the tool is situated further back from the cutting edge with a deep cut than with a light one. This is owing to the tenacity of the steel, and is not found to be the case in turning cast iron. The tenacity of the shaving and the action of the tool as a wedge cause the actual point of leverage to be in advance of the extreme edge of the tool. The larger the chip the greater its strength is, and therefore the further back on the tool it slides, making a greater angle between the shaving and the work wherein the front of the tool is more or less clear. The tool splits off the shaving of material like an axe cleaving wood with the grain. After having once entered, the cutting edge of the axe is clear, while the thicker part of the axe, like a wedge, forces the wood apart-In my opinion, the action of the tool in cutting steel is similar, and with the larger cuts the greater part of the work is done well oack on the tool, where there is a good body of steel. In a lighter cut the shaving wears a pit right up to the cutting edge, thereby weakening it, and causing it to break down sooner. With cast iron, owing to its brittleness, the action is different, and the work is practically all concentrated on the cutting edge. When the tool first penetrates a piece of iron is broken off for a little distance in advance of teh too; the roughness intervening is removed as the work revolves against the tool, the point of which again penetrates and breaks off a portion, and so the action continues.